Fatima Abdull Rahman 11 A


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Fatima Abdull Rahman 11 A

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Natural gas is an important factor for the development of countries that have strong economies and people who enjoy good living conditions. Qatar is pioneered the liquefied natural gas industry. Today, the company of Qatar gas is realizing its vision to deliver gas to customers around the globe from our world-class facilities in Qatar. The coastline of Qatar is another focus of the company’s environmental efforts. Since a significant proportion of the country’s energy deposits lay in the shallow waters near the coastline, and development of these offshore reserves is the foundation for the State’s economic future. (1) Qatar’s very rapid economic and population growth have created intense strains between the old and new in almost every aspect of life. Modern work patterns and pressures of competitiveness sometime clashes with traditional relationships based on trust and personal ties, and create strains for family life. Moreover, the greater freedoms and wider choices that accompany economic and social progress pose a challenge to deep-rooted social values highly cherished by society. (2) 1.2 Research Aims and Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gas pollution on health and environment. This aim is indicate the different type of literature review related to this topic, as indicated in objective 3 below. The main objectives are to; Objective 1. Examine the current achieve, and determine the effect based of gas pollution on the health. Objective 2. The majority significant of the variety of diseases approaches from gas pollution. Objective 3. Investigate the literature on protection and prevent of gas pollution. 1
  2. 2. 1.3 Significant of the study In the current work, a number of literature reviews were collect, and analyzing questionnaire based on the fieldwork information and data. There have been comprehensive research studies on the effect the gas pollution of health particle and environment in general. The state of Qatar has been sharp changes in democracy, economy, and open society since 1995. One of the highlights of theses change is the process of modernizing the state organization and their public services. The state authority is supporting research and studies to help their decision making. This study is providing the information on gas pollution on environment and community health. In particular, this study will: • Constitute a reference for further research in the same field, • Contribute to the body of knowledge on the purpose of chosen this study to attentive the community and prevent this nature of gas pollution on the health and environment. These activities demonstrate aspects of the wider system of interest and interact with the stated aims and objectives of this study. Gas is one of the key aspects to the functionality of our society, during my research review I found out that gas has negative effects on the environment for example gas impact on sea life and effects on the human health, such as the factors who works in gas felids during their duties they face daily difficulty like problems in breathing as a result of Polluted air from gas factories abroad, also the people who lives surround the gas factories suffer from the same issue 1.4 Research Structure The roadmap for the development of idea throughout the study shown in Figure 1. Brief descriptions of all chapters are as follows. Review of relevant literature on the research subjected is presented in Chapter 2. It provides a definition of the gas and pollution and knowledge transfer from advanced countries. The research highlights the effect of gas pollution on community health and environment. Chapter three provides background to the state of Qatar. This includes a historical review, industrialized (manufactories) services provision in Qatar, the impact of the improvement in community economies are also presented and discussed. Description and analytical results from the observed data collection are presented and discussed in Chapter 4. Figures and frequencies of chosen variable in the questionnaire are also presented. 2
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Today gas is an energy company which explores for, produces and trades in a range of energy resources. We explore for, produce and transport gas and we create essential products from them, such as fuels and petrochemicals. In Qatar, gas's businesses are covered by four major operation units: Qatar gas, Woogod, Qabco and Dolphin gas . Qatar has been importing natural gas since the 1960s and recent years have seen tremendous development in Qatar's natural gas industry. The natural gas division (formerly from Shell) was involved in the early years of the industry and has witnessed the growth of Qatar's industry into the worlds largest to date.