CE00313

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With due respect, we would like to thank all those who were inv...
CE00313

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

2. CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the following under mentioned students of C...
CE00313

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Table of Contents
1.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

6.2

Problem Context .................................................................
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

3. Individual Component – PT1082219
3.1 Research Proposal
3.1.1 Abstract

The role ...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

results and accurate georeferencing. Drone consist of various components like therm...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

3.3 Research Paper – PT1082219

Page 7 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information T...
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3.4 Research Paper

Page 8 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

2...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

3.5 Critical Reflection
A continuous research aimed towards the ubiquitous environm...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

There are different protocols available for ambient and intelligent appliances and ...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Familiar with new world of ubiquity.
We researched deeply on the agriculture and we...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

4.2.4 Objective
The objectives of this study were:
Develop a Drone to monitor the A...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

4.3 Research Paper – PT1082221

Page 13 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information ...
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4.4 Research Paper

Page 14 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

...
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4.5 Critical Reflection
Issues Faced
With advancements in technology, opportunities...
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Group Working
We have completed this assignment in a group with full our effort and...
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5

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Individual Component – PT1082228
5.2 Research Proposal
5.2.3 Abstract

Utilizati...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

5.3 Research Paper – PT1082228

Page 18 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information ...
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5.4 Research Paper

Page 19 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

...
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5.5 Critical Reflection
Issues Faced
The proposed system contains so many functiona...
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Group Component

Page 21 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

201...
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6

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Group Component
6.2 Problem Context

The agriculture monitoring has long been pl...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Limitation of Manned Aircraft Vehicle
Although manned aircraft offer sufficient res...
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6.3 Rationale& Benefits behindthe proposed system
Ubiquitous technologies have pote...
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Tangible Benefits
Time
Drone save the time of farmers through monitoring the agricu...
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Update
Drone is fully updated by all type of information related to agriculture lan...
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time and all places according to their wish. These are the real facts that put Ubiq...
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see.
8.

Manually monitoring of crops and Drone can monitor big farm area within
la...
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6.5 Design& Implementation
6.5.3 Class Diagram

Page 29 of 47Asia Pacific Institute...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

6.5.4 Sequence Diagram

Diagram 6.5.4.1: Landing

Diagram 6.5.4.2: Take off

Page 3...
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Diagram 6.5.4.3

Page 31 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

201...
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6.5.5 Functionalities
Sl.

Functionality

Description

Power (Connect and Disconnec...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

departments then Drone notify farmers
currently.
Farmer can track their Drone locat...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

3. Record the value of the darkest pixel, and the lightest pixel
4. If (darkest_pix...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

3. a sharp change in line direction signifies a different line
do this by determini...
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25. Display ―it’s a rectangle‖
26. Else
27. Display ―it’s a simple Quadrilateral‖
2...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

16. sense ()
17. Send packet()
18. Process()
19. Receive packet()
20. Synchronizati...
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22:end if
23:else.Parent cluster is too small for splitting
24:EMIT({cp})
25:end if...
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9.

10.

11.

12.

Smart Agriculture Monitoring

2010 "Drawing on the benefits
of RFID and Bluetooth
technologies...
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6.7 Recommended Prototype

Fig 6.6.1 Prototype of proposed system
GPS: it is a devi...
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6.8 Relation between Ubiquitous Agents
Besides technological challenges, there risi...
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6.9 Execution or Simulation

Fig 6.8.1: Execution of Smart agriculture monitoring

...
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During the process of data transfer there is a chances of drip. Moreover, during th...
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device. We have rights to be knowledgeable but we don’t have rights to gather infor...
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It is discussed how to process UAV images rapidly and extract disease crop informat...
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monitoring agriculture crop through Sensors.

6.12 References
Journals and Research...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring

Yanho Huang,Steven J.Thomson,W.Clint Hoffmann,Yubin,Bradley K.Fritz,
(September, 20...
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Smart Agriculture Monitoring - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

