United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
GEOGRAPHIC AL BASIS: Physical Features <ul><li>Area : 243,000 sq. Km </li></ul><ul><li>Capital : London </li></ul><ul><li>Other Cities : Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford, Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol and Belfast </li></ul>
<ul><li>Terrain : 30% arable, 50% meadow & pasture, 12% urban, 7% forested and 1% inland water. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate : Generally mild & temperate, weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes temperature. </li></ul>
Population & settlement <ul><li>Population: 61,284,806 Million (est. as of 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Growth Rate: 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality: (n.) Briton (Adj.) British </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ethnic Groups: British, Irish, West Indian, South Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 61,284,806 Million (est. as of 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Growth Rate: 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality: (n.) Briton (Adj.) British </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ethnic Groups: British, Irish, West Indian, South Asian </li></ul>
<ul><li>Major Religions : Church of England (Anglican) , Roman Catholic, Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) , Islam. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Major Languages : English, Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between British English and American English </li></ul><ul><li>For example : </li></ul><ul><li>A lorry is a slimmer truck. </li></ul><ul><li>A lift is an elevator. </li></ul><ul><li>A fortnight is two weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>A chemist is a person who works in a drugstore. </li></ul><ul><li>A dual carriageway is a freeway. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Education : 12 years compulsory </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Rate : 4.85/1000 (as of 2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy : 76.5 yrs (male) 81.6 yrs. (female) </li></ul><ul><li>Work Force : 31.25M (as of 2009 est.) services: 80.4%; industry: 18.2%; agriculture:14% </li></ul>
STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM School education: Primary education may take the form of combined junior and infant schools and therefore lasts for six years or a first stage covering infant schools (two years) and a second stage covering junior schools (four years). Secondary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of sixteen .
Higher education: Higher education is provided by three main types of institutions : universities , colleges and institutions of higher education and art and music colleges . All universities are autonomous institutions, particularly in matters relating to courses. Academic year: Classes from: Sep to Jul Long vacation from: 1 Jul to: 30 Sep Languages of instruction: English
<ul><li>Way of Life: </li></ul><ul><li>PUB </li></ul><ul><li>Pubs are an important part of British life. People talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax there. </li></ul><ul><li>The word pub is short for public house . There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK (53,000 in England and Wales, 5,200 in Scotland and 1,600 in Northern Ireland. </li></ul>
SPORTS Sports play an important part in the life in Britain and is a popular leisure activity. Many of the world's famous sports began in Britain, including cricket , football , lawn tennis , golf and rugby .
<ul><li>Football is undoubtedly the most popular sport in England, and has been played for hundreds of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of people also play football in parks and playgrounds just for fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know? The first set of laws of the game of football, or soccer as it is known in the US, date from the formation of The Football Association in England in 1863. </li></ul>
Rugby originated from Rugby school in Warwickshire . It is similar to football, but played with an oval ball. For many years Rugby was only played by the rich upper classes, but now it is popular all over the country. The world's most famous Tennis tournament is Wimbledon. It started at a small club in south London in the nineteenth century. It is traditional for visitors to eat strawberries and cream whilst they watch the tennis.
BRITISH BEHAVIOR The English are said to be reserved in manners, dress and speech . They are famous for their politeness, self-discipline and especially for their sense of humour (Remember MR. BEAN? ). Basic politeness (please, thank you, excuse me) is expected.
Greetings: English people are quite reserved when greeting one another. A greeting can be a bright 'Hello' 'Hi' or 'Good morning', when you arrive at work or at school. Terms of Endearment: Visitors may be called by many different 'affectionate' names, according to which part of the England they are visiting. Do not be offended, this is quite normal.
For example , you may be called dear, dearie, flower, love, chick, chuck, me duck, me duckie, mate, guv, son, ma'am, madam, miss, sir, or treacle , according to your sex, age and location. Visiting people in their houses When being entertained at someone's home it is nice to take a gift for the host and hostess. A bottle of wine, bunch of flowers or chocolates are all acceptable.
DOs and DON'TS (Taboos) in Britain In Britain... Do stand in line: They like to form orderly queues (standing in line) and wait patiently for their turn e.g. boarding a bus. It is usual to queue when required, and expected that you will take your correct turn and not push in front.
Do cover your Mouth: When yawning or coughing always cover your mouth with your hand. Do Shake Hands: When you are first introduced to someone, shake their right hand with your own right hand. Do say sorry: If you accidentally bump into someone, say 'sorry'. This is a habit and can be seen as very amusing by an 'outsider'.
Do Drive on the left side of the road Do open doors for other people Men and women both hold open the door for each other. It depends on who goes through the door first.
In Britain... Do not greet people with a kiss They only kiss people who are close friends and relatives. Avoid talking loudly in public. Do not ask a lady her age It is considered impolite to ask a lady her age. Do not spit. Spitting in the street is considered to be very bad mannered.
Do not burp in public You may feel better by burping loudly after eating or drinking, but other people will not! If you can not stop a burp from bursting out, then cover your mouth with your hand and say 'excuse me' afterwards. Do not pass wind in public Let's say that you want to pass wind. What do you do? Go somewhere private and let it out. If you accidentally pass wind in company say 'pardon me'.
<ul><li>DISH </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know that the most popular dish in England at the moment is… curry! </li></ul><ul><li>British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with pota toes and one other vegetable. The most common and typical foods eaten in Britain include the sandwich , fish and chips , pies and roasts dinners. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
The staple foods of Britain are meat, fish, potatoes, flour, butter and eggs.
TEA Tea is the British and Irish national drink. The British like tea partly because it was readily available from the far eastern parts of their Empire (mainly India); and also because it distinguished them from continental Europe where coffee is more popular.
Values and Norms of the British Family The family in Britain is changing. In the past, people got married and stayed married. Divorce was very difficult, expensive and took a long time. Today, people's views on marriage are changing. Many couples, mostly in their twenties or thirties, live together (cohabit) without getting married.
In the past, people married before they had children, but now about 40% of children in Britain are born to unmarried (cohabiting) parents.
People are generally getting married at a later age now and many women do not want to have children immediately. The number of single-parent families is increasing.
The United Kingdom was created out of the existing historic kingdoms of England (including Wales ) , Ireland and Scotland . England, Ireland and Scotland were brought into a Personal Union by the Union of the Crowns in 1603. On 1 May 1707 , the Kingdom of Great Britain was created by the political union of the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland .
Almost a century later, the Kingdom of Ireland , merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the passing of the Act of Union 1800. Disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule led eventually to the partition of the island in 1921 , with Dominion status for the Irish Free State in 1922 and Northern Ireland remaining part of the UK.
In 1927 , the formal title of the UK was changed to its current form, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . In its first century , the United Kingdom played an important role in developing Western ideas of the parliamentary system as well as making significant contributions to literature , the arts , and science . The UK-led Industrial Revolution transformed the country and fuelled the growing British Empire .
The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time
Beside Russia, France and (after 1917) the USA , the British were one of the major powers opposing Germany and its allies in World War I (1914–18). The United Kingdom was one of the three main Allies of World War II. Following the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, the United Kingdom continued the fight against Germany in the aerial campaign known as the Battle of Britain .
The immediate post-war years saw the establishment of the Welfare State , including among the world's first and most comprehensive public health serv ices. Changes in government polic y also brought people from all over the Commonwealth to create a multiethnic Brit ain.
The United Kingdom is a Constitutional Mona rchy . Queen Elizabeth II is head of state of the UK as well as of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting the UK in a personal union with those other states.
The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution as do only three other countries in the world. The Constitution of the United Kingdom thus consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes , judge-made case law , and international treaties . The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world—a legacy of the British Empire.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom that meets in the Palace of Westminster has two houses. WESTMINSTER
United Kingdom’s two houses are: the electe d House of Commons and appointed House of Lords.
The position of Prime Minister , the UK's head of government . The Prime Minister and Cabinet are formally appointed by the Monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons.
Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet , all of whom are sworn into Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, and become Minister of the Crown.