(3) All gas companies share a strong commitment to sustainable development. In practice this means balancing the three elements of economic, environmental and social performance. This approach allows long-term projects to operate pleasantly in local communities with the support of national governments (4) 2.2 Natural gas and Environment Natural gas contributes to global warming when it is burned, since the combustion of this gas releases. Also, natural gas itself is even more powerful at causing global warming than (about 20 times more powerful!) so if there are any leaks in a natural gas supply, this will cause big problems to the global climate. The studies stated that most of the natural gas is simply flared off at the well site as it would cost a lot to bring in the pipes and compressors needed to collect the gas and deliver it to where it can be stored or sold. As the results of these studies mention that natural gases are usually highly flammable. They also produce unpleasant smells which result in irritation and discomfort. They result in poisoning of aquatic life if they mix with underground water which resurfaces to ground water. (5) Dixon and Egger (2008) stated that the environmental factors influencing heaviness and health have now also been implicated in natural such as climate change, through the shift to positive energy balance in humans caused by the exponential use of fossil fuels in such areas as transport, and consequent rises in carbon emissions into the atmosphere. It is proposed therefore that a more policy-based approach to dealing with obesity, which attacks the common causes of both biological and ecological sickness, could have 3
  4. 4. positive effects on both chronic disease and environmental problems. A claim is thus made for a greater health input into discussions on environmental regulation for chronic disease control, as well as climate change. (6) Abdou (2007) The major four health problems are respiratory infections and/or allergy, eye infections, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) infections, and musculoskeletal injuries representing 65.5%, 48.3%, 20.7%, and 17.2%, respectively. It is recommended for landfill workers to wear protective clothes and equipment, have work-related training courses, and be medically supervised. (7) Shoumad and Mohamed (1998) stated that the study was done in Egypt on 65 workers working in power station I (Shoubra El-Kheima) where they are exposed to natural gas and mazout, 74 workers in power station II (El-Gharb) where there is mazout exposure only and 74 individuals acting as controls. All these individuals were admitted to a questionnaire, examined clinically and they were investigated to assess their respiratory, liver and kidney function tests. This is in addition to a complete blood picture. Air pollution inside these stations was assessed. The study aimed at determining the pollutants inside and outside the stations and to investigate the health hazards of the workers exposed to these pollutants. It aimed also to see if it is important and urgent to replace the mazout by natural gas as a fuel in these power stations. 8) This study by Hamoda (2006) examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. (9) Shea (2008) describe in his study that climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. (10) 4
  5. 5. Nigel Bruce (2000) give explanation Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. Indoor air pollution is a major global public health threat requiring greatly increased efforts in the areas of research and policy-making. Research on its health effects should be strengthened, particularly in relation to tuberculosis and acute lower respiratory infections. A more systematic approach to the development and evaluation of interventions is desirable, with clearer recognition of the interrelationships between poverty and dependence on polluting fuels. (11) Sunyer (2001) found that relate the acute increases in urban air pollution (mainly the particulate matter) and the short-term health effects (i.e. mortality and hospital admissions) on patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The few cross-sectional studies showed an increase of self-reported diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, breathlessness and lower levels of lung function in the more polluted areas. The two cohort studies in children have found a retardation of pulmonary function growth, and the only cohort in adults a faster decline of lung function. (12) Arden and Douglas (2006) explain the efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter on air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of particular matter on human health. Although much of this research has been motivated by environ-mental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standard. (13) Al-Yousfi (2004) presented that energy plays a central role in determining the form and rate of economic development, with energy issues being addressed in different countries in different ways, depending on the national energy situation. Because energy issues transcend boundaries, global goals and targets can be useful to provide guidance on the priority national and regional issues to be addressed. In the Arab countries, the energy sector plays a vital role in achieving social and economic development through satisfying the energy needs of the different economic sectors, in addition to the sector’s effective contribution, particularly the Oil and Gas sector, to the Gross Domestic Product “GDP” of many countries in the region (about 20 percent of the region’s GDP). In spite of such vital role, the sector has several features 5