  1. 1. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With due respect, we would like to thank all those who were involved in helping us out in our group as well as individual assignment. We are really thankful to Mr AnkurSingla who taught us this module very well, and monitored us in our each work as well as give his valuable comment so that we never face any problem while doing our assignment. This project holds a high position in our career.While working on this project our goal was to give an outstanding and appreciation performance. Our determination, knowledge and perseverance have helped to put the best in this project. We learned how to work in collaboration and with coordination. We are also grateful to our college facility for providing us all basic resources to work upon and help us to complete our project in time. And we are also highly thankful for the library facilities provided in the college premises. Group Members: Prince Kumar – PT1082219 Raju Ranjan – PT1082221 Himanshu Saini – PT1082228 Page 1 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  2. 2. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the following under mentioned students of COMPUTING BRANCH had completed there ―GROUP ASSIGNMENT & INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT‖ of ―UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING‖. Their project has been submitted in the given span of time. They have adopted no foul means to complete their project. I hereby declare that I have been handed over the project along with all necessary documents. I wish them good luck in all their future projects. Group Members: - Mr AnkurSingla Prince Kumar – PT1082219 (Module Lecturer) Raju Ranjan – PT1082221 Himanshu Saini – PT1082228 Page 2 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  3. 3. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Table of Contents 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................ 1 2. CERTIFICATE ............................................................................................................................. 2 3. Individual Component – PT1082219 ........................................................................................... 5 3.1 Research Proposal ................................................................................................................. 5 3.1.1 Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 5 3.1.2 Objective ........................................................................................................................ 5 3.2.3 References ...................................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Research Paper – PT1082219............................................................................................... 7 3.4 Research Paper...................................................................................................................... 8 3.5 Critical Reflection ................................................................................................................. 9 Issues faced .................................................................................................................................... 9 New Learning .............................................................................................................................. 10 4 Individual Component – PT1082221 ......................................................................................... 11 4.2 Research Proposal ............................................................................................................... 11 4.2.3 Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 11 4.2.4 Objective ...................................................................................................................... 12 4.3 Research Paper – PT1082221............................................................................................. 13 4.4 Research Paper.................................................................................................................... 14 4.5 Critical Reflection ............................................................................................................... 15 Issues Faced ................................................................................................................................. 15 New Leaning ................................................................................................................................ 15 5 Individual Component – PT1082221 ......................................................................................... 17 5.2 Research Proposal ............................................................................................................... 17 5.2.3 Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 17 5.2.4 Objective ...................................................................................................................... 17 5.3 Research Paper – PT1082221............................................................................................. 18 5.4 Research Paper.................................................................................................................... 19 5.5 Critical Reflection ............................................................................................................... 20 Issues Faced ................................................................................................................................. 20 New Learning .............................................................................................................................. 20 6 Group Component ...................................................................................................................... 22 Page 3 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  4. 4. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.2 Problem Context ................................................................................................................. 22 6.3 Rationale & Benefits behind the proposed system ........................................................... 24 6.4 How UC Application Fit into Scenario.............................................................................. 26 6.5 Design & Implementation .................................................................................................. 29 6.5.3 Class Diagram ............................................................................................................. 29 6.5.4 Sequence Diagram....................................................................................................... 30 6.5.5 Functionalities ............................................................................................................. 32 6.5.6 Pseudo code.................................................................................................................. 33 6.6 Research paper Findings .................................................................................................... 38 6.7 Recommended Prototype ................................................................................................... 40 6.8 Relation between Ubiquitous Agents................................................................................. 41 6.9 Execution or Simulation ..................................................................................................... 42 6.10 Importance of Security and Ethics .................................................................................... 42 6.11 Interaction with Ubiquitous Environment........................................................................ 44 6.12 References ............................................................................................................................ 46 Page 4 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  5. 5. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3. Individual Component – PT1082219 3.1 Research Proposal 3.1.1 Abstract The role of ubiquitous computing is not controlled using sensors, networks and intelligence, Security, controllers for the betterment of agriculture. For developing countries, one of the biggest benefits of ubiquitous computing can come from bridging the digital divide and creating value-added applications that touch the lives of the masses. Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared with piloted aircraft, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields at lower flight altitudes than regular aircraft to perform site-specific farm management with higher precision. They can also ―fill in the gap‖ in locations where fixed winged or rotary winged aircraft are not readily available. In agriculture, UAVs have primarily been developed and used for remote sensing and application of crop production and protection materials. (J.A.J.Berni, 2010) Application of fertilizers and chemicals is frequently needed at specific times and locations for site-specific management. Routine monitoring of crop plant health is often required at very high resolution for accurate site-specific management as well, the concept of smart agriculture monitoring is described and use of different advanced technologies and agents towards the agriculture domain is highlighted. 