―…the name given to a principle or theory of life and conductunder which society is conceived without government-harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submissionto law or by obedience to any authority, but by freeagreements concluded between the various groups, territorialand professional, freely constituted for the sake of productionand consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinitevariety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being.‖-Kropotkinnarchism
Basic assumption: ―…power exercised by one person or groupover another is the cause of most of our contemporaryproblems.‖Premise: there is cooperation among the people.narchism
Anti-Authoritarianism. Anarchists are extremelyskeptical about the need for any kind of authority. Atminimum all anarchists believe that hierarchy shouldbe abolished and some take this further and opposeother forms of authority. Instead ofhierarchy, everyone should have control over their ownlife and an equal say in group decisions.Free Association. Everyone should be allowed toassociate freely with those they choose and todisassociate themselves when they choose. Individualsshould not be forced into social relations against theirwill. Society should be based upon freeagreement, rather than coercion.
Mutual Aid. Instead of attempting to dominate eachother, social relations should be based on solidarity andvoluntary cooperation. When individuals cometogether to help each other they can accomplish morethan when they work against each other.Freedom. Freedom means the ability to control onesown life instead of being controlled by others, as is thecase with hierarchy. This is sometimes called liberty orautonomy. Controlling other peoples lives is notfreedom but a restriction of freedom.
Self-Management. In groups decisions should be made in amanner so that everyone has an equal say. People shouldgovern themselves, rather than dividing people into somewho give orders and some who obey as in hierarchicalorganizations.Radical Egalitarianism. Anarchists believe in an egalitariansociety. This does not mean some totalitarian society whereeveryone is identical or lives identical lives. It does not meandenying individual diversity or uniqueness. Rather anarchistsbelieve in equality of both wealth and power - a naturalconsequence of the abolition of hierarchy.Feminism. Anarchists favor social, economic and politicalequality for men and women. The domination of men overwomen should be abolished and all people given control oftheir own lives.
Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of theorigins and progress of civilization. Primitivists argue thatthe shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistencegave rise to social stratification, coercion, and alienation.They advocate a return to non-"civilized" ways of lifethrough deindustrialization, abolition of division of labor orspecialization, and abandonment of technology.Christian anarchism is the belief that there is only onesource of authority to which Christians are ultimatelyanswerable, the authority of God as embodied in theteachings of Jesus. Christian anarchists therefore feel thatearthly authority such as government, or indeed theestablished church do not and should not have power overthem.
Green anarchism opposes the existence of civilizationand technology.Crypto-anarchism is an online philosophy thatexpounds the use of strong public key cryptography toenforce privacy and therefore individual freedom.Cryptoanarchists aim to create encrypted virtualcommunities where everyone isabsolutely anonymous or pseudonymous. Crypto-anarchists believe that inside their communities is theonly place where they can be totally free, because in allother communities there will always be someone thatwill listen at what you say and know who you are.
Feminist anarchism Radical feminism espouses beliefthat patriarchy is a fundamental problem in our society.They believe that the first form of oppression occurredin the dominance of male over female.Anarcho-capitalism to be a consistent version ofcapitalism, where the state in its current form would nolonger exist. Anarcho-capitalists state that an employer-employee relationship may be a mutually profitableform of voluntary association. They resent governmentas a parasite that corrupts, biases, impedes and distortswhat would otherwise be peaceful fair and freeassociations.
Collectivist anarchism-19thcentury anarchist doctrine thatadvocated the abolition of the stateand private ownership of the means ofproduction, with the means of productioninstead being owned collectively andcontrolled and managed by the producersthemselvesa) Communist Anarchismb) Anarcho Syndicalism
a) Communist Anarchism―…communist withoutgovernment, free communism. It is asynthesis of the two chief aimsprosecuted by humanity since thedawn of its history– economicfreedom and political freedom.‖
In common with all socialists, theanarchists hold that the privateownership of land, capital andmachinery has had its time; that it iscondemned to disappear; and that allrequisites for production must, andwill, become the common property ofsociety, and be managed in commonby the producers of wealth.
In common with the most advancedrepresentatives of political radicalism, theymaintain that the ideal of the politicalorganization of society is a condition ofthings where the functions of thegovernment are reduced to aminimum, and the individual recovers hisfull liberty of initiative and action forsatisfying, by means of free groups andfederations- freely constituted-all theinfinitely varied needs of the human being.The ultimate aim of society is the reductionof the functions of government to nil– thatis, to a society without government, to An-archy.
-main premise: ―…coercion in anyform is bad.‖-it suggests that the establishment of aseries of small, voluntary communes orcollectives is the solution to the problem oforder in a society without a government.This communes would join together into afederation to deal with any commonproblems.
The village would appoint delegates to theregional federations, which in turn wouldappoint delegates to the nationalfederations. No delegate would have thepower to speak for anything but thedecisions of the workers who electedhim, and would be subject to recallanytime.-George Woodcock
Anarcho syndicalismAnarcho-syndicalists take essentially thesame approach as Anarcho-communistsdoes except that they refer specifically tothe work situation, particularly industrialwork.Its primary aim is the end of the wagesystem.
Basic principles:1) Each industry is organized into afederation of independent communes /workers solidarity2) Each industry is controlled by workers inthat industry / self management3) Policy questions and questions ofintercommune relations are handled by acoordinating council / direct action
The central element of anarcho-syndicalism is workers control. Society isorganized on the basis of the control ofeachindustry by the workersin that industry.
Putting the workers in control will enablethem to produce more, thus lessening theproblem of the allocation of scarce goods.Putting workers in control also acts as awork incentive.
Anarcho-syndicalism is more directly concerned withthe organization of industry than is communistanarchism, but both arrive at fundamentally the sameconclusions.Both accept the notion that workers in a given areashould control operations in that area for the benefit ofthe society as a whole. It is assumed in both cases thatthe entire population will be workers, at least to theextent that everyone will participate to some degree inthe economic life of the society. Both believe that byremoving coercion, a viable society can develop. Theprimary difference is found in the emphasis in Anarcho-Syndicalism on the operation of the industrial system.
The primary focus of collectivist anarchism is notisolated individual. The focus is an individualwithin a non-coercive society. The emphasis onproducing a society that will allow individualfreedom.Most anarchists recognize that the smallcommune or industry is not sufficient forindividuals in contemporary society. Somecooperation among communes and industries isnecessary to produce enough goods in sufficientdiversity for each individual.
There must be a high degree of cooperation amongindustries to provide an efficient distribution system forthe goods produced by the individual industries. Theonly way to handle this is through cooperation by theworkers within the various industries. What is lookedfor here is simply a form of enlightened self-interest, because each worker in a particular industryneeds the products of a wide variety of industries.Therefore the individual workers will cooperate withworkers from many other industries since they all needthe products of each and every industry. AS believe thiscooperation can be developed readily once coerciondisappears.
In order to do this, all coercion must be abolished. Thismeans government and, for the collectivistanarchist, capitalism must go. Since there must besome way of getting rid of them, this raises thequestion of violence. Anarchists believe no establishedauthority will simply give up a fight;therefore, revolution is likely to be the means ofchange. The abolition of capitalism is a central concernfor most anarchists because they believe workers areexploited by the capitalists in about the same waysMarx did. Collectivist anarchists argue for commonownership of the means of production and thedistribution of goods according to need.
The individualist anarchist recognizesnothing above his ego and rebelsagainst all disciplines and allauthority, divine or human. Heaccepts no morality and when hegives himself to the feelings oflove, friendship, or sociability, he doesso because it is a personal need, anegoistic satisfaction—becauseit pleases him to do it.
Individualist anarchists do notcompletely reject cooperation. Theyargue that cooperation is essential forthe fulfillment of some needs. Butthey contend that only theindividualist of their own definition iscapable of genuinely forming avoluntary association with others. Inaddition, they never see thisassociation as an end itself but merelyas useful for a temporary purpose. Itmust be the servant of themembers, not dominate the members