  6. 6. that can affect its contribution to the achievement of sustainable development in the region, mainly: 1. The sector is still suffering from unsustainable energy production and consumption patterns, particularly in the end use sectors; 2. Over 20.0 percent of the region’s population still do not have access to electricity and as much are severely under-serviced; and 3. The sector has its adverse environmental impacts on air, water and soil resources. (14) Akim (2001) The purpose of this article is to shed lights on environmental challenges, especially, greenhouse gas emission issues, lying ahead for Arab Countries where they have common background to be together to act on the issue. The literature of this study is presented and compared with an East Indian fable to make it attractive to the readers. It is suggested to consider the problem as a regional issue instead of considering an issue for an individual state in the region. This progress may buttress the process of bringing policy makers on one podium, which may help designing future vision of strategies on (how to deal with the issues cost effectively. (15 2.3 Develop laws The risks from growing pollution levels in the UAE, he added, underscore the need to develop the existing laws, standards and specifications for controlling air pollution in the country in order to face this threat. Syed Bilal Shafi, ( 2008) that the current developments in the environmental degradation has prompted the concerned authorities to use modern techniques in the monitoring, controlling and managing air pollution, and conduct more in-depth researches and studies to identify the health, social and economic impact of air pollution so that decision makers can rely on them for the future plans. Also speaking on the occasion, Hussain Nasser Lootah, Acting Director General of Dubai Municipality, said air pollution has become one of the most serious issues of the modern era as it affects the human health and his production capacity. He noted that the World Health Organization has estimated in a report in 2000 that the number of deaths due to air pollution-related diseases as three million every year. (16) Environmental pollution is a problem both in developed and developing countries. Factors such as population growth and urbanization invariably place greater demands on .the planet and stretch the use of natural resources to the maximum It has been argued that the carrying capacity of Earth is significantly smaller than the demands placed on it by large numbers of human populations. And overuse of natural .resources often results in nature’s degradation 6
  7. 7. It’s interesting to note that natural resources had been stored virtually untouched in the .Earth for millions of years But since the start of the industrial revolution vast amounts of these resources had been exploited within a period of just a couple of hundred of years at unimaginable rates, with all the waste from this exploitation going straight in to the environment (air, water, land) (and seriously damaging its natural processes. (17 The transportation sector (particularly cars, trucks, and buses) is one of the greatest contributors to air pollution in the World. Natural gas can be used in the transportation sector to cut down on these high levels of pollution from gasoline and diesel powered cars, trucks, and buses. In fact, according to compared traditional vehicles, vehicles operating on compressed natural gas have reductions in carbon monoxide emissions of 90 to 97 percent, and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions of 25 percent. Nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by 35 to 60 percent, and other non-methane hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by as much as 50 to 75 percent. In addition, because of the relatively simple makeup of natural gas in comparison to traditional vehicle fuels, there are fewer toxic and carcinogenic emissions from natural gas vehicles, and virtually no particulate emissions. Thus the environmentally friendly attributes of natural gas may be used in the transportation sector to reduce air pollution. (18) 2.4 Gas pollution and Health Phoa (2004) several studies have shown adverse effects of gas cookers and heaters on respiratory health. The long term effects of early life exposure to these appliances are not known. This study investigated the effect of exposure to fume emitting heaters, currently and during the first year of life, on the risk of asthma outcomes, the finding this stated would require a review of the range of heating types that are appropriate for use in households in which young children live.(19) 7
  8. 8. Chapter 3 Wealth provision services in Qatar 3.1 Introduction This Chapter will provide the necessary background to the study in terms of a general overview of Qatar, provision of its industries service, and an introduction to the Qatar Gas and its relationship with industrial companies. 3.2 Geography and Population The State of Qatar lies roughly in the centre of the eastern coast of Arabia, jutting out into the Gulf northwards towards Iran. At the base of the peninsula, the border is shared with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Qatar covers an area of 11,437 sq km Its territory also includes a number of islands in the waters around the peninsula that form the hub of oilfield activity from which Qatar draws its wealth, see Figure 3-1 (The State of Qatar and Cities). The people of Qatar are primarily of Arab descent, reflecting its ties of history, language and religion with the other Gulf States. Arab tribes who migrated to the area in the 18 th century form the basis of the population. More than 60% of the present inhabitants of Qatar live in the capital city of Doha. Significant population centers are developing in the AI Thakira area, serving the new industrial city of Ras Laffan, but there are also a number of towns of which Wakrah, Dukhan, Umm Said Al-Khor and Madinat Shamal are the most populous. Total population as of July 2007 was 907,229 people. (Qatar's Ministry of Foreign web site). The population is expected to increase to 10000,00 by2010. Islam is the official religion of Qatar, Shari'a (Islamic Law) is the principal source of legislation in the country, and Arabic is its official language (Qatar Year Book, 1990). Qatar is one of the six member countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) Other members are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, The United Arab Emirates and Oman. (20) 8
  9. 9. Figure 3.1. The State of Qatar and Cities 9
  10. 10. 3.3 Industries Services Provision in Qatar State of Qatar has a high standard of living, with many social services offered to its citizens and all the amenities of any modern state. While oil and gas will probably remain the backbone of Qatar’s economy for some time to come, the country seeks to stimulate the private sector and develop “a Knowledge economy”. In 2004, it established the Qatar Science & Technology Park to attract and serve technology-based companies and entrepreneurs, from overseas and within Qatar. Qatar’s national income primarily derives from oil and natural gas exports (.21.). 3.4 Qatar Gas What is LNG? Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to 161 degrees Centigrade. Natural gas is made up mainly of methane, with low concentrations of other hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and butane. . It also contains water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and some sulfur compounds. Most of these additional compounds are removed during the liquefaction process. The remaining gas is primarily methane with only low quantities of other hydrocarbons. In terms of the industry Qatar will be one of the world’s major energy centers as the number one producer and exporter of LNG, be the capital of the gas-to-liquids industry, as well a leading producer of fertilizers and petrochemicals. Qatar is such an attractive destination for delegates given its rapidly changing industrial landscape and the extraordinary business opportunities in our energy and industry sector. Every year there are new cleansing, LNG, and petrochemical plants coming on stream and many of them are the largest and most technologically advanced facilities of their kind in the world. (22) Qatar gas is pioneering the development of two new classes of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers. Referred to as Q-Max and Q-Flex, the ships designed by a team of first class engineers have made a quantum leap in the capacities of LNG carriers. 3.5 Create natural gas Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals decayed and built up in thick layers. This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material. Over time, the mud and soil changed to rock, covered the organic material and trapped it beneath the 10
  11. 11. rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas - tiny bubbles of odorless gas. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane, a gas (or compound) composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. 3.5 Search out Natural gas The search for natural gas begins with geologists (people who study the structure of the earth) locating the types of rock that are usually found near gas and oil deposits. Scientists and engineers explore a chosen area by studying rock samples from the earth and taking measurements. If the site seems promising, drilling begins. Some of these areas are on land but many are offshore, deep in the ocean. Once the gas is found, it flows up through the well to the surface of the ground and into large pipelines. At an offshore production platform, the gas and associated gas condensate (heavier hydrocarbons in liquid form) are separated and the condensate stabilized, before the processed gas is transferred to shore with the associated condensate via an undersea pipeline, and the gas becomes the feedstock for the onshore LNG plant. 3.6 Liquefied for easy transportation For countries where the gas is used in local markets, it is technically and economically viable to transport the gas through pipelines, an option that is used to deliver Russian natural gas to European markets, and Canadian gas to U.S. markets. When transport through pipelines isn’t possible, as is the case in Qatar when our main markets are many thousands of kilometers distant, liquefying the gas is the preferred option for ease of transportation. (23) See Figure 3.2. (Qatar gas direction map). 3.7 Environmental exciting activity at Qatar gas Qatar gas committed to a cleaner, healthier environment for all creatures to enjoy. They help protect the environment in many ways. There are exciting projects include: • Qatar gas is helping damaged coral communities off Ras Laffan to recover by building an artificial reef out of ceramic modules, • They are used around the world for improving and restoring habitat. The modules help the reef to recover by providing a safe home for fish and other reef creatures, and a structure for young corals to grow on, 11
  12. 12. • To protect sea turtle is that lays its eggs on Qatar’s beaches and keeping their nesting grounds safe from disturbances, • Qatar gas releases the snakes in a safe location, and is helping to study these mysterious creatures, They often get trapped in the pipes that take cooling seawater into Qatar gas’ LNG plant, • Qatar gas is leading the design of a system that will destroy these vapors from smog by burning them before they can pollute the air, • Flaring is a very important part of the plant’s safety system. The flame shows that the plant is operating normally, and provides a safety valve for excess gas to quickly leave the plant. Qatar gas uses modern steam- assisted flaring technology to reduce the smoke and emissions produced by burning gas, and • To protect the environment, Qatar gas has switched to a special slippery, silicon- based paint that the barnacles of the ship can’t stick to and that is not harmful to marine life. • Qatar gas, recycle paper, cardboard, waste oils, scrap wood, waste concrete, scrap metal, used oil and plastic drums, batteries and plastics. (24) 12
  13. 13. Chapter 4 Data Finding 4.1 Introduction The purpose of this Chapter is to present findings from the questionnaire survey undertaken during the period January 2009 to March 2009. This Chapter presents on analysis of the quantities data from questionnaire conducted in public in Qatar. The main aim of the questionnaire was to supplement the findings of the survey to establish a more rich description of the problem situation. Issues that affected the data collection are indicated below: • The questionnaires were distributed at a time that coincided with the daily work time. This provided some time constraints during the data collection period. • Public and student due to the nature of their work and study, yet they also formed the majority of the respondents. On many occasions, staff took the questionnaire away with them in order to respond in their own time. On such occasions, follow- up occurred in their offices. A further problem was that the respondents who were staff insisted that the staff made an appointment to see them: this was sometimes difficult to achieve. 4.2 Questionnaire Response Rate A structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to 60 subjects. The 50 returns are a response rate of 90%. This high response rate was achieved include: • Sending an e-mail emphasizing the importance of this study. This helped to increase the response rate. • Personal contact helped to encourage the public to complete the questionnaires. 4.3 Questionnaire Data Analysis The responses were transferred to a pre-prepared data sheet for coding into the SPSS statistical software package. The data were described by calculating frequencies of chosen variables The analysis of the returned questionnaire showed that the majority of respondents were male (n=36). This is shown graphically in a histogram in Figure 4-1. 13
  14. 14. Male female Figure 4-1.Respondents Gender This same Figure shows that the second highest group of respondents were doctors (n=30). The remaining (n=20) of respondents came from participants such as student and public. See Figure 4-2 32 28 24 Total Nos. 20 16 12 8 4 0 student Doctor Public 1 2 3 Participants Figure 4-2. Respondent’s job classification 14
  15. 15. 4.4 Identifying the type of pollution of respondents As this study was investigating the different type of gas pollution effect on health, the questionnaire identify a number of multi questions were asked; these varied in the level of detail of response. Respondents were first asked about different type of gas pollution effect on health Figure 4-3 shows the histogram which demonstrates the majority is air pollution (n= 26), water pollution is (n=14) and gas pollution is (n=10) 40 36 32 28 Total % Effected 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 Wate Soil Air 1 2 Gas 3 4 r Types of Pollutions Figure 4-3 Types of pollution effect on health As shown in Figure 4-4, asthma patients are at present, the information was also collect on factors that could influence the primary relation with asthma (n=26), the diseases with bronchitis (n=8), allergy (n= 7), and (n=9) for eye irritation or itchy eyes experienced also cause by gas pollution. 15
  16. 16. 40 36 32 28 Total % Effected 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 A s thm a Bronchitis Chest 1 2 Eye 3 Irritation 4 Illness 5 Allergy Types of Pollution Diseases Figure 4-4, Diseases cause by gas pollution The majority respondent that the gas pollution effect child health more than adult, Figure 4-5 illustrate that Children (n=26), adult (n=18) and both of them also (n= 6) 16
  17. 17. 48 44 40 36 % No. of affect 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 Adult Child Both 1 2 3 Effecting catagory Figure 4-5 the effecting category Comments from different level of respondent toward gas pollution prevent and precautions also help to identify the important of this study, these suggestions are: • To keep away from gas pollution, • Using face masks whenever required, • Decrease exposure and clean environment, • Strict rules for the factory, • Filter the gas from industries, • Isolation from gas, • Well handling of all gas resources, • Avoid outdoor exposure, • Use ISO certified machineries, • Use ISO certified vehicle fridge etc.., • Live on more healthy environment, • Stay away from gas plants, • Establish an air quality monitor in each area and keep children away from gas pollution, • Use low-polluting model vehicles, • Use suitable products, • Use rechargeable batteries, 17
  18. 18. • Make public awareness, and • Grow more trees around the residence. 18
  19. 19. Chapter 5 Discussions 5.1 Introduction This Chapter discusses the results of the intervention in light of the literature review Chapter 2. The problems issues, itself based on results from the analysis of a questionnaire survey from Chapter 4. This Chapter demonstrates the multidimensional nature of the problem situation by taking different viewpoints. From these stakeholder perspectives, a holistic understanding of gas pollutions and its place in the wider health and environment setting can be determined. 5.2 The outcomes from the study Dixon and Egger (2008) stated that the environmental factors influencing heaviness and health have now also been implicated in natural such as climate change. The results from this review by Shea (2008) highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. 19
  20. 20. Although much of this research has been motivated by environ-mental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standard, As was discussed in Chapter 2, many authors carried out research to identify the main reasons for the lack of influence among gas pollution to the health and environment. They identified the following issues which mirror the findings of this study: • Lack of studies published in gas pollution effect on health and environment; • Lack of effective follow up from gas pollution; and • Absence of organization support for co-operation systems among gas companies in GCC countries. Primary data sources questionnaire survey that gas pollution issues effects children more than adult which display the majority is air pollution (n= 26), (Figure4-3 refers, see p. 15) that represents gas pollution activities that led to an improved effects to health and environment. However, at present the effect of gas pollution as the main tool for economy of population, and for national and international economy is still far from complete in gas effects. For example, at present there is tele-consultation with experts (engineering specialists) from developed countries. The technology offers important ways to enter and manipulate data and to retrieve information in gas field. The engineering can be a major change catalyst to achieve effective and efficient communication in the world. 20
  21. 21. The key element of report statics, the public is necessary that provides appreciation of people needs and the development of ability in resident and community. This is shown in the order of Figure 4-4, asthma patients are at present, the information was also collect on factors that could influence the primary relation with asthma (n=26), Local and international authorities provide legislation, rules and guidelines with which the economy profession must fulfill. Therefore, the economy information needed must begin from established, high quality, sources for decision-makers to be confident in decisions taken. Another important factor in the economy profession is time. Engineering can delivery of the information / consultation and the sharing of advice. In many cases, technology enabled change in economy can make a telling impact on the improvement of effect outcomes in gas companies. Results from the questionnaire survey study comments indicated that: • Live on more healthy environment, • Stay away from gas plants, • Establish an air quality monitor in each area and keep children away from gas pollution, • Use low-polluting model vehicles, 5.3 ICT in Industries services The use of technology era in Qatar is still a relatively new phenomenon, though they have rapidly diffused through both private and public organizations. Many Qatari institutions have already introduced technology in some form or another, to support and improve the 21
  22. 22. efficiency and effectiveness of their functions such as Economy companies as discussed in chapter 3. ICT (Information Communication Technologies) infrastructure is essential to create a productive and effective working environment. ICT in economy will aid the management and dissemination of gas community related data and information which has increased rapidly in the last few years. Economy information remains valuable, to engineering professionals in particular, and the public in general. The main issue is to keep this valuable information and use it for the potential benefit of society. Fortunately, ICT can also provide tools for handling information, for instance to access relevant digitized content both quickly and easily via web interfaces. Training is generally acknowledged to be essential in introducing successful change in the workplace. It is a tool to improve individual performance that will reflect in an overall organizational performance improvement. Furthermore, it is a key strategy in training planning that training should meet workplace needs. Training has become part of any training system due to the fact that it has become part of our daily life. However, the lake of studies published in the GCC region that related to gas pollution effect on health and environment is extremely poor. 22