3.1.2 Objective Smart Agriculture monitoring is made of drone, intelligent server and smartphone. Drone is made up of GPS, Thermometer, Barometer, WI-fie modem and Camera. The operation is simple. Use of Agents in different areas to get numerous benefits is itself a valuable research. (Aqueel-ur-Rehman, 2009)Use of different types of agents in the area of agriculture is not new. The combination of different types of agents and their working towards certain area is always been a challenging task. Agent Used: Remote sensing sensors placed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent an option to fill this gap, providing low-costapproaches to meet the critical requirements of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions.(J.A.J.Berni ,2010)However miniaturized electro-optical sensors onboard UAVs require radiometric in order to allow further extraction of quantitative Page 5 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  6. 6. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring results and accurate georeferencing. Drone consist of various components like thermometer , barometer , Gps and wi-fie capabilities where Thermometer which is used to check the temperature of the weather parallel the Barometer also check the atmospheric pressure of the environment GPS this technology will act like a radar , farmers can easily track their drone and can easily controlled drone by smartphone wi-fie modem this will receive net from wi-fie access point , because without wi-fie there is no chance to control over drone, after getting information about the fields with the help of wi-fie the information sends data to serverwhere data gets converted into understable format then data will sends on Smartphone where user can view their fields details. 3.2.3 References Aqueel-ur-Rehman and Zubair A.Shaikh, (2009), ―Smart Agriculture.” In Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in Karachi Pakistan J.A.J.Berni,P. J.Zarco-Tejada, L.Suárez,V, González-Dugoand E.Fereres,(2010)―Remote Sensing Of Vegetation From Uav Platforms Using Lightweight Multispectral And Thermal Imaging Sensors‖ in University of Cordoba, Campus Univ. Rabanales, Cordoba, Spain Page 6 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  7. 7. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3.3 Research Paper – PT1082219 Page 7 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  8. 8. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3.4 Research Paper Page 8 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  9. 9. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3.5 Critical Reflection A continuous research aimed towards the ubiquitous environment around agriculture has been the domain of work for me in the respective module. Dealing with the research and analysis of this new kind of computing that empowers otherwise ordinary items around us , with computational capabilities has been vastly enlightening for me. Some of the major topics and questions and concerns that arose during my study concerned mainly with the agents perspective of ubiquitous computing. Agents are said to be autonomous, problem-solving computational entities capable of effective operation in dynamic and open environments. Mostly they are deployed in such environment in which they interact and cooperate. With other agents that may have different aims, the main feature of agent in these are the autonomous entities (can’t invoked directly) which are capable of making preference over their action and may act to reach specific objective. Smart agriculture monitoring provides to its inhabitants the computational services most adequate for each task at their hands. This project makes us feel like we are one step ahead towards present technology where interaction between real world and machine will be easy and simple. During the project span I as a researcher faced many difficulties and issues related with agriculture which are described in below points: Issues faced Unfamiliar with ubiquitous environment and agriculture monitoring environment causes late start of project As it was module full of possibilities which were endless , I as a project member faced the problem of innovative ideas because the more I was thinking the more it was difficult to believe it in existence. The in depth technical knowledge was lacking so it was hard to come up with an open mind for the solution. Study of pattern matching based interaction Pattern matching is tough to understand if we are not familiar with those concepts .Initially it was difficult moment to work with pattern matching but later on working with new concept it became interesting topic in research work and it will help drone to take proper picture of crops. This concept is baseline of smart agriculture monitoring research work. Assumptions we made in terms of intelligent and intuitive behaviour of agents and environment due to initial stage of smart monitoring Page 9 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  10. 10. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring There are different protocols available for ambient and intelligent appliances and software agents also. Although this protocols works independently while implementation but not at the time when we integrate the whole scenario agents. I am a researcher came up with the solutions of making assumptions to cope up with the problems of agriculture in rural areas. Farmers, they are doing manually work to monitoring their fields but this would help them to maintain their monitoring but with the help of drone. Ideas conflict with group members As we are students it is clear to have conflict and most importantly for a task like it where imagination is the only way to get through. Now, due to the new idea, the researcher faced problems regarding domain research. The other problems with the researcher are working of agents and how the multi-agent can be applied on smart agriculture monitoring. Due to the limited knowledge of agents and their working the result was not properly justified. A long-time of research has consumed on the research of domain area and agents. The other problems are regarding how to combine the various ideas that could be implemented ubiquitously with a proper and collaborative working of agents in the smart agriculture monitoring. The researcher has gone through many research papers related to the agent working in the agriculture, than after the researcher’s mind was improved with lots of thoughts and ideas but nothing could be clearly understood. At last but not the least selecting the selective ideas, which could enhance the functionality of drone through agent based approach and with using the minimum resources to get the full output from the proposed system, was a major challenge for me. New Learning When there are issues which are inevitable so there is learning’s also. As a researcher I learned a lot regarding ubiquitous computing and some issues like managing up with group members. Following are the points I learned: Learnt some new concepts like UML diagrams, how to write XML, circuit design etc. During the project research hour we leant many tools and technology for proposing prototype of the smart agriculture monitoring. What I found that entire library of monitoring is completely based on designed in multi controller i.e., circuit programming. Page 10 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  11. 11. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Familiar with new world of ubiquity. We researched deeply on the agriculture and went through entire monitoring technology architecture including all the agents and supportive environment. We founded a new ground of research area where we can do much better in future by proposing some new ideas. 4 Individual Component – PT1082221 4.2 Research Proposal 4.2.3 Abstract The concept of Robotic Drone is new for Indian Agriculture for Smart Monitoring Agriculture. Intelligent appliances with multimedia capability have been emerging into our daily life. Precision Farming helps too much to improve agriculture but now due to high demanding of food and problems faced by farmers during monitoring field or crops; we have to move further for new technology. Now it’s time comes to implement intelligent appliance to improve efficiency in agriculture. Researchers try to use of informative information technology to make intelligence appliances so it can help in agriculture in efficient way. By using of advanced or embedded technology, researchers can develop a good or efficient Robotic Drone in smarter way. Robotic Drone may also provide a means of reducing agriculture's current dependency on man, improving its sustainability and reducing its environmental impact. This Research paper describes the Intelligence & Meaning in Robotic Drone for Smart Monitoring Agriculture by implementing Image processing algorithm (LOSS V2 and FUZZY Algorithm).The drones, which range from helicopters the size of hummingbirds to full-sized, fixed-wing aircraft, can be flown by remote control or by an automated flight system. The Robotic Drone also called as Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle‖. In agriculture, drones can snap photos, detect the diseases of crops and spray crops, check the crop for harvesting and allowing farmers to manage their fields at or crops. Robotics Drone allows farmers to get more and more detail information about crops and climate. Farmer can also spray pesticides or water according to their need. Page 11 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  12. 12. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 4.2.4 Objective The objectives of this study were: Develop a Drone to monitor the Agriculture Fields or Crops. Detect the crop diseases or pests on time. Check Crops for harvesting. Extract the meaningful data from raw data Develop a machine vision–based guidance system for grain to detect the crop diseases. Evaluate the proposed guidance system under both Drone and in intelligence server. Integrating SIFT and LOSS algorithms enable researchers to discriminate between pests. Page 12 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  13. 13. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 4.3 Research Paper – PT1082221 Page 13 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  14. 14. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 4.4 Research Paper Page 14 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  15. 15. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 4.5 Critical Reflection Issues Faced With advancements in technology, opportunities exist to improve the current state of agriculture to minimize some of these problems and provide more personalized service. Many technologies are currently being adopted by the agriculture field. Aiding this transition, IEEE has joined forces with the Central Agricultural Research Institute (CARI) to standardize everything from agriculture technology to networking protocols. In ubiquitous environment intelligence is very crucial term which decides what to do, how to do and when to do. The term meaning defines the relevance in the pervasive environment. It determines the reason for which such environment is provided. Smart environment for agriculture gives an era of surrounding where unwanted death happening can be prevented. Its gives you the multitasking environment providing context modelling and reasoning for agriculture monitoring. Some major issues which create problem to come with great solution are: Ethical issues Data Security Pattern Matching Capturing data or information without breaking privacy of others. Controlling over system New Leaning As in individual part I have learnt about ―Intelligence‖ and its importance, but in the group part I have become familiar with two another areas i.e. ―Security and Ethical Issues‖ and ―Agents and Ubiquitous is computing‖. It was a new experience for me to learn about these two topics. In this I have learn about the Security and Ethical Issues involved in the system like: RFID Based Interaction between digital and physical world and how the RFID’s work RSA Encryption Technique Key Generation Algorithm Encryption and Decryption technique. Page 15 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  16. 16. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Group Working We have completed this assignment in a group with full our effort and from this we also learn how to manage time and how to work in team. I also come to know that as our topic is smart agriculture monitoring security issues are there and to overcome this problem we need some intelligence in this to make this protected and secure. Lastly, I would like to thank Mr. Ankur Singla for his constant and help and support; without whom, this assignment would not have been possible. After the completion of this project, I can state that I have gained a profound understanding of the subject and also developed a flare of writing research papers to contribute to the world of technology and development. Page 16 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  17. 17. CE00313 5 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Individual Component – PT1082228 5.2 Research Proposal 5.2.3 Abstract Utilization of advanced technologies and network is taking us towards the smarter world . Smart agriculture monitoring concept is to go form interest to the generalization of solutions for the problems. The agriculture domain requires low cost, easy to handle and use solutions .This could only be possible if we start to think globally instead of locally. On the huge scale , solutions that could deal with variety of challenges of different domains will become cheaper than the specialized solutions .Currently , Security of personal information is very important as it can cause misuse of Personal information by hackers. The biggest challenge for current RFID technology is to provide the necessary benefits while avoiding any threats to the privacy of its users (farmers). Although many solutions to this problem have been proposed, almost as soon as they have been introduced, methods have been found for security and make the user vulnerable. The main areas of security in RFID systems are unwanted tracking of the cattle, unauthorized access to a drone and middle man attack 5.2.4 Objective Data confidentiality: Drone has private information must be kept secure to guarantee user(farmer) privacy, and drone’s information must be meaningless to any unauthorized users(farmer) even though it can be easily obtained through eavesdropping by an attacker. Encryption: The data of drone are encrypted, drone unique identification information can be exposed since the encrypted data are constant. Every drones have it’s own unique identification. Authentication: Only an authenticated user (farmer) can get an access the drones. Our main aim is to the drones should only be available to the farmer to avoid unauthorized access. Only valid user (farmer) can access the drones. Privacy: To access to these services is personal hence can’t be used by anyone without bothering usage of these facilities by other person. Page 17 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  18. 18. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 5.3 Research Paper – PT1082228 Page 18 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  19. 19. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 5.4 Research Paper Page 19 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  20. 20. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 5.5 Critical Reflection Issues Faced The proposed system contains so many functionality that it will take ubiquitous computing to another level, but during my research researcher have faced many problems regarding my research work. As Researcher was having limited knowledge of security in smart agriculture monitoring (drone) and their implementation. So researcher opted to go through research findings and the research on the domain. Researcher have learned and improved my knowledge related to agent and intelligent. Researcher have learned ubiquitous computing features which are implementing in smart agriculture monitoring (drone). Researcher have done research on RFID reader and tags. While working on so many features of drone, Researcher have covered with lots of thoughts and new ideas which can be implementing but they are too complex to put into practice. Researcher have learn so much about ethical values, as ethics in itself is a vast thing. New Learning As in individual part I have learnt about security and ethics and how much security and ethics important, but in the group part I have become familiar with two another areas i.e. ―Intelligence & Meaning in Ubiquitous Computing‖ and ―Agents and Ubiquitous is computing‖. It was a new experience for me to learn about these two topics. Significant role of Agents in Ubiquitous Computing: In this I have learn about the agents involved in the system, how they actually works and coordinate among themselves. Group Working We as a group were working together but sometimes co-ordination was a major issue while working on the individual part,but we overcame that problem learning management and team work. I also came to know that since the agents in the system are intelligent so they need are more prone to security threats. And to make it secure ethics must be given birth and brought up to ensure full security for this smart agriculture monitoring. Lastly, I would like to thank Mr. Ankur Sir for his constant and helpful support; without whom, this assignment would not have been possible. After the completion of this project, I can state that I have gained a profound understanding of the subject and also developed a flare of writing research papers to contribute to the world of technology and development. Page 20 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  21. 21. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Group Component Page 21 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  22. 22. CE00313 6 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Group Component 6.2 Problem Context The agriculture monitoring has long been plagued by problems such as manually monitoring being written illegibly on paper, farmers not being able to easily access filed information, and limitations on time, space and personnel for monitoring fields. With advancements in technology, Opportunities exist to improve the current state of agriculture monitoring to minimize some of these problems and provide more personalized service. Today the requirement for the Smart Agriculture Monitoring (SAM) is a great challenge that a huge amount of agriculture centres are implemented which are domain specific and unable to provide services beyond their demarcations. An objective of representing content in a way that can be understood and interpreted in a same way penchant the knowledge of even cognition , philosophy and psychology apart from technical knowledge . Technology advances rapidly and it is an imperative to ensure that smart environments are designed, implemented and evaluated properly Fig:6.1 addressing not only technical challenges but also the end users’ needs, ethical, scientific and policy issues and the design of workable and non-obtrusive interferences.Ubiquitous computing has prompted a new way of thinking about computing power to make them available through the physical environment invisibly. This concept of invisible computing is primarily concerned with how emerging technologies can be best integrated into everyday life. There are various problems that are faced by farmers in monitoring their fields and their crops. Some of them are below:Inaccurate Data Image quality and accuracy gained through satellites is far from adequate. It did not gather the accurate information about climate, agriculture land and crops. Data collection is extremely slow and it also unable to gather information in cloudy time. Data gathering is dependent on weather; we have to wait for clean weather. Page 22 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  23. 23. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Limitation of Manned Aircraft Vehicle Although manned aircraft offer sufficient resolution and accuracy but it is very expensive and have limited endurance of only few hours. It has limited flying time and has low ground resolution. Communication Gap There is no communication between farmer and satellite. If farmer want to know the information according to their choice they did not get. They have to depend on only that information that was given by satellite. Time Consuming At accurate time farmer did not get information. They have to wait till satellite sends the information. If weather is cloudy then have wait a lot or in such condition many times they have to suffer most.In case of manned aircraft vehicle still they have to wait as pilot are not available to them 24 hours. Manual Monitoring It is one of the sole drawback of Agriculture that still monitoring of agriculture land and crops done by man. They visit their land and crops so many times so that no one harm their crops or also it required any type of pesticides or not. To know the condition of crops that it is ready for harvesting or not they visit in night time also and during this time they faces a lot of problem. Ruler Areas In ruler area most farmers have no appliances or devices so that they get information from satellite at their home. To get information they do outsourcing that is very difficult to them. Hence, the current problem context makes us face the problem of proper implementation of agents in an intelligent environment, i.e. where environment fetches data, based on cognitive prowess and reading behavioural pattern. Also all this is to be achieved without compromising the security and ethical front of the users. Page 23 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  24. 24. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.3 Rationale& Benefits behindthe proposed system Ubiquitous technologies have potentials to play major roles in different real world organizational settings. One of the areas where applying ubiquitous technologies has been given a lot of attention is in the agriculture domain.Agriculture is the backbone of any big farming country like India, Australia, and Brazil. The people of these countries are mainly depended on Agriculture as they have big farm area. The main problems faced by Farmers are that they cannot monitor their fields in well manner due to this their crop would die or they cannot produce in large amount and as a result of this farmers faces the financial problem. So the main motive of researchers is to give relief to farmers by providing perfect Drone according to their needs. Researchers give an idea to develop an Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle, which monitor the large agriculture area. Drone helps farmers a lot to observe a larger cultivation area and estimate the health of the plants and the growth of the crops. The cameras in the drones provide farmers 500 pieces of high-technology data, while the human eye one can barely collect ten pictures or cannot gather accurate data about crop or climate. Precise, high-quality images allow experts to measure the amount of sunlight the crops are getting, and study problems like stress from heat, drought or lack of nutrients. The small unmanned aircraft will help farmers more precisely by applying water and pesticides to crops, saving farmers money and reducing environmental impacts or risks. Drone can detect the pipelines and power lines and also find hurricane victims stranded on rooftops. The first forprofit applications will be in agriculture. Drones will take over crop dusting with long-range cameras and precision sensors, including night vision and thermal imaging. Drone will monitor fields for waste-product runoff into waterways and track air pollution from industrial facilities. Researchers try to develop a low cost drone so that farmer can bear the expenditure. These Drones will be very helpful for farmers to monitor their agriculture land. Benefits The proposed system will provide benefits in many ways to the farmers and this will solve problems in farmers. There are various benefits of developing this system. As now a day’s the interaction is the primary concern as benefits. There are two types of benefits we are looking for i.e., tangible and intangible benefits which are discussed below: Page 24 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  25. 25. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Tangible Benefits Time Drone save the time of farmers through monitoring the agriculture land or crops. If farmers want to revisit the crops again and again they can do in easy way with the help of Drone. Cost Before surveying of agriculture land or crop was done from satellite that takes too much cost. By using Drone now farmers takes aerial images that is inexpensive, easy to use and allows for high temporal and spatial resolutions. Mobility This is unmanned aircraft vehicle means no man is required to drive it. This drone can easily fly in any sensing area without any limitation. Availability Farmer has their own Drone so they use Drone at any time without any restrictions. Accuracy Output that are produced by Drone will perfect or accurate. Farmer can rely on this output and they can take decisions on it which is very beneficial to farmers. Feedback Drone give result at instant when it take any image of anything relate to agriculture and it process within a second and gives result. Intangible Benefits Satisfaction Drone easily monitor the agriculture land at any time in any condition. Farmer gets the accurate information about crop and climate and now they have faith on the work of Drone. Reliable Farmer can rely on processed data that are given by Drone. They can take further step based on processed data. Security Before crop get infected by insects or if it required fertilization mean while Drone gives information about it to farmer so they fertilize their crop or spray the crops within time. In this way Drone provide security to Farmers. Page 25 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  26. 26. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Update Drone is fully updated by all type of information related to agriculture land, crops and soil. After taking the information through sensor it match with their updated information, if there is any problem or scarcity it gives message to Farmer. 6.4 How UC Application Fit into Scenario Ubiquitous Computing is an approach to human computer interaction. It is about distributing computation in the environment and integrated with human users. Ubiquitous Computing highlighting the approaches to deal with variability in conditions, situations and problems related with monitoring of agriculture. Researchers try to use of integration of different technology in form of Drone to get numerous benefits in monitoring Agriculture. Smart Agriculture Monitoring is now possible by Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle that is commonly known as Drone. It comprises all the latest technology and concepts of ubiquitous computing, context-aware computing, grid computing with Sensor network and RFID to make agriculture monitoring smart. Drone becomes a very smart technology by the help of UC concepts. It monitors the agriculture land in smarter way in all the conditions rather there is night or day. It detects the diseases of crop and store the gathering information in storage device at instant. It also gets the temperature value whether it is good for crop or not. This is all done by the help of UC concepts and technology. If researchers research more than one day people get more improvement in this field. Researcher integrates Sensor in Drone to know the weather, soil, land and water conditions. Through Sensors works like analysis of anything becomes so easy and it proposed several solutions. Photogrammetric techniques were required to register the frame-based imagery to map coordinates. Cameras were geometrically characterized with their intrinsic parameters. Appropriate blandest configurations selected for the multispectral camera. The data gather from UAV with these techniques are very useful and accurate. The high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution provided at high turnaround times, make this platform particularly suitable for a number of applications, including precision farming or irrigation scheduling, where time-critical management is required. In this way Ubiquitous Computing fit into this scenario. UC applications and concepts made work so easy in smart way. It also interact with people in easily way and available all the Page 26 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  27. 27. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring time and all places according to their wish. These are the real facts that put Ubiquitous Computing into our scenario. SI No: Problem 1. Manual detection of crop pets and Drone has Machine Vision System that Solution using UC diseases allows for more accurate pest detection as it apply LOOS algorithm to discriminate and identify different types of insects. 2. Spraying of Crops Drone spray the crops very accurately and timely, due to mapping of land Drone move line by line in agriculture land that do left any crop without spraying. 3. Harvesting of Crops Sensor automatically detects the crop that it is ready for harvesting or not. Manual harvesting was very time consuming but Drone harvest crops within hour. 4. Manual Monitoring of Drone is available to farmer all the time so Agriculture land during night or they can monitor their land any time in day in Storm time or night. They can also take the view of crops during storm time. 5. Farmer does not get information about proper crop climates on time. Drone helps a lot in getting the and information from internet about crops that when farmer fertilize or spray the cops and what is the perfect time of harvesting. They also get the information about storm or about heavy raining on time. 6. Communication farmer department’s analyser. and gap between Drone completes the communication gap agriculture between forecaster farmer or department’s communicates and forecaster. the agriculture It information directly from forecaster to farmers. 7. No way of Storing previous data Now Drone can save the information in about crops their database. If Farmers want to see or analyse the data in future they can easily Page 27 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  28. 28. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring see. 8. Manually monitoring of crops and Drone can monitor big farm area within land was very time consuming. 9. hour and without facing any problems. Security related to damaging of When any cattle move in field then Drone crops by cattle’s recognize it and give information to farmer at instant. Table 6.3.1 – Problem of existing system and their problem in proposed system Page 28 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  29. 29. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.5 Design& Implementation 6.5.3 Class Diagram Page 29 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  30. 30. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.5.4 Sequence Diagram Diagram 6.5.4.1: Landing Diagram 6.5.4.2: Take off Page 30 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  31. 31. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Diagram 6.5.4.3 Page 31 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  32. 32. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.5.5 Functionalities Sl. Functionality Description Power (Connect and Disconnect) Disconnect: - If Drone is not in use then No. 1. farmers Disconnect the power of Drone to save the power. Connect: - When farmer want to use Drone then they connect the Drone with power. 2. Take-off and Landing Take off: - This functionality helps Drone to move or fly in air or over the field. Landing: - By the help of this functionality Drone can stand at any place in field without running on runway. 3. Automatic Detection of Crop Diseases There is a LOSS V2 algorithm running on MVT System integrated on Drone which detects the pests or diseases in crops and save the processed information in storage device. 4. Spraying on Crops through Drone Drone have the mechanism of spray in their wings that spray on crops at any time in any condition depends on the wish of farmer. 5. Crops detection for harvesting It checks whether crops are ready for harvesting or not with the help of patter matching. Sending crop details to intelligence This functionality takes the processed server for further processing. 6. information from MVT System that integrated in Drone and sends the data to intelligence server. 7. Notification Mechanism It takes the any type of information from Drone and notifies the farmers at instant. If storm are coming to that area or any cattle move in field then it further inform the farmer through notification. If any new news about crops or weather being forecast by agriculture Page 32 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  33. 33. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring departments then Drone notify farmers currently. Farmer can track their Drone location A facility is provided so that farmer can locate through GPS 8. their Drone position that where it is flying on their field or not through GPS. AES algorithm for encryption or This algorithm is used for encryption or Description of Data 9. Description of processed Data. Researchers apply this algorithm so that during sending of data no one hack the data or it is not affected by any anti-virus. Farmer can view crop or weather Once field data is sent to intelligence server, details 10. then farmer can view entire details of crops and weather on their smart phones. 11. Mapping of Field Pattern Mapping of field is an important functionality of Drone. On the basis of mapping drone fly on field and detect or spray crops. If researchers do the perfect mapping then Drone do not miss any row of fields and do their work accurately. Interaction between Drone and Through this functionality Drone send all the Intelligence Server 12. raw data to Intelligence Server for further proceeding of Data. 13. Interaction between Intelligence Server Through this functionality Intelligence Server and Smart Phones send all the proceeding information to farmers according to their requirement. Table 6.4.3.1 Functionalities of proposed system 6.5.6 Pseudo code Edge Detection: Edge detection is a technique to locate the edges of objects in the scene. This can be useful for locating the horizon, the corner of an object, white line following, or for determine the shape of an object. The algorithm is quite simple: 1. Sort through the image matrix pixel by pixel 2. For each pixel, analyze each of the 8 pixels surrounding it Page 33 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  34. 34. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3. Record the value of the darkest pixel, and the lightest pixel 4. If (darkest_pixel_value - lightest_pixel_value) > threshold) then 5. rewrite that pixel as 1 6. Else 7. rewrite that pixel as 0 Pseudo code: 1 1. start 2. read pixel 3. while(pixel) 4. For each surrounding pixel to 8 5. Read surrounding pixel 6. If pixel==dark then 7. dark_ pixel_record = pixel_value 8. else 9. lightest_pixel_record=pixel_value 10. End if 11. If((darkest_pixel_value – lightest_pixel_record) > threshold) then 12. pixel=1 13. else 14. pixel=0 15. End If 16. Write pixel value for draw edges 17. end for 18. end while 19. stop Shape Detection and Pattern Recognition:Shape detection requires preprogramming in a mathematical representation database of the shapes you wish to detect. For example, suppose you are writing a program that can distinguish between a triangle, a square, and a circle. This is how you would do it: 1. run edge detection to find the border line of each shape 2. count the number of continuous edges Page 34 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  35. 35. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 3. a sharp change in line direction signifies a different line do this by determining the average vector between adjacent pixels 4. if three lines detected, then it’s a triangle 5. if four lines, then a square 6. if one line, then it’s a circle 7. By measure angles between lines you can determine more info (rhomboid, equilateral triangle, etc.) Pseudo Code: 2 1. Go to Pseudo Code 1 2. Read number of edges 3. For each pixel 4. Read Xold 5. Xnew = AB+BC/number of edges 6. Delta X=Xnew- Xold 7. If Delta X <> 0 Then 8. lines=lines+1 9. End If 10. End For 11. If lines==1 Then 12. Display ―it’s a circle‖ 13. Else If lines==3 Then 14. If a==b and b==c Then 15. Display ―it’s a equilateral triangle‖ 16. Else If a==b or b==c Then 17. Display ―it’s a isosceles triangle‖ 18. Else 19. Display ―it’s a simple triangle‖ 20. End If 21. Else If lines==4 Then 22. If (a==b==c==d) And (angle A==90 or angle B==90 or angle==90 or angle==90)Then 23. Display ―it’s a Square‖ 24. Else if (a==c) And (b==d) And (angle A==90 or angle B==90 or angle==90 or angle==90) Then Page 35 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  36. 36. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 25. Display ―it’s a rectangle‖ 26. Else 27. Display ―it’s a simple Quadrilateral‖ 28. End IF 29. Else 30. Display ―No valid shape‖ 31. End If Interaction with intelligent server and smart agent(mobile) Assumptions: i. Entire drone devices are ready to function. ii. Interaction of intelligent server and smart agents is taking place here Pseudo Code: 6 1. Start 2. Read connectivity 3. If connectivity==‖ok‖ Then 4. sense () 5. Send packet() 6. Process() 7. Receive packet() 8. Synchronization() 9. Else 10. Display ―check connection‖ 11. End If 12. Stop Interaction with drone and intelligent server. Assumptions: iii. Entire drone devices are ready to function. iv. Interaction of drone and intelligent server is taking place here Pseudo Code: 6 13. Start 14. Read connectivity 15. If connectivity==‖ok‖ Then Page 36 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  37. 37. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 16. sense () 17. Send packet() 18. Process() 19. Receive packet() 20. Synchronization() 21. Else 22. Display ―check connection‖ 23. End If 24. Stop Drone cloud mapping MapReduce X-means clustering algorithm 1:procedure MAP (id, Objecto) 2:d← ∞ 3:p← ∅ 4:for allc∈Centroidsdo.Compute nearest 5:ifdist(o,c)< dthen.centroid too 6:d←dist(o,c) 7:p←c 8:end if 9: end for 10:EMIT(p, o).Assignoto its nearest centroid 11:end procedure 12:procedureREDUCE(c,list[o1,o2,...]) 13:c←Re-compute cluster centroid onlist[o1,o2,...] 14:ifsize[list[o1,o2,...]]> MINSIZEthen 15:(c1,c2)←Run 2-means onlist[o1,o2,...] 16:BIC1←BIC score of clustering{cp} 17:BIC2←BIC score of clustering{c1,c2} 18:ifBIC2> BIC1then 19:EMIT({c1,c2}).Child clusters outlive 20:else 21:EMIT({cp}).Parent cluster outlives Page 37 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  38. 38. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 22:end if 23:else.Parent cluster is too small for splitting 24:EMIT({cp}) 25:end if 26:end procedure 6.6 Research paper Findings No. Research Paper 2009, ―Smart Agriculture‖ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2009, ―Remote Sensing Of Vegetation From Uav Platforms Using Light Weight Multispectral And Thermal Imaging Sensors‖ September, 2002, ―Coffee Field Ripeness Detection Using High Resolution Imaging Systems On a Solar-Powered UAV‖ Findings This research paper is the base of this research as student researcher gets the overall idea about agriculture. What is the theme of Indian Agriculture, where they lack behind from other country in agriculture department, what they need to improve the agriculture? Researcher get the idea about Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) means Drone like What is Drone, what is functionality of Drone how it works. What is the main reason behind Drone that it is not implemented in India? Researcher gets the idea about Remote Sensing and image processing algorithm. Through remote sensing researcher get the knowledge to operate the Drone through sensing. Also get the idea about how the image processing algorithm work, how researcher get information from sensing data. This research paper has good idea about mapping of field. What is the method or concept behind mapping? Benefits of doing mapping of fields for Drone. 2008, "UAV for mapping— low altitude photogrammetric survey."International Archives of Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing‖ 2011, "Scale invariant feature This is the algorithm paper of intelligence for image approach for insect pre-processing method. All the technique to find the monitoring." information from raw data gather by agent is described in well manner step by step. December,2010 From this research paper student researcher get the “Understanding Technical idea about GPS technology to know the location of Terms and Acronyms Used in any object and to identify the object. How to Precision Agriculture” transmit the message from one place to another place. 2004, "Visual categorization How to extract the information from raw data that is with bags of key points” captured by Sensor is mentioned clearly in this paper. 2008, ―Modified sift This paper discussed about SIFT algorithm, it is a descriptor for image matching type of image processing algorithm. It is used to under interference‖ remove the noise from crop and match the features Page 38 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  39. 39. CE00313 9. 10. 11. 12. Smart Agriculture Monitoring 2010 "Drawing on the benefits of RFID and Bluetooth technologies." September 2006, ―An Advanced MutualAuthentication Algorithm Using AES for RFID Systems‖ 2013, ―Robots to drones, Australia eyes high-tech farm help to grow food‖ 2012 "Dawn of drone ecology: low-cost autonomous aerial vehicles for conservation." of data with existing data. Researchers study about security related to Sensor. How to provide security to multiple sensors through RFID tags? This paper provides the information about RFID technology that it provides the necessary benefits while avoiding any threats to the privacy of its users. The three main areas of security violations in RFID systems are forgery of the tags, unwanted tracking of the tags, and unauthorized access to a tag’s memory. Researcher gets the overall concept about security in Drone. How the securities work in Drone and how researcher implements security in Drone? Researchers get the idea to develop a Drone in minimum cost. They try to develop a conservation Drone at minimum cost by using the efficient technology that is used by farmer. Table 6.5.1: Research findings Page 39 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  40. 40. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.7 Recommended Prototype Fig 6.6.1 Prototype of proposed system GPS: it is a device that receives Global Positioning System (GPS) signals to determine the device's location on Earth. Camera:Cameras record images/videos. Barometer: this device measure atmospheric pressure. Wi-fie: that allows an electronic device to exchange data or connect to the internet wirelessly using radio waves. Thermometer: this device is to measure temperature of the atmosphere. Page 40 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  41. 41. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.8 Relation between Ubiquitous Agents Besides technological challenges, there rising interest on how pervasive computing can deeply act the way in which people interact and accomplish collaborative tasks. Context awareness plays a crucial role for communities, where the degree of participation of a single user dynamically changes in relation to the distance from the place where practices occur and in relation with the ability of gathering the right information at the time, in proper way. In other words, we aim at modelling, designing and realizing collaborative Ubiquitous Environment. Fig 6.7.1: 3-Tier Architecture The above figure 14.1 shows the working among the agents, how they are interacting with each other. Each agents Have knowledge about other agents and the environment. Each agent has their own set of goals and motivations. Agents consists of Drone, Intelligent server and Smartphone. And then drone consists of camera,barometer,GPS,modem (Wi-fie capabilities) and notification alert system. The Drone collects information about the fields then it sends to server that is our second tier and then on the server encryption, decryption i.e., intelligent server is doing this work and then the data will be send on user smartphone. Page 41 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  42. 42. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring 6.9 Execution or Simulation Fig 6.8.1: Execution of Smart agriculture monitoring 6.10 Importance of Security and Ethics Security performs an important in ubiquitous computing because everything is directly or indirectly dependent on it. Security commerce has to involve all parts of a system, from physical spaces, devices, and communication capabilities, to legal aspects, usability and social acceptance. A security study requires a detailed analysis for all the security requirements. These requirements focus on non-disclaimer, service availability, integrity, confidentiality, privacy, and reliability for the identified users and actions involved in smart monitoring. In smart agriculture monitoring security is of the major concern because the data is manipulated, retrieved through smart grid, cloud. Objective is to make secure that no one can access another drone data.For this purpose RFID and high level encryption algorithm are used to ensure security and reduce the risk of being spoofed.Nowadays security is the top most priority for everybody. Page 42 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  43. 43. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring During the process of data transfer there is a chances of drip. Moreover, during the process of data transfer of data from drone to intelligent server to smartphone or receiver in between there is maximum chances of drip data. On the very same time users are not getting their data correctly and this will create problems. Therefore, the need for security in the proposed system that control over problems: There has long been concern over a farmer’s field record privacy and confidentiality connecting personal field information to the internet exposes this data to more hostile attacks compared to the paper-based field records. 1. Data Access Questions such as who owns the data? Who has the authority to delete, edit, and add to field data as well as enforce regulations surrounding it? Do individual farmer’s own data collected on themselves? Do their Does any data providing agriculture center? 2. Data Mining Data mining is the process of analysing data to identify patterns and or relationships. On field data, one may be able to categorize and field factors based on crop, climate, location, colour etc. This may lead to discriminatory and exclusionary effects. Solution for security 1. Encryption Encryption can be used to ensure the security of the data. Encryption can be accomplished in hardware as well as in software. In order to ensure the highest level of security, it is best if both forms of encryption are used. Different symmetric and asymmetric key algorithms can be used to provide encryption. 2. Authentication Authentication mechanisms can be used to ensure data is coming from the entity it is claiming to be from. There has been a number of authentication algorithms developed such as passwords, digital signatures, and challenge response authentication protocol. RFID, RSA Encryption Technique, AES encryption Technique are used to ensure security in this technology. Ethical issue Normally with the other devices the biggest ethical issue is safety versus cost. But in this technology it is not so because the services which it is providing is more than the cost of this Page 43 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  44. 44. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring device. We have rights to be knowledgeable but we don’t have rights to gather information and misuse it or hurt any one’s feelings. Ethics can be called as moral values which meant for people to decide what is wrong and what is right. But it can be acceptable by society. Since Ethical behaviour is not forced law so it depends whether one accepts and follows it or not. That is why it is hard to be enacted.It raises questions such as about safety, consent, dignity and retaliation. Provide a demo about the product to the users. Providing a user manual would be very significant. Give users full assurance that their personal data will not be misused. 6.11 Interaction with Ubiquitous Environment UAV now become important part in monitoring agriculture land due to its wide range of application. UAV have important functionalities like ground monitor, navigation, and image processing and visualization instrument, detect diseases of crop, get temperature value and control system for UAV through remote sensing. It provides high range of information timeliness to satisfy people. In order to meet the practical engineering application requirements, this software provides technical support with ground monitor and control system for UAV. UAV play an important role in giving strength to monitoring agriculture land. It detects the diseases before crop diseases spread all over the field and protects crops from pets through spraying. It is particularly important fact for the development of agriculture to strengthen the agricultural pests monitoring, prevention and cure. This is all done through image processing algorithm that implied on images or video taken through UAV Sensors. UAV work very carefully and result given by UAV is 100% accurate and on time. The traditional methods of remote sensing (RS) for agricultural pests monitoring cannot meet the needs of agricultural development, because of their long time-consuming, high cost, and low accuracy. However, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing, as a new means of remote sensing, is introduced in this paper for agricultural monitoring. UAV has advantages of strong real-time, quickness, convenience, low cost, high accuracy and abundant data. With the great flexibility of UAV remote sensing, it is not only easy to focus on regional and long-term agricultural pests monitoring, but also feasible to provide scientific basis for Agriculture monitoring control. Page 44 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  45. 45. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring It is discussed how to process UAV images rapidly and extract disease crop information, especially which improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm and objectoriented information extraction are used for image-processing. Fortunately, it has been received good results for the local crop control in terms of fact of treatment. With the advantages of UAV remote sensing, there is a broad application prospect in monitoring agriculture land. The article, published on July 22nd 2013, remarks the fact that, although this kind of applications may come as out of a science fiction book, Japan has been using unmanned helicopters in agriculture for the past 20 years. The government introduced them to face the aging farming population and now there are more than 2,500 Yamaha RMAX helicopters being used in about 2.5 millions of acres of rice fields. The drones used by UC-Davis can carry up to 4 gallons of liquid and flight for about 10 to 15 minutes covering an area between 4 and 12 acres per hour. According to FAA (Federal Aeronautical Administration) rules, if farmer are flying the aircraft on their property then they have to take permission. So for this mapping of land is very essential so that UAV do not fly in other land. If drone follow the mapping area then it will be beneficial for farmer in monitoring land or crop. Fig 6.10.1: Spraying Pesticides on crops The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a revolutionary mini agriculture plane that will change the way to manage crops, fields or any part of agricultural operation, by providing high resolution GPS based digital images for Page 45 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  46. 46. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring monitoring agriculture crop through Sensors. 6.12 References Journals and Research papers Aqueel-ur-Rehman and Zubair A.Shaikh, (2009), ―Smart Agriculture.” In Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in Karachi Pakistan Crane, T. A., C. Roncoli, J. Paz, N. Breuer, K. Broad, K.T. Ingram and G. Hoogenboom (2010). ―Forecast Skill and Farmers’ Skills: Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Agricultural Risk Management in the South-Eastern United States.”In Weather, Climate, And Society: 44-59. Eija Pehu, Pirkko Poutiainen, John Mackedon & Hild Rygnested (2012), ―Gender Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture.” In World Bank in Washington, D.C. J.A.J.Berni, P.J.Zarco-Tejada, L.Suarez, V.Gonzalez-Dugo and E.Fereres ―Remote Sensing Of Vegetation from Uav Platforms Using Lightweight Multispectral and Thermal Imaging Sensors.‖ In Dept. of Agronomy, University of Cordoba, Campus Univ. Rabanales, Cordoba, Spain. Kalpana Sharma, M.k.Ghose,Kuldeep (2009), “complete security Framework for wireless Sensor networks,”In International Journal of computer science and information security in Sikkim Manipal institute of technology,Majitar,Sikkim,India. Pudelko R, Stuczynski T, Borzecka-Walker M. (2012), ―The suitability of an unmanned aerial Vehicle (UAV) for the evolution of experimental fields and crops.” Page no: 431-436 Rondeaux, G.; Steven, M.; Baret, F. (1996),―Optimization of soil-adjusted vegetation indices. Remote Sensing of Environment,” 55(2), 95−107. Verhoef, W. (1984),―Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance Modelling: the sail model. Remote Sensing of Environment”, 125-141. Xiang H T, Tian L. (2006), ―Development of autonomous unmanned helicopter based Agriculture remote sensing system.” In ASABE paper No. 063097 St. Joseph, Mich., USