SAD - Waiter on Wheels

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The objective of the given assignment is to identify the different problems in the existing system and propose a solution as well as to make assumptions in areas which lack information. Prepare a feasibility report in four dimensions of feasibility namely-technical, operational, schedule and economical. Choose an appropriate methodology for developing the proposed solution and compare it with various other methodologies. Identify the breakdown of work associated with the chosen methodology. Apply two paradigms of analysis based on object oriented and structured approaches and document them and then present a solution to it.
In short, the main objectives of the project are:
1. To identify the framework of activities associated with methodologies and describe how the techniques are used together to develop a system.
2. To demonstrate, apply and document, to the appropriate standard, the key techniques of analysis and design for the chosen paradigm.
3. To identify the key user interface issues required in a system design.
Based on the mentioned objectives, our team has chosen SSADM as the methodology which stands for Structured System Analysis and Design which has been justified and compared with other methodologies. Physical and logical designs are designed appropriately and documented accordingly giving crystal clear description. All the requirements of the project have been tried to be met with our best efforts and working criteria.

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SAD - Waiter on Wheels

  1. 1. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 1 WAITER ON WHEELS Module Title: - System Analysis and Design (Module Code: - CE00308-1) Intake Code: - PT1082 GROUP ASSIGNMENT Group Number: - Hand in Date: 27 January, 2012 Hand out Date: 14th April, 2012 Submitted By: Submitted To: Mr. Amit Verma Group Members: (Module Lecturer) Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214) Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209) Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208) Prince Kumar (PT1082219)
  2. 2. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 2 Table of Contents 1.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..........................................................................................................4 2.0 ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................5 3.0 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................6 3.1 Analysis of the current system based on assumptions .............................................................7 3.2 Current problems in the existing system ..................................................................................7 3.3 Recommendations for the new system ......................................................................................9 3.4 Working of the new system ......................................................................................................10 4.0 FEASIBILITY REPORT .............................................................................................................12 4.1 Technical feasibility ..................................................................................................................12 4.1.1 Current Strategy...................................................................................................................13 4.1.2 Recommended Resources ....................................................................................................14 4.1.3 Illustration of the resources..................................................................................................14 4.1.4 Network connection.............................................................................................................15 4.1.5 Database...............................................................................................................................15 4.1.6 Operating System.................................................................................................................15 4.1.7 Justification for hardware and software...............................................................................15 4.2 Operational Feasibility .............................................................................................................15 4.3 Economical Feasibility..............................................................................................................18 4.3.2 Types of costs: .....................................................................................................................18 4.3.3 Development cost (Tangible and variable/ fixed costs and recurring /one time cost) .........20 4.3.4 Annual operating cost (recurring cost).................................................................................21 4.3.5 Benefits classification: .........................................................................................................21 4.3.6 Annual Benefits: ..................................................................................................................21 4.3.7 Return on investment (ROI), Net value and payback period...............................................22 4.4 Schedule Feasibility ..................................................................................................................25 4.4.1Workload Matrix...................................................................................................................25 4.4.2 GANTT chart:......................................................................................................................27 4.4.3 PERT chart:..........................................................................................................................28 5.0 SELECTION OF METHODOLOGY.........................................................................................29 5.1 Fundamental principle .............................................................................................................29 5.1.1 Disadvantages of SSADM ...................................................................................................30 5.1.2 How it can be overcome in this project?..............................................................................30
  3. 3. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 3 5.1.3 Sorting of problems through SSADM .................................................................................30 5.2 Comparison with other methodologies ...................................................................................31 5.2.1 Why not RAD? ....................................................................................................................31 5.2.2 Advantage of SSADM over RAD........................................................................................31 5.2.3 Comparison of SSADM and RAD.......................................................................................32 5.2.4 Why Object Oriented Concept is not used?.........................................................................32 5.2.5 Why prototyping and Yourdon models are not used?........................................................33 6.0 INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES................................................................................................34 6.1 Justification ...............................................................................................................................34 7.0 LOGICAL DESIGN .....................................................................................................................38 7.1 Context Diagram.......................................................................................................................38 7.2 DFD level 0.................................................................................................................................39 7.3 DFD level 1.................................................................................................................................41 7.4 Data dictionary..........................................................................................................................43 8.0 PHYSICAL DESIGN .....................................................................................................................54 8.1 Database design:........................................................................................................................60 9.0 CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................62 9.1 Critical evaluation.....................................................................................................................62 9.2 Future enhancement .................................................................................................................62 10.0 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................63 11.0 APPENDICES ..............................................................................................................................64
  4. 4. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 4 1.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The group is thankful to the concerned administration who introduced this module named SAD (System analysis and design) which is really an important module. Its learning outcomes are so vast and informative which is to be used throughout the engineering course. It will be of great help during our final year project when we require developing the project using SDLC (software development life cycle). The team also appreciates the respected module lecturer, Mr. Amit Verma for his endless and devoted efforts to make us learn this module in an interesting way by giving various live examples. He guided us in every phases of our project. We also thank the administration for facilitating us with a library, a storehouse of books, required by the students. Last but not the least the group members thank each other for cooperating among ourselves to help overcome every little barrier that came during completion of project. The team work helped us to keep a consistency as well as good command of the language throughout the project.
  5. 5. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 5 2.0 ABSTRACT The objective of the given assignment is to identify the different problems in the existing system and propose a solution as well as to make assumptions in areas which lack information. Prepare a feasibility report in four dimensions of feasibility namely-technical, operational, schedule and economical. Choose an appropriate methodology for developing the proposed solution and compare it with various other methodologies. Identify the breakdown of work associated with the chosen methodology. Apply two paradigms of analysis based on object oriented and structured approaches and document them and then present a solution to it. In short, the main objectives of the project are: 1. To identify the framework of activities associated with methodologies and describe how the techniques are used together to develop a system. 2. To demonstrate, apply and document, to the appropriate standard, the key techniques of analysis and design for the chosen paradigm. 3. To identify the key user interface issues required in a system design. Based on the mentioned objectives, our team has chosen SSADM as the methodology which stands for Structured System Analysis and Design which has been justified and compared with other methodologies. Physical and logical designs are designed appropriately and documented accordingly giving crystal clear description. All the requirements of the project have been tried to be met with our best efforts and working criteria.
  6. 6. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 6 3.0 INTRODUCTION Waiter on Wheels: Computerized Delivery Tracking System GRILL (2003) The two students -Tom and Sue Bickford, who worked for restaurants, always dreamt of opening their own restaurant while they were in their college. But they were always short of money. They found that a number of restaurants provided takeout food and home delivery service. They met many people who wanted home delivery service as well as a complete food selection. So, after considering their views they decided to have restaurant meal-delivery service started in 1997. They contracted many restaurants, gathered food from them and provided food to customers under one roof. The customers appreciated this and the business improved rapidly. Now they have so many orders that they feel the need of a computerized system to support their business operations. Previously, the Bickfords started with only two restaurants and one delivery boy working the dinner shift. We have been hired by the Waiter on wheels to provide a system which avails them with the following facilities in an advanced and cost and time efficient manner:  Placing an order either by telephone or through WOW’s website  Record the orders and get them to the right restaurant  To know which delivery boys are free so that they can pick up an order  When a customer makes a change in the original order, it should be immediately made known to the concerned restaurant so that they can make the necessary changes.  The delivery boys get a copy of the bill from the restaurant which provided the food and they collect the amount mentioned in the bill plus a service charge.  At the end of the day, the total money the delivery boys have, is added up and compared to with the records that WOW have  When all delivery boys report in, a deposit slip is created for the bank for the day’s total receipts
  7. 7. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 7  At the end of each week, calculation is made to check what due is left for each restaurant at the agreed-to-wholesale price and a statement is and a cheque is sent. 3.1 Analysis of the current system based on assumptions  Customer calls the Waiter on Wheels to place an order and the later records it manually may be on a register.  They then convey the information further to the right restaurant and find out which delivery boys are free so that they can take the order.  They are ready to make changes to the given order if the customer calls back, and pass the same to the concerned restaurant and the delivery boy through phone calls (may be).  The delivery head make calculations manually like how much is the retail price to be charged from the customers, what is the wholesale price amount to give to the restaurant.  The delivery boys receive a copy of the bill from the restaurant which prepares food, reach the food to the customer’s address and collect from them the retail price mentioned in the bill plus a service charge (may be 10% of the bill amount) and tip.  At the end of the day when the delivery boys arrive to the Bickfords, the later add up the money the delivery boys have to compare whether it matches with their calculations.  After all delivery boys report in, the Bickfords create a deposit slip for the bank for the day’s total receipts.  At the end of the week, the Bickfords check how much due is left due for each restaurant and clear them by sending a statement and a cheque. 3.2 Current problems in the existing system  Time taking and inflexible: Each process of the current system takes much time since they are done manually.  Error prone and confusion tending since calculations and records are made manually and on registers.  No use of database management system.