  23. 23. REFERENCES 1. Environmental adventure at Qatar gas www.rasgas.com . Accessed on 23.01.09 2- Accessed on 28.12.08 http://www.gsdp.gov.qa/portal/page/portal/GSDP_Vision_Root/GSDP_EN/What%2 0We%20Do/QNV_2030 3. www.rasgas.com . Accessed on 23.01.09 4. Air Quality and Atmospheric Pollution In the Arab Region http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd14/escwaRIM_bp1.pd , Accessed on 24.11.08. 5.http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081122000858AALeXTu, Accessed on 17.1208. 6. Egger G and Dixon J (2008) should obesity be the main game? Or do we need an environmental makeover to combat the inflammatory and chronic diseases epidemics? Observer Reviews. 10(2):237-49, 2008. 7- Abdou MH (2007) Health impacts on workers in landfill in Jeddah City, Journal Egyptian public Health Association., 82(3-4) 319-29 8- Shoumad AE, Mohamed MR, Abd El-Karem AH, El-Monairy WM. (1998) Health hazards among workers in power stations. Comparative study between natural gas and mazout stations. Journal of Egypt Public Health Association. 73(5-6)577-95. 9- Hamoda MF (2006) Air Pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities. Journal Science Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environment Engineering. 41(1) 77-85. 10- Shea KM (2008) Climate change and allergic disease. The Journal of allergy and Clinical Immunology ., 122(3): 443-53; quiz 454-5 11- Nigel Bruce; Rogelio Perez-Padilla; Rachel Albalak. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. Bulletin of the World Health Organization vol.78 no.9 2000. 23
  24. 24. 12-Sunyer. J. (2001) Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. European Respiratory Journal 2001; 17:1024-1033. 13- Arden.C., Pope and Douglas W. Dockery., Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect.56 June 2006 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 56(6):709-42. 14- Basel Al-Yousfi, and PE, DEE. Energy for Sustainable Development: Perspectives from the Arab Region. United Nations Environment Programme-Regional Office for West Asia Regional Collaboration workshop on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology, April 26-30, 2004 – Beirut, Lebanon. 15- Akim Rahman (2001) . Environmental Challenges in Arab Countries- Option to Swallow an Elephant Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection: (2001) http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=288542. 16- Syed Bilal Shafi, ( 2008) Arab countries suffering effects of air pollution. http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/notoplastic/more_stories/10258993.html 17- http://www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp , accessed on 25.1.09 18- The same http://www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp , accessed on 25.1.09. 19- L L Phoa, B G Toelle, K Ng and G B Marks.Effects of gas and other fume emitting heaters on the development of asthma during childhood Thorax 2004;59: 741-745; 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar, accessed on 02.03.09 21- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar, accessed on 02.03.09 22.http://www.qp.com.qa/qp.nsf/8c264276b952633c432571290026c60e/4fc09bcd5a5b34 43432572c00034af70?OpenDocument 23- http://www.qatargas.com/Edu.aspx 24. http://www.qatargas.com/Safety.aspx?id=192 24
  25. 25. ‫الملخص والقتراحات‬ ‫يعرض هذا الفصل الستنتاجات والتوصيات والمقترحات للعمل في مستمدة من الدراسة والتوصيات التي يمكن أن‬ ‫. تستخدم كجزء من خطة عمل لتنفيذه في المستقبل‬ ‫ويمثل هذا البحث أول دراسة بحثية شاملة للتحقق من تأثير الغاز على التلوث البيئي وعلى الصحة ,‬ ‫ومن الفصل الثاني والثالث والرابع تم الستنتاج من دراسات كثيرة على تأثير الغاز على البيئة والصحة ,‬ ‫وقد تم توزيع الستبيان على فئة متنوعة في المجتمع كعامة الناس والطلب والطباء , وقد تم تحليلة‬ ‫في الفصل الرابع و الهدف الول من هذه الدراسة هو تحقيق الهدف للوصول الى الدراسات الكاديمية في‬ ‫تأثير الغاز وقد تبين ان هناك فقرً في دراسات العربية بشكل عام والخليجية بشكل خاص حول تأثير الغاز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫. وذلك لقله الوعي في مثل هذة المقالت في هذا التخصص‬ ‫والهدف الثاني من الدراسة هو لتحقيق الستبيان والمقابلت مع المجتمع . وقدمت وثيقة من وثائق‬ ‫وتحليل المعلومات الساسية السياقية التي ساعدت في تفسير بعض النتائج ومن اول هذة النتائج كان‬ ‫تأثير الغاز اولً عن طريق الهواء الجوي وفي الدرجة الولى الكثرية التي تم تأثير الغاز على صحتهم هم‬ ‫.الطفال وتهدف الدراسة الى تحقيق معرفة سبب تأثير الغاز على الصحة وخاصة المصابين بمرض الربو‬ ‫التوصيات الرئيسية التالية من الدراسة هي تشجيع العاملين في هذا الحقل على النتاج الفكري في‬ ‫نشر الدراسات الكاديمية والعلمية والعملية التي تحقق الفائدة على المجتمع وتساعدهم على ادراك‬ ‫. اهمية تأثير الغاز في الصحة والبيئة من خلل هذة الدراسات او النشرات‬ ‫52‬
  26. 26. Appendix 26
  27. 27. Questionnaire Gas Pollution and Effect on Environment and Health  Gender Male Female  Position ……….  Which are the major types of pollutions effect the health. Air pollution Water pollution Gas pollution Soil pollution  The disease due to gas pollution are : Asthma Bronchitis Allergy Eye irritation Chest illness  Effect of gas pollution affect more : Adult Children Both  How we can prevent gas pollution in children ? Comments ……………………………………………..  What are the precautions for gas pollution ? Comments …………………………………………….. Thanks for your support. 27
  28. 28. 28