FAMOUS FEMINISTSAbigail Adams(1744-1888)Wife of John Adams, whowas the second President ofthe United States.Remembered for the manyletters she wrote to herhusband while he stayed inPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania,during the ContinentalCongresses. One of whichsays “Remember the ladies”in the laws drawn up in thenewly independent country.
Gloria Steinem(1934)Writer and editor.During the 1960sshe appeared as aleader in the womensmovement in theUnited States.In 1970 cofoundedMs., which grew to be
What is FMINISM?•The actual definition of a feminist(according to the American HeritageDictionary) is someone, male orfemale, who believes in social, political andeconomic equality between the sexes.•The Merriam-Webster Dictionary definesfeminism as "the theory of thepolitical, economic, and social equality ofthe sexes and organized activity on behalfof womens rights and interests.“
•By general definition, feminism is aphilosophy in which women and theircontributions are valued.•Feminism can also be described as amovement. A revolution that includeswomen and men who wish the world to beequal without boundaries.cbcbcbcbcbcbcbcbcb
•The term wasdeveloped in France(feminisme) in themid-1800s.•It didnt becomepopular until the1960s. Previously,these womens groupshad used the term"womens liberationist"to define themselves,but as it began to lose
First Wave ofFeminism:•Driven by acombination of social,economic and socialforces.•The first organized“feminists” politicalactivism involvedcampaigns for voteand equality.
•Feminism was driven by middle-aged,unattractive women who had most tolose from a changing sexual landscape.•These threatened women believed thatthe personal had to become political.•Yet, when women obtained their vote,they did not used it differently for theirhusband, when women did votesignificantly different, it was to vote infascist dictatorship all over Europe.
Second Wave ofFeminism:•In 1960‟s, during the2nd wave of feminism aremarkable event inhuman history hadhappened – the end ofthe „patriarchy‟•Introduction ofcontraceptive pilltriggered for the
•Suddenly women became active inpolitics, demanded and won the rights touniversity education, to a career, to easydivorce, to an abortion.•Suddenly, women began voting differentlyto men.•However, this did not happen in themajority of Muslim societies. UnderIslam, there is still no free sexualmarket, and thus, unattractive Muslimwomen have no need for feminism.
Third wave of feminism:The 3rd wave of feminism is describe asthe sudden representation of women at alllevels of government.Largely femaledominated non-governmental pressuregroups have suddenlycome to hold massivesway over anincreasingly powerfulUnited Nations, aswell as otherinternational bodies
They argue thatthe basic patternof society isgenerallyacceptable but thechanges are neededso that women arenot put at adisadvantage bytheir sex.They want equalopportunity toREFORM FEMINISMThey alsoproposed animproved andexpanded day-carefacilities andimproved parentaleave, that will morereadily allow womento combine paidemployment andmotherhood.They are also
INTEGRATIVE FMINISMTheir goal is to break through thosemental barriers as well as the political,economic, and cultural barriers that keepall human beings from becoming fullyhuman.They are also arguing for a fundamentaltransformation not only to our political andeconomic lives but our social, cultural, andpersonal lives as well.
RADICAL FEMINISMAccording to Alison Jagger, RadicalFeminism argues for the following:Lesbianism – the sexual separationfrom men, the sexual bonding withwomen, and the end of the biologicalfamily.Development of a woman – centeredculture to replace the male-centeredculture; and
Liberal FeminismCharacterized by an individualisticemphasis on equality.Society itself does not need a majoroverhaul, but rather laws need to bechanged and opportunities have to beopened up to allow women to becomeequals in society.
Socialist FeminismSometimes known as the MarxistFeminism.Different than liberal feminism in thatit emphasizes that true equality will notbe achieved without major overhaulswithin society-- particularly economicoverhaul.Socialist feminists argue that there arefundamental inequalities built in to a
Radical FeminismSimilar to socialist feminism in that itemphasizes the need for dramatic socialchange in order to achieve genuineequality for women.Radical feminists believe that society isextremely patriarchal, and untilpatriarchy is transformed on all levels,the system will remain unjust.A minority of radical feminists areseparatist feminists, who believe thatmen and women need to maintain separateinstitutions and relationships.
Third Wave FeminismPopular among younger women, many ofwhom are children of feminists from the1970s (who are referred to as SecondWave Feminists).Similar to liberal feminism, Third Wavefeminism is very individualistic.Focused more on personal empowermentas a starting place for social change.
EcofeminismDraws from and links together both thewomens movement and the environmentalmovement.Ecofeminism draws parallels betweenthe domination and exploitation of bothwomen and nature.
Black FeminismPosits that sexism and racism areinextricably linked, and that sexism willnever be overcome while the system isstill so fundamentally racist.The movement grew out of thediscontent of African Americans womenduring the Womens Liberation Movementin the 1970s, who felt their particularneeds as minority women were not beingaddressed.