  8. 8. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 8  It may be possible that the same customer gives order a number of times; it may lead to an inconsistent organizing of data leading to confusion, called data redundancy. For example, they have to record a customer’s address again and again even if the customer has given his address once, because it will take much time to search the previous records. This causes duplicity of data.  It takes longer to dispatch the food to the customer at their addresses.  Storage methods of recording the details of the transaction manually, is risky and takes too much space.  Calculations are done manually therefore it is difficult to make a record of the transactions and may lead to mismatch between the calculated result and the actual result.  There is no dynamic mechanism to know about the status of the delivery boys whether they are free or not. They manually do this and pass food order to them. There may be a disturbance if telephone services are busy.  The average data retrieval and receiving process is large resulting in lengthy processing.  It is difficult to share the Data recorded on paper with other entities in proper manner this leads to improper information system.  There are inadequate resources in terms of employee and tools (hardware and software).  If a customer wants to know more about the facilities provided by the waiter on the wheels, they cannot do so because the Waiter on Wheels does not have their website hosted. The customers need to call each time to know about the retail price of a particular food then only they can order. This is inconvenience for both the customers as well as the Bickfords.  The current system cannot keep track of all customer details and transactions and cannot make calculations of sales reports and weekly reports.  Data stored cannot be easily accessed by everyone because of lack of integrity and multi- sharing environment. .  The current system only uses telephone services therefore there will be a crush or haphazardness when a large number of customers place their order simultaneously (during dinner or lunch times).  When customer won’t be getting a proper response when the network is busy, they will be dissatisfied.  There may be problems when a customer wishes to change his order, inconvenience for customer (no website).
  9. 9. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 9  Bickfords could not keep their commitment of delivering food on time. 3.3 Recommendations for the new system The only objective of the new system to be developed is to quicken the existing processes, make it flexible and integral thus making it time saving as well as customer friendly, so that they can cope up with the expanding business operations. The computerized system will result in faster and accurate calculations and thus will be a boon to the Bickfords. Design a system which does some processing when events such as these occur:  a customer places an order either via telephone or via the company website.  a delivery boy is finished with a delivery  a delivery boy reports for work The system should also produce information at some specific points in time – for example, when it is:  time to produce an end-of-day deposit slip  time to produce end-of-week restaurant payments  time to produce weekly sales reports For these, the given below solutions are recommended: For efficient delivery performance, every transaction and records are done using the computer system.  A website can be built which contains a detailed description of the working of the Waiter on Wheels, the facilities provided by them and the list of restaurants that provide foods as well as the list of different foods available along with their price. This will satisfy the curiosities of the minds of the customers. They will know everything beforehand by visiting the website.  The delivery boys should be handed with PDA’s so that they can receive messages at correct time because PDA’s are facilitated with high internet connectivity without depending on the service providers…. as defined by MAHAR (2009)
  10. 10. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 10  Three to four new computers can be purchased and delivery heads recruited accordingly to keep on checking the customer orders received and giving them a confirmation statement containing the total bill to be paid by the customer and other required information.  A centralized database system can be designed to keep a record of customer details and also to remove data redundancy, data normalization technique can be used.  Point of success software can be installed because it has the benefits like cash control and security, provides marketing features and operating information.  They can take internet connection as well as recruit a few more delivery boys and delivery head to reduce the burden of entire process and divide them.  The works can be divided among four parties, namely the delivery head (who access the website every time and keep a record of the transaction), the delivery boys who take the orders, the restaurants who prepare the food and the Bickfords themselves who keep a look on the whole thing. 3.4 Working of the new system  Customer orders food either through a telephone call or by visiting the website.  The delivery head check the order placed and reply to the customer confirming that the order has been received and a statement containing bill, is sent to the customer, if ordered online.  The delivery heads check for the orders and see which restaurant is suitable for providing the meal and send the order to the concerned restaurant through a call or online message passing, if the restaurant too can be contacted online. And then the information is passed to a delivery boy who is free, through PDA.  If the order is changed within a given time, it is updated and the required changes are forwarded to the concerned restaurant as well as the delivery boy. These two options are done with help of the centralized database and Point Of Success software where information is received, stored and updated. With the help of PDA, one of the delivery heads can contact to the delivery boy to check if he is free through a call or a message and the delivery boy replies accordingly.  Meanwhile, the delivery heads calculate the total bill amount and generate receipts and reports.
  11. 11. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 11  After taking the meal and the bill from the restaurant (which includes the wholesale price), delivery boy goes to the desired customer and collects the amount including the service charge and tip which the customer knew beforehand.  As soon as a delivery boy is done with a customer’s food delivery, he can send a message to the Bickfords through his PDA telling that he is free and is ready to accept another order.  The process continues for the whole day, at the end of the day the delivery boy reaches the Waiter on Wheels where the entire collection made by the delivery boys is matched with the calculations generated using the centralized database management.  The system can be used to calculate an end-of day deposit slip, end of week restaurants payments and weekly purchase reports with the help of POS software when financial reports are input. ..as defined by INBORNE (2003)  The WOW gives a statement of cheque to the respective restaurants for clearing their dues and the later collect the cash from the bank which was given complete information about the week’s receipts.
  12. 12. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 12 4.0 FEASIBILITY REPORT The main aim of the feasibility report is to track out the problems in the existing system and propose a solution which can meet the requirements. It is a management–oriented activity. This study suggests whether the new project will be successful, what are the possible alternative solutions, whether it is necessary to upgrade all parts of the existing system. It consists of planning, organizing and managing resources to enable successful completion of a project. Feasibility study saves research time because it is determined beforehand whether the project will be successful or not. Feasibility study helps determining a) whether the ideas used to develop the new project is realistic or not b) Whether it will be possible to evaluate weekly sales report, end- of- week restaurant payments etc effectively. 4.1 Technical feasibility It is the process of determining whether the organization can afford to purchase, install and operate the system. It covers several aspects like: – Is the proposed solution realistic? – Are the necessary technologies available? – If it is not available, can it be availed or is it affordable? – Is there any technical expertise and is the schedule logical? – What software and hardware are needed? – Does the suggested equipment have capacity for making changes in future? – Are the hardware and software trustworthy? Will it be able to keep pace with other company’s technical equipments? Will it work properly with the external entities by customers and other users? Can it lead to growth of the organization? … As defined by CASTRO, MYLOPOULOS (2002)
  13. 13. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 13 The technology to be used must be a proven one. It should be cost effective and it should not be so much advanced that it cannot be afforded. One thing should be kept in mind that the ultimate users are finally going to use the technology, so it should be such that the delivery heads can easily use it. In order to make the system more flexible, besides having technical software and tools, it is very necessary to have a person with technical expertise who can handle everything with minimal wastage of resources. The initial costs may seem to be high, but it would be worthy considering them on a long term basis. A project manager must be hired who take decisions regarding costs, time consumption, benefits obtained as well as distribution of tasks among other team members. He also contacts with technically strong person who well knows how to install software, train delivery heads as well has a good knowledge about networking, different hardware and software. A system designer is also required who can decide the type of interface to be designed, the various fields to be included in it, the new features to be added to make the system user – friendly and an effective one. If the technology suggested is not realistic, is too costly is not user friendly then it should be dropped and a new one should be thought of. 4.1.1 Current Strategy Presently, WOW has no much resource. It uses the traditional ‘pen and paper’ method for maintaining records and telephonic method for communication. It deals with only two restaurants and one delivery boy to deliver the meals. Publicity of WOW is also not spread.
  14. 14. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 14 4.1.2 Recommended Resources Hardware Software Desktops Microsoft word office 2010 Servers Tally Cables Point of success Telephones Microsoft security essentials PDA Visual Studio 2010 Printer MS-SQL server Scanner Firewall Switches and router Microsoft access Modem 4.1.3 Illustration of the resources  Keeping sufficient number of network enabled PC’s will help if there is any system breakdown.  Network enabled PDA’s to inform the delivery boys about the new order.  Have two Xenon servers, to have outstanding performance and ease installation.  Pentium- 4 microprocessor with 1 or 2 GB RAM for desktops and more than 3GB for servers.  Operating system should be like windows professional, vista, home etc according to performance and needs.  A UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to prevent power cut off.  To have an EPSON ALL IN ONE printer, for taking the print out of receipts and other documents when needed. A scanner can also be useful to scan handwritten or other printed documents.  A switch or a hub is required for network connection. A 100 MBPS LAN or fast ETHERNET may be useful for internet connection.
  15. 15. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 15 4.1.4 Network connection  port or hub or switch  Connector or cable 4.1.5 Database MS-SQL server will be the best option to be used as database which by default works on Microsoft Access. 4.1.6 Operating System It would be better to have Windows server NT for server computer and Windows Vista for other desktops. 4.1.7 Justification for hardware and software The use of hardware and software will fasten the data recording system with the help of database and the installation of Point of success software. 4.2 Operational Feasibility It is the process of assessing the extent to which a proposed system solves business problems or takes advantage of business opportunities. It refers to a system that users will accept and use efficiently to overcome business problems. It is the process where the management gives positive response from their side so that the development team can proceed with their work. When a system is developed there are several internal as well as external issues like manpower problems, labour restrictions, social acceptability etc. To help solve these problems, the PIECES framework includes various features which can be used to solve these problems. It consists of determining: - If the managers and users support the project? Do users find the need for change? Is the current system efficiently used? - Whether the new system requires training of delivery heads and if the company is ready to buy the resources? - Are any ethical issues needed to be considered?
  16. 16. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 16 - Is the schedule reasonable? - Will the customers be affected? Will it bring risk or will it improve the customer’s goodwill? - Will users be involved in the planning phase? - Will the current system cause workforce reduction? Will it place any new demands or require any operating changes? Can profit overweigh losses? The PIECES framework P (Performance): Performance is defined in terms of throughput (tasks performed in a given period of time) and response time (the time taken between user request and response to the request). When a customer makes an order, a confirmation message should be immediately delivered especially when there is a tie i.e. during dinner and lunch shift. The system should be able to maintain details of a customer to avoid data repetition and leads to better storage of information. Due to internet, various transactions are fastened and hence response time is improved. The printer produces on time jobs and the website brings publicity to the Waiter on Wheels. Thus, in a given period of time, a large number of tasks are done i.e. throughput is increased. PERFORMANCE INFORMATION ECONOMY CONTROL EFFICIENCY SERVICES
  17. 17. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 17 I (Information) The system should provide accurate, clear, timely, precise, extremely useful customer related information. All details should be stored in the centralized database which can be easily accessed to and used by the managers. The information should be updated by itself. Information about a particular customer should be stored against a unique customer id. It deals with how the information is passed from the WOW’S to the restaurants to the delivery boys to the customers. E (Economy) It may seem during the development of project that investments are greater than benefits. But after a certain month, the reverse happens if the proposed solution is appropriate. Customer satisfaction as well as efficiency increases. It should be kept in mind that the money invested or the resources bough should not go wasted. Here it is checked whether the system is in a position to return profits, i.e. the use of new technology should not only provide services but should equivalently bring greater profits to the company. It is seen that the suggested solution in this case will be economical in the long run. C (Control) This feature deals in providing security of the system and protection from unauthorized access or intrusions. It takes care that the details of the customer are kept safe and accurate without any intervention of outsiders. It is possible by having antivirus software, firewall etc. Only management users can access the customer information. E (Efficiency) It includes- whether the system runs as expected, are the results coming as desired, is everything working accurately etc? It determines whether the available resources are used to a maximum limit in terms of manpower, time, processes etc and data stored effectively for future use. The productivity should be increased as well as time consumption in accessing a customer’s detail should be reduced. In short, whatever is done should not be a waste but effective.
  18. 18. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 18 S (Services) It is concerned that the system provides reliable and trustworthy services to the customer. And also that it can perform with same accuracy at the time of peak hours. The system should be able to perform as well when there are certain changes required or adaptation required i.e if the delivery heads are computer illiterate, services should be provide so that they can operate the system. It sees whether gives the services for which it was designed. 4.3 Economical Feasibility The new system is economically feasible because it is convenient for the Bickfords as well as the customers. Thus greater customers like the services of the WOW’s, the greater is the order placed and hence more profit. It determines whether the time spent in developing the project will yield in better results, will be more flexible and less expensive and the investments made are lesser in comparison to the benefits obtained. In order to do economical feasibility, cost- benefit analysis is done: The purpose of cost-benefit analysis is - To know if the project is justified (benefits outweigh costs)? - Can the project be completed within costs constraints? - What are the total and types of costs involved in developing the system like developmental costs, operating costs, maintenance costs etc? 4.3.2 Types of costs: Project related costs a. Development and purchasing costs: how the system is built? (Internal or outsourced), software and hardware (are they available or need to be purchased), other requirements like power supply, internet connection etc. b. Installation, training and conversion costs: it includes installation of new software, training the delivery heads about how to operate it and conversion of database from an old format to a new one. c. Operational costs (ongoing):
  19. 19. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 19 Maintenance- It includes hardware (maintenance of desktops, materials, equipments etc), software (maintenance of software through manuals, online help), other facilities. Personnel- Operation, maintenance. For a minor business that wants to have a computerized system, the above mentioned costs are converted to the following: Project costs: It consists of purchasing hardware, software and furniture, maintaining the software, training the delivery heads, installing the software and file conversion. On-going costs: It includes operating the system (data entry, backups, helping the users, vendors etc.), maintenance (of software) and user support, hardware and software maintenance, supplies… as defined by CASTRO, MYLOPOULOS (2002)
  20. 20. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 20 4.3.3 Development cost (Tangible and variable/ fixed costs and recurring /one time cost) Items Quantity no. Cost per item (RM) Total cost (RM) Hardware (Fixed cost) 3GB server series 2 5,000 10,000 Desktop 5 3,000 15,000 HP LCD monitor 5 600 3,000 Router and 4 port switches 2 250 500 EPSON all in one printer 1 500 500 LAN cable 5 25 125 Telephone 5 3,000 15,000 PDA 10 350 3,500 Software Microsoft word office Already Installed Antivirus software Already installed Others Project manager (3 months) 1 6,500 5,000 System analyst(3 months) 1 5000 5,000 System designer(3 months) 1 4,000 4,000 Hosting the website 1 70 70 Transportation (bike) (buying) 10 500 5,000 Telecom business hub (landline service for telephone) 1 500 500 TM streamyx (for internet) Starting cost for connection 1 150 150 Total Development Cost = RM 67,345.00
  21. 21. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 21 4.3.4 Annual operating cost (recurring cost) Name of items Total cost (RM) Maintenance fee 5,500 Petrol (of bike or vehicle) 10,000 Delivery heads salary 80,000 Delivery boys salary 100,000 Telephone services charges 3,500 Printer toner 7,000 TM net streamyx 4,500 Total operating cost (RM) 210,500 4.3.5 Benefits classification: Monetary benefits: benefits obtained in terms of money Tangible benefits: eg reduced employee expenses, higher profit margins Intangible benefits: Customer satisfaction and goodwill or morale. After identifying and calculating various costs and benefits, we need to compare and determine project feasibility which is as follows. 4.3.6 Annual Benefits: Benefits Annual benefit (RM) Benefits from customer (RM 10*82) orders per day) 10*82*365= 299,300.00
  22. 22. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 22 4.3.7 Return on investment (ROI), Net value and payback period Discount rate: To measure the opportunity cost of investing money, we calculate discount rate using the formula Present value = 1/ (1+i) ^n, where is the discount rate and n years from now. If the discount rate is 12%, then Present Value (1) = 1/ (1 + 0.10)1 = 0.90 Present Value (2) = 1/ (1 + 0.10)2 = 0.81 Cost analysis Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Development cost 67345.00 Operation and maintenance Cost 210,500.00 210,500.00 210,500.00 210,500.00 210,500.00 Discount factor (10%) 1.00 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.66 0.59 Time adjusted costs 67345.00 189,450.00 170505.00 153665.00 138930.00 124195.00 Cumulative time adjusted costs over 67345.00 256,795.00 427,300.00 580,965.00 719,895.00 844,090.00 Total adjusted costs=0+189450+170505+153665+138930+124195 = RM 844090.00 Entity
  23. 23. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 23 Benefit analysis Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Benefits derived 0.00 299300.00 299300.00 299300.00 299300.00 299300.00 Discount Factor (10%) 1.00 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.66 0.59 Time adjusted benefits 0.00 269370.00 242433.00 218489.00 197538.0 176587.00 Cumulative time adjusted benefits over 0.00 269370.00 511803.00 730292.00 927830.00 1104417.00 Cumulative life time adjusted costs 67345.00 -12575 -84503 -149327 -207935 -260327 Total adjusted benefits= 0.00+269370.00+242433.00+218489.00+197538.00+176587.00 =RM 1104,417.00 Break-even point- It is the time period when lifetime benefits overtake lifetime costs. Determining the fraction of a year when a payback actually occurs: |Beginning Year amount| / (End Year amount + |Beginning Year amount|) From the given table, lifetime benefits overtake lifetime costs after first year itself. So, the payback period is calculated as follows: (67345) / (12575+67345) = 0.72years =0.842*365 =307.569 days So, after 307.569 days the invested money will be paid back. Entity
  24. 24. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 24 Payback period … as defined by CASTRO, MYLOPOULOS (2002) Net Present Value It is obtained by subtracting the total adjusted costs from the total adjusted benefits. Net present value =1104417.00– 844,090.00 = RM 260,327.00 Return on Investment ROI analysis compares the lifetime profitability of alternative solutions or projects. It measures the amount the business gets back from an investment versus the amount invested. ROI is calculated as follows: ROI = (Est. lifetime benefits - Est. lifetime costs) / Estimated lifetime costs Or, ROI = Net Present value / Estimated lifetime costs = (1104417.00– 844,090.00) / 844,090.00 =0.3084*100 = 30.84 % They will get 30.84% profit on their investment.
  25. 25. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 25 4.4 Schedule Feasibility The process of assessing the degree to which the potential time frame and completion dates for all major activities within a project meet organizational deadlines and constraints for affecting change. It is the process of analyzing the time period within which the project has to be completed. The main aim of schedule feasibility is to divide the tasks and time among the team members to implement the project and complete it successfully. It saves time and schedules every activity. It can be achieved with the help of a workload matrix, Gantt chart, pert chart etc. 4.4.1Workload Matrix Name of the task Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214) Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209) Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208) Prince Kumar (PT1082219)  Analysis of existing system  Finding problems  Solutions  Working of the new system 40% 40% 20% 30% 20% 30% 20% 30% 20% 20% 30% 20% 20% 10% 30% 20% Feasibility:  Schedule  Technical  Economical  Operational 30% 35% 30% 30% 25% 30% 30% 25% 25% 20% 40% 20% 20% 15% 30% 25% Selection of methodology  SSADM 30% 20% 20% 30%  Investigation techniques 25% 25% 25% 25%
  26. 26. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 26 Logical Design:  Context diagram  Level 0 DFD  Level 1 DFD 35% 35% 35% 20% 25% 20% 20% 20% 25% 25% 20% 20% Data dictionary  Database Design  Screen Design 30% 25% 20% 20% 25% 30% 20% 25% 25% 30% 25% 25% References 15% 20% 40% 25% Schedule of activities: Activity Time(days) Predecessors A. Analysis of the current system 2 - B. Finding problems 2 A C. Solutions to problems 2 B D. Working of new system 3 C E. Feasibility Study 6 D F. Selection of Methodology 3 E G. Logical Design 12 F H. Data Dictionary 8 G I. Physical Design 5 H J. Review Documentation 4 I K. Future Enhancement 7 J
  27. 27. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 27 4.4.2 GANTT chart: It graphically represents time relationship between different tasks of a project. It allows one to foresee when the tasks will be completed.
  28. 28. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 28 4.4.3 PERT chart: It stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique. It is a visual representation of a project. It is represented by arrows and nodes. Tasks of a project are preplanned and documented to avoid loss of costs and time. 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 2 6 3 5 9 6 6 15 3 18 12 30 8 547 38424653 7 8 9101112 53 46 42 38 3018159642 Critical path Event no. ECT LCT Event Key 5 15 15 Key Symbols In this project, there is a single path which is the critical path since the project was limited only to design phase. In a single path, the entire work was completed within a given timeframe following the immediate predecessor. Critical path: It is a series of events and activities with no slack time i.e. the activities on this path cannot be delayed. ECT (Earliest Completion Time): It is the minimum amount of time necessary to complete all the activities that precede the event. LCT (Latest Completion Time): It is the latest time at which the event can occur without delaying the project…. As defined by CASHMAN (1996)
  29. 29. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 29 5.0 SELECTION OF METHODOLOGY SSADM (Structured System Analysis and Design Method) It is the Waterfall Model of the Systems Development life cycle. The main objective of SSADM is to present a model which can be easily understood by the development team and the users. 5.1 Fundamental principle “The system belongs to users and hence their participation in the development process is essential”. The strongest point is that it makes use of logical diagrams, modeling techniques, procedural standards, which give a clear cut idea about the implementation and design phase going to take place. Its main motive is to define the requirements of the organization and finding a solution which is cost effective. ..As defined by COLEG (2007)
  30. 30. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 30 It is an open standard and a framework of small tasks, steps and modules that is best suited for managing the project. It consists of structures, techniques (that define how the activities are performed) and documentation (that define how the activities are to be presented). It includes functional and informational requirements. It makes use of logical data modelling, data flow modelling and entity event modelling. ..As defined by JANALTA (2010) 5.1.1 Disadvantages of SSADM The biggest disadvantage of SSADM is that:  It is a time consuming (lengthy) process.  Once the development process is decided it is not possible to change it i.e. it is rigid. 5.1.2 How it can be overcome in this project?  Before working on anything, if a deadline is not decided, the project cannot be done successfully. Therefore, the tasks are to be divided among the participants, enlisting how much time a particular work will take, this will provide the solution to the problem that SSADM is a time consuming method.  To overcome the problem that SSADM is a rigid method, the entire development process needs to be planned and managed well, so that changes are not required to be made in the later stage. Since, SSADM is a systematic method it can document in detail the data structure and the steps to be involved, the input and output of each step. 5.1.3 Sorting of problems through SSADM I have selected SSADM methodology to solve the problems faced in the existing system. The problems and how they can be sorted out are solved is described as follows: Insufficient resources and tools: In the beginning, Tom and Sue Bickford had very low amount to invest therefore, they had minimum number of delivery boys and a very few phones. To provide a solution to all these, they require to buy more resources and estimate the total costs or expenditure which are to be added. This can easily be figured out if SSADM is used because this methodology at first prepares a strategy and then proceeds if it is approved.
  31. 31. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 31 In order to get rid of the existing problems, it is very necessary to plan everything well in detail, including all processes, functions with the help of SSADM which provides detailed documentation along with logical models. 5.2 Comparison with other methodologies 5.2.1 Why not RAD? RAD is a technique seems useful if we are in short of time else it is not the appropriate method to be followed. In our project, there is no such condition given regarding time constraints, so we can undoubtedly use SSADM which gives detailed description about each and every thing. On the other hand, the time factor much matters for RAD, so that there is no quality assurance. So, there is a possibility that the entire phases may need to be reverted. 5.2.2 Advantage of SSADM over RAD  It helps to develop better quality projects.  It provides a platform for an effective communication between the users and development team.  It aims to make an effective use of the trained as well as non-trained staff’s i.e. the tasks are distributed among different personnel.  It reduces the probability of misunderstanding the initial requirements and prevents from straying from the functionalities of the system.  It enables to have computer based tools like Computer Aided Software Engineering systems (CASE).  This methodology improves project management and control.  It is well documented and elaborated which can be easily understood by the users since it uses the three techniques namely, logical data modeling, data flow modeling and entity event modeling.  The model is more accurate and complete.  Moreover, maximum number of people has knowledge about the project in United Kingdom since it is very frequently used and is a structured method. Unlike rapid application development, which conducts steps in parallel, SSADM builds each step on the work that was prescribed in the previous step with no deviation from the model.
  32. 32. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 32 This process makes the project manager to easily estimate the duration and cost of the project. SSADM ensures completeness and consistency throughout the project since the logical designs are interrelated, validated and planned carefully. 5.2.3 Comparison of SSADM and RAD SSADM RAD Provides reusability of the system. No reusability of the system, system degradation. It improves the functionality of the project. RAD reduces the functionality of the project. Modular work. No division of task. Logical designs are provided. No logical designs, no internal designs, no programming standards Planned and parallel work Not much planning, lack of scalability Project control and quality assurance. No quality assurance, missing information. 5.2.4 Why Object Oriented Concept is not used? Object oriented method consists of relating the problem domain with classes, objects, data fields and methods that act upon them, the services and their relationships. It makes use of all the object oriented programming language concepts like encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, associations etc. But, SSADM is preferable to OOM, since Sometimes it becomes difficult to identify the objects and relate it to the problem domain, to form classes. Here also the inputs, outputs and the processes involved are taken into concern as done in SSADM. So, it is better if we do the same with the help of SSADM as it makes use of logical diagrams.
  33. 33. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 33 5.2.5 Why prototyping and Yourdon models are not used?  The disadvantage of this method is that it requires a lot of skills for the developer to consider each task very carefully and assure quality and manage project well.  User involvement is less.  Prototyping model is part of RAD, so it has the same features. Here, a prototype is prepared and given to the users for evaluation. It has the disadvantage that since it aims to provide solutions to the existing problems at the fastest pace, it may lead to business problems being unrecognized and initial choices made, may be the poor ones. Moreover, it is not represented pictorially as in SSADM.
  34. 34. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 34 6.0 INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES The various investigation techniques or fact finding techniques are as follows: • Interview, Document review, Observation, Surveys and questionnaires, Sampling, Research For our project, we have used two investigation techniques namely, observation and interview. 6.1 Justification We chose observation and interview as two fact finding technique because they involve maximum interaction with the users who are going to use the new software. These two techniques provide accurate information about the details needed. Other techniques include minimum user interaction. With the help of observation and interview, we can see from the shoes of the persons working there to find out the problems they are facing, the tools they use and the way they provide service. We can observe people in any way we like and interview them to know about the personal opinion of each being. As a result, we can compare the suggestions and thoughts of everyone and come to a conclusion which is supported by the majority. Observation - Observing the system gives one a better notion about the processes and the functionalities of the system. Personal observation helps in justifying declarations made in interviews. It helps in gaining knowledge about the surrounding and environment of the system the various people interacting with it, the input and output processes associated with it, how to install and make changes in future and help in keeping friendly relationship with the staffs. … as defined by CASHMAN (1996) Plan beforehand by preparing a checklist of specific tasks to be observed and questions to ask: 1. The main purpose is to know about the procedures of handling circumstances that cannot be governed by standard operating procedures. 2. Take a note of all the steps in a processing cycle and the output derived from them.
  35. 35. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 35 3. Consider every report, form, records etc and ponder about the purpose of each of them. 4. Determine what work each person is assigned with? Find out what they have to say, the tools used by them, by when each activity is to be completed, how much efforts each process require, are there any interruptions, how long a person work etc. - Converse with the people who keep up-to-date knowledge about the various processes going on, the workforce associated with them, how further improvements can be made, what is to be eliminated. - ted what is to be added etc… as defined by CASHMAN (1996) With respect to the given project, observation concerning following fields are to be made: - Are the customers satisfied with the services of the WOW’S? - Are their demands meeting with the WOW’s services? - Is publicity done? - What improvements customers need? - What are the tastes of various customers, in what all circumstances do the current system lag, how many people are involved, their expectations, time each process takes, etc? - Check if the delivery boys provide service and food at time? - Remember the Hawthorne effect i.e. efficiency of a work increases if the people doing work are under observation. … as defined by CASHMAN (1996) - We can sometimes take part in the work to observe the working conditions, the difficulties that the people face and various other factors. - How long it takes to take an order from a customer and complete it? - How frequently are the delivery boys available? - Are the transactions recorded and updated regularly to produce weekly sales report? - How much orders are there in an average? - How processing is done when a customer changes his orders etc. - What to do when telephone services are busy and delivery boys are not available? - How and order is passed from the customer to WOW’s to delivery boys to restaurant, how the information is passed etc? - See whether the services can be improved in some way or the other. Another fact-finding technique is interview. - It is an information gathering technique which is a direct or indirect conversation conducted for a specific purpose in a question-answer format. Skills are required to conduct it. … as defined by CASHMAN (1996)
  36. 36. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 36 It may include direct or indirect interview with different people involved like customers, delivery boys, restaurants and others who are linked to this system in one way or the other. Before going for the interview one should do the following: i. Determine the interviewees, the goals, prepare the questions and plan the meeting. ii. Describe the project and the interview’s objective. Give enough time to the interviewee so that he can give accurate answers. iii. Listen carefully to what is answered. iv. When the interview is done, tell the person about the next step you will conduct to gather information, may be fill a feedback form. v. Motivate the person and thank him for the time he devoted. vi. Document the interview in terms of place, time, date, the main relevant purpose gathered. Find out the biases, the areas which have got incomplete and unclear answers. … As defined by CASHMAN (1996) A questionnaire can be prepared to interview the delivery boys, customers, restaurants and the Bickfords indirectly. In order to conduct an interview, the group went to the restaurants to which the Waiter on Wheels contracted, interviewed the managers of the restaurant like pizzerian hut to know about the procedures and various techniques that they follow to provide service to the WOW’s, interviewed with the delivery boys recruited by the waiter on wheels and asked several questions to the Bickfords regarding the meal delivery system. They are listed as follows:
  37. 37. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 37 Questionnaire  How many delivery boys do they have?  How many orders they have in total in a day?  Do profits overweigh the overall costs?  How do they keep the record of the customers in database including details and the transactions?  What are the changes required in the current system?  What is the process involved to pass the information when customer changes his order?  How many restaurants are contracted to?  Are customers satisfied with the services?  How may list of food items are available in the menu?  Is the food delivered on time?  How do they calculate weekly and total sales report and to total bill?  What is the working time of the Waiter on Wheels?  How delivery boys are informed about the order placed?  Do customers want WOW to have its personal website?  What is the security involved to protect the system?  What is the role of the bank in the complete process?
  38. 38. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 38 7.0 LOGICAL DESIGN There are various tools and techniques for representing the logical design of a system. Some of these include:  Context diagram  DFD level 0  DFD level 1  Data dictionary 7.1 Context Diagram It is the high level view of the information system. It is a Data Flow Diagram of the scope of the organizational system that includes a process symbol representing the entire system, external entities surrounding it, data flow symbols to connect the process with the external entities. It does not show data store. Entity cannot be connected with another entity. It is the general overview of the entire system. The symbols used are represented as follows: Data flow: Data store: External Entity: Process:
  39. 39. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 39 Customer WAITER ON WHEELS Delivery boy Restaurant Bank Passes order, gives cheque Gives detail/cancels order Modifies order Gives deposit slip to bank for receipts Gives receipt and meal Calls delivery boy who delivers foodPrepares food, charge wholesale price,receipt Gives money collected Gives cash to restaurant Pays the bill Delivery headPreares reports,receipts Collects food order In the given context diagram, the entities are: Customer, Restaurant, Delivery boy, Delivery head, and bank. Waiter on Wheels is the system with which the entities interact. How the entities and process communicate is shown with the help of data flows. Firstly, customer gives order and details about his address and food, pays the money when he is provided with the receipt and the food. The order is passed to the restaurant and the delivery boy to process it further. The restaurant prepares the meal and charges wholesale price from the WOW. The delivery boy reaches the food to the customer and comes back to the WOW’s with the money collected. The delivery head make calculations, prepares report and a deposit slip for the bank. The WOW gives the restaurant a cheque and the later collects the money from the bank. 7.2 DFD level 0 Data flow diagrams are logical diagrams which give idea about the processes that undergo in a system, the flow of data between interrelated components, how information is received and produced, how data is stored. It describes how the system transforms information. DFD uses the same external entities and data flows as in context diagram. While context diagram uses a single process to represent entire information system, DFD goes a level deeper to explore all the major processes. … As defined by CASHMAN (1996)
  40. 40. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 40 Customer 1.0 Registration (phone or website) Request an order Order/customer details 2.0 Process the order Retrieves order Restaurant Order placed Delivery boy 4.0 Food delivery Delivers food Pays the bill 3.0Prepares (services) food Gives food with bill, wholesale rate Collects payment Delivers bill and meal Calculates the bill Transaction details Delivery head Bank Generates sales report Generates end-of-week payments 5.0 Record generation 8.0 Issue Cheque Collects cash from bank Customer’s payment Retrieves sales information 7.0 Report generation Deposit slip receipts Update information Compare records 6.0 Payment accumulation Income PaymentTransaction record Sales record Transfers due amount/cheque Order acknowledged Informs the order Acknowledges after delivery DFD level 0 DFD describes movement of data between external entities and process and data store within a system and can be used to represent both physical and logical design. In DFD level 0, the customer (entity) gives order through website or telephone (process 1.0) and details which are recorded in the customer database (data store). The order is further processed (process 2.0) and passed to the correct restaurant (entity) which prepares food (process 3.0). The delivery boy (entity) delivers food (process 4.0) that is given the bill also. Customer is given the receipt and makes payment. When drivers report in, record is generated (process 5.0) regarding transaction details (data store). Payment is accumulated (process 6.0). Using transaction record and payment, the delivery head (entity) prepares sales report which is used for report generation (process 7.0). Finally receipt is created for the bank (entity).
  41. 41. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 41 7.3 DFD level 1 It is the child diagram of level 0. It is used to specify a particular process in detail showing the sub processes. It is exploded from the parent diagram. When drawn, it should be leveled and balanced. Levelling is the process of drawing a series increasingly detailed diagrams, until a desired degree of detail is reached. Balancing maintains consistency among the entire series of diagrams, including input and output data flows, data definition, and process descriptions. Customer 1.0 Receives order Places order (phone,website) Restaurant 2.3 Makes calculations 2.4 Passes the order Prepares bill and receipt Retrieves order 2.1 Checks with previous record Customer/order details Stores information 2.2 Updates order if modified passes modified order Gives record and order details Places order DFD level 1
  42. 42. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 42 In DFD level 1, the process 2.0 (process the order) is further described with the help of sub processes like 2.1 checks with previous record, 2.2 updates order, 2.3 makes calculation, 2.4 passes the order to show how the information flow between customer, waiter on wheels and the restaurant.
  43. 43. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 43 7.4 Data dictionary A data dictionary is also called data repository. It is a metadata i.e. data about a data. It contains description about the data objects and the relationship with them which is used in the system. It can be referred to understand what data items are included in a structure, what values it contain etc. It is used to store information about the database itself. It documents what each term means to different people in the organization. It is used to collect, document and organize specific facts about the system, including the contents of data flows, data stores, external entities, and processes. It also describes data elements and their meaningful combinations… as defined by CASHMAN (1996) Components of data dictionary External entity: It is a person or department outside the organization or other information system that provides input to the system as well as receives input from the system. It is represented by Entity’s name: Customer Description: Customer’s place the order either through phone or uses website. Input data flows Receives the meal and receipt from the WOW. Output data flows Gives address, details and food item to the WOW. Internal entity: Entity 1: Entity’s name: Delivery head Description: Receives the order and prepares the receipt. Input data flows Receives the order from the customer. Output data flows Analyses report makes calculations and prepares the receipt.
  44. 44. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 44 Entity 2: Entity’s name: Restaurant Description: Process the order received and makes a wholesale receipt. Input data flows Receives customer’s food order from delivery head. Output data flows Prepares food and wholesale receipt. Entity 3: Entity’s name: Bank Description: Receives deposit slip and gives cash to the restaurant Input data flows Accepts all records and sales report from delivery head. Output data flows Pays cash to restaurant which is due. Entity 4: Entity’s name: Delivery boy Description: Receives the processed order and delivers the food to the customer Input data flows Accepts order processed and delivery address from delivery head. Output data flows Food delivery and receipt to customer. PROCESSES DFD level 0-processes: It is represented by A process is called a bubble or transform. It changes data from one form to another.
  45. 45. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 45 Process 1.0 Process’s name: Registration (phone or website) Description: Receives order from the customer and store it in customer database. Input data flows Accepts customer order either through telephone or through website. Output data flows Stores details of order and customer. Process 2.0 Process’s name: Process order Description: Retrieve the customer order from customer database and passes it to the restaurant for order placed. Input data flows Accepts customer order and delivery details. Output data flows Forwards order to restaurant. Process 3.0 Process’s name: Prepares food Description: Order is accepted from the delivery head; it prepares food and gives a copy of the bill to the delivery boy. Input data flows Accepts order placed by delivery head. Output data flows Gives food and wholesale receipt to the delivery boy.
  46. 46. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 46 Process 4.0 Process’s name: Food delivery Description: Take the food and receipt from the delivery boy and deliver the item to the customer and take payment from the customer. Input data flows Accepts meal and bill from delivery boy. Output data flows Gives food and wholesale receipt to the customer. Process 5.0 Process’s name: Record generation Description: Collect the payment from the Delivery boy, compare it with the delivery head’s record and send them to transaction details data store Input data flows Accepts customer’s payment and receipt from delivery boy. Output data flows Stores data in transaction details database. Process 6.0 Process’s name: Payment accumulation Description: Take the revenue from the transaction records data store and sent the payment to delivery head. Input data flows Revenue generated. Output data flows Payment to delivery head.
  47. 47. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 47 Process 7.0 Process’s name: Report generation Description: Take the sales record from the delivery head and send a deposit slip for receipts to bank Input data flows Sales information. Output data flows Deposit slip for receipts to bank. Process 8.0 Process’s name: Issue cheque Description: Take the cheque from the delivery head and pays due amount to the restaurant. Input data flows Takes the statement and receipt from the delivery head. Output data flows Gives due amount /cheque to restaurant DFD level1-processes Process 2.1 Process’s name: Checks with previous record Description: Receives order from customer database and passes it to another process. Input data flows Accepts order details from customer database Output data flows Passes the modified order to another process. Process 2.2 Process’s name: Updates customer order Description: Receives information from checks previous record and passes it to next process Input data flows Accepts modified order.
  48. 48. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 48 Process 2.3 Process’s name: Updates customer order Description: Receives information about record and order passes it to next process Input data flows Takes record and order details. Output data flows Passes bill and receipt to another process. Process 2.4 Process’s name: Passes order Description: Receives Input data flows Receives bill and receipt. Output data flows Places the order to restaurant. LEVEL-0 Data Store: It is represented by the symbol A Data Store is a data repository. It is used when the system must store data because one or more processes need to use the stored data a later time. Data store 1 Data store name: Customer/order details Description: Stores customer’s information and order Input data flows Customer Order Output data flows Customer Information Data structure Customerid,Name, Address, Phone No. , Order, Time of delivery, Date of Delivery.
  49. 49. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 49 Data store 2 Data store name: Transaction details Description: Stores customer’s payment and sales of item. Input data flows Bill, sales report, end of week payments. Output data flows Revenue generation, sales information. Data structure Stores all the details of the sales and transactions. LEVEL 1 Data store 1 Data store name: Customer/order details Description: Customer’s detail and store the changing order of customer also. Input data flows Customer Order and details Output data flows Order Item/customer information Data structure Customerid,Name, Address, Phone No. , Order, modified order, Time of delivery, Date of Delivery. LEVEL 0 Data Flow: It is represented by A Data Flow represents the movement of data among data stores, sources or sinks, and processes. Data flow– 1 Data flow name: Request an order Description: Allows customer to place order. Origin: Customer. Destination: Process of registration (telephone or website) Data structure Customer Order.
  50. 50. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 50 Data flow– 2 Data flow name: Order placed. Description: Forwards the order to restaurant Origin: Goes from process the order Destination: Restaurant. Data structure Customer Order. Data flow– 3 Data flow name: Gives food with bill, wholesale rate. Description: Provides the delivery boy with food and receipt. Origin: Process-prepares food. Destination: Delivery boy. Data structure Customer Order. Data flow– 4 Data flow name: Gives food with bill, wholesale rate. Description: Provides the delivery boy with food and receipt. Origin: Process-prepares food. Destination: Delivery boy. Data structure Customer Order. Data flow– 5 Data flow name: Delivers bill and meal. Description: Delivery boy carries with him food and the receipt. Origin: Delivery boy Destination: To the process food delivery. Data structure Deliver the meal to customer.
  51. 51. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 51 Data flow– 6 Data flow name: Retrieves sales information. Description: Information about sales is delivered from database and passed to report generation process. Origin: Transaction details data store. Destination: To the process report generation. Data structure Passes sales and transaction information. Data flow– 7 Data flow name: Deposit slips receipts. Description: Report generation is used to prepare receipts which are passed to bank. Origin: Process- report generation Destination: Bank Data structure Passes weekly reports, payments and receipts to the bank. Data flow– 8 Data flow name: Deposit slips receipts. Description: Report generation is used to prepare receipts which are passed to bank. Origin: Process- report generation Destination: Bank Data structure Passes weekly reports, payments and receipts to the bank.
  52. 52. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 52 Data flow– 9 Data flow name: Transfers due amount or cheque. Description: Report generation is used to prepare receipts which are passed to bank. Origin: Delivery head. Destination: Process- issue cheque. Data structure Gives a statement and a cheque to restaurant to clear the due amount. Data flow– 10 Data flow name: Transaction record. Description: Transaction records are passed to delivery head for further use. Origin: Process-Record generation Destination: Delivery head. Data structure Details of record.
  53. 53. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 53
  54. 54. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 54 8.0 PHYSICAL DESIGN Physical design is used for creating description about the environment in which the system will operate the physical characteristics of the system, its functionalities, and the look of the interface. Its main objective is to convert the recommended solution to a system specification or the actual implementation of the logical design. WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) CUSTOMER’S REGISTRATION FORM Date: Time: Customer’s Name: Customer’s id: Address: Contact no: Emailid: State: Pincode: Submit Reset
  55. 55. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 55 WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) DELIVERY BOY’S INFORMATION FORM Delivery boy name: Order Time: Item ordered: Delivery boy’s id: Reporting time: Contact no: Delivery time: Closing time: No of items ordered: No of orders received:
  56. 56. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 56 WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) FOOD ORDERING FORM Food to order: Restaurant chosen: No. of persons: Quantity: Recommendations: To Order : Choose a restaurant & menu selections. Call 600-900 WOW (11233) to place your order. In about 20-25 minutes, your food arrives, hot and delicious. Hours : Opened all day except after 4:00 pm on Sunday Open Tuesday: 4-10, Wednesday- Friday: 11-2 pm & 4-10 pm [Last order taken by 9:30] Saturday & Sunday: 3:30-10 pm [Last order taken by 9:30] Mr Mrs Submit
  57. 57. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 57 WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) RECEIPT Item Quantity Rate Total amount: Date: Time: Customer’s Name: Customer’s id: Address: Contact no: Order Details
  58. 58. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 58 WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) DAILY TRANSACTION Order Details Time Customer’s name Delivery boy’s name Delivery boy’s id Restaurant Bill Total orders received per day: Total sales: Profit generated:
  59. 59. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 59 WAITER ON WHEELS (Delivery at once, fast, hot and easy) WEEKLY OR SALES REPORT Order Details: Date and order Restaurant’s name Wholesale Amt Retail price From date: To Date: Customer details: Transaction details: Total amount: Receipt no: Cheque no:
  60. 60. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 60 8.1 Database design: Customer database: It gives idea about the customer details like address, item ordered etc. Menu table: It keeps information about the different food available in the restaurant. Fields Menu’s item
  61. 61. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 61 Delivery boy’s database: It shows the details of delivery bow who delivers food, their id, name, number of orders etc. Delivery head’s database: It shows the name, days present, salary, working time, department of the delivery heads who prepare sales and weekly reports.
  62. 62. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 62 9.0 CONCLUSION This assignment was limited to the analysis and design phase. Our group tried the best to meet the user requirements of the system. During the completion of the assignment, we have learned a many new things like steps of software development life cycle, different types of feasibility study, structured system analysis and design methodology, RAD methodology, various investigation techniques, logical diagrams including context diagram, DFD level 0, DFD level 1, physical designs etc. The assignment is introduced with the analysis of the existing system and then gradually moving to improve the existing system after investigation, making feasibility report whether the new system will be cost and time efficient and considering all other facts in mind. The development team enjoyed a lot throughout the work. The consistent group work, the determination and quick analysis helped us to achieve our goal. 9.1 Critical evaluation At the beginning of the assignment, the group members faced a problem of how to investigate and analyze, how to know about the existing problems, how to gather more information regarding existing system. Most of the time was spent in deciding the investigation technique to be used. After critical analysis it was found that observation and technique would be the best because that involves greater user involvement. Secondly, it was difficult to think what methodology to choose out of other methodologies. Once we came across its advantage, the problem was easily sorted out. Then problem came in preparing physical design. Since the project is limited to design phase only, we had difficulty taking the screen shots, but it was overcome using the Microsoft word. 9.2 Future enhancement If it is felt that the new system requires a little more enhancement when the customer’ order is increased rapidly, then facilities like payment using debit cards, and online facilities may be provided. But, due to the risk of the keeping the details of the customer secure, we did not include it. Since, the payment part can be done successfully in many other ways.
  63. 63. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 63 10.0 REFERENCES CASHMAN, S., 1996, System analysis and design methods. 3rd ed., New Delhi,Custom Edition, 3.14-3.15,4.23,4.16. CASTRO J.,Mylopoulos J., 2002, The feasibility study, [online], 2nd Edition, O’Reilly, Available from http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~jm/340S/PDF2/Feasibility.pdf, [Last accessed 23rd March 2012]. COLEG/Ted Hastings. (2007). What is SSADM? Available from http://www.sqa.org.uk/e- learning/SDM01CD/page_02.htm.[ Last accessed 12th Feb 2012.] Grill, A. (2003).Waiter on wheels. Available: http://www.agavehartford.com/hartford/menu- waiter_wheels.htm. Last accessed 1st Feb 2012. INBORNE Technology Corporation. (2003).Point of success. Available from http://www.pointofsuccess.com.[ Last accessed 1st March 2012.] JANALTA Interactive Inc. (2010). What is SSADM?.Available from http://www.techopedia.com/feed/tod/rss. [Last accessed 20th Feb] MAHAR, R.(2009). The Advantages of PDA Tools. Available from http://www.time- management-success.com/advantages-of-pda.html. [Last accessed 26th Feb 2012].
  64. 64. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 64 11.0 APPENDICES MINUTES OF MEETING-1 Date: - 1 Feb 2012. Start time-10.30 a.m. End time-11.30 a.m. Venue: Library To The Lecturer A meeting was held on 1st February in library to discuss on SAD project. We have started our assignment relating to the Waiter on Wheels and hope we will keep this even in tough time to appear our best. Name of members present  Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214)  Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209)  Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208 )  Prince Kumar (PT1082219) Discussion Details and decision taking: -
  65. 65. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 65 Firstly, we analyzed what the project is about, its requirements. We decided to analyze the existing system, find problems and propose a solution, and recommendations of the existing system. Problems finding and Solution (Conclusions drawn):  Problems to use investigation techniques  Point of view of analysis We overcame these problems by going through research books. Future plan:- Further discuss about Feasibility study. Action list: Mousumi Kumari- Analysis of existing system Gaurav Kumar Singh-Finding problems in existing system Dushyant Singh Pawar- Recommendations of new system Prince Kumar- Working of the new system. Submitted to:- Mr. Amit Verma (Module Lecturer)
  66. 66. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 66 MINUTES OF MEETING-2 Date: - 8 Feb 2012. Start time-10.30 a.m. End time-11.30 a.m. Venue: Library To The Lecturer A meeting was held on 8th February in library to discuss on SAD project. We have started our assignment relating to the Waiter on Wheels and hope we will keep this even in tough time to appear our best. Name of members present  Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214)  Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209)  Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208 )  Prince Kumar (PT1082219) Discussion Details and decision taking: - Firstly, we reviewed the analysis part and recommendations of the new system. Then, we discussed on the feasibility area of SDLC part. We discussed what to include in technical feasibility, economic feasibility (calculation of ROI and payback period), operational feasibility and PIECES framework and economic feasibility. Now we are going to implement
  67. 67. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 67 the things based on feasibility result in our assignment. This involved understanding of the function and their working procedures. Problems finding and Solution (Conclusions drawn):  Problems to find various feasibility studies  Recommend resources with illustrations We overcome these problems by discussing among group members and friends and surfing internet, going through different feasibility reports. Future plan:- Further discuss about the selection of methodology. Action list: Mousumi Kumari- Economic feasibility Gaurav Kumar Singh-Technical Feasibility Dushyant Singh Pawar-Operational feasibility Prince Kumar-Schedule feasibility (Workload matrix, Gantt chart, PERT chart) Submitted to:- Mr. Amit Verma (Module Lecturer)
  68. 68. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 68 MINUTES OF MEETING-3 Date: - 13 Feb 2012. Start time-10.30 a.m. End time-11.30 a.m. Venue: Syndicate room Absentee: Gaurav Kumar Singh To The Lecturer A meeting was held on 13th February in library to discuss on SAD project. We have finished till the feasibility report and the next task Is to decide the methodology. Name of members present  Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214)  Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209)  Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208 )  Prince Kumar (PT1082219) Discussion Details and decision taking: - Firstly, we analyzed the drawbacks of the existing system, and then we decided to choose SSADM (structure system analysis and design). It includes DFDs, entity relationship diagram etc. We limited our diagrams till DFDs
  69. 69. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 69 Problems finding and Solution (Conclusions drawn):  Justification of choosing SSADM We overcame these problems by going through the advantages of SSADM and disadvantages of other methodology. Future plan:- Further we will discuss about Investigation techniques. Action list: Mousumi Kumari- SSADM methodology Gaurav Kumar Singh-Disadvantages and its features Dushyant Singh Pawar- Advantages of SSADM Prince Kumar- Comparison with other methods Submitted to:- Mr. Amit Verma (Module Lecturer)
  70. 70. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 70 MINUTES OF MEETING-4 Date: - 24 Feb 2012. Start time-1.30 p.m. End time-2.30 p.m. Venue: Syndicate room Absentee: Prince Kumar To The Lecturer A meeting was held on 24th February in library to discuss how to make logical design of the recommended system. Name of members present  Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214)  Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209)  Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208 ) Discussion Details and decision taking: - Firstly, we revised the SSADM methodology then we jotted out the number of external entities, data store, data flows and processes to be shown and data dictionary.
  71. 71. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 71 Problems finding and Solution (Conclusions drawn):  Matching DFD level 0 with proposed solution We overcame these problems by going through the suggestions and working of the new proposed system. Future plan:- Further we will discuss about Physical designs and database. Action list: Mousumi Kumari- DFD level 0 Gaurav Kumar Singh-DFD level 1 Dushyant Singh Pawar- Context diagram Prince Kumar- Data dictionary Submitted to:- Mr. Amit Verma (Module Lecturer)
  72. 72. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 72 MINUTES OF MEETING-5 Date: - 2nd April 2012. Start time-4.30 p.m. End time-5.30 p.m. Venue: Library To The Lecturer A meeting was held on 2nd April to decide how to make physical design, its contents and database. Name of members present  Mousumi Kumari (PT1082214)  Gaurav Kumar Singh (PT1082209)  Dushyant Singh Pawar (PT1082208 )  Prince Kumar (PT1082219) Discussion Details and decision taking: - Firstly, we thoroughly went through the logical designs then we decided to give screenshots of the website to be designed. We decided to include customer registration form, total payments, delivery boys’ information etc.
  73. 73. GROUP ASSIGNMENT System Analysis and Design APIIT SD INDIA Page 73 Problems finding and Solution (Conclusions drawn):  Felt difficulty in making a real website We overcame these problems by taking suggestions from our lecturer and doing the designing on Microsoft word and access (for database). Future plan:- Further we will keep on reviewing the documentation including references and conclusion. Action list: Mousumi Kumari- Customer’s registration, Driver’s information Gaurav Kumar Singh- Weekly sales report Dushyant Singh Pawar- Daily transaction Prince Kumar- Database design Submitted to:- Mr. Amit Verma (Module Lecturer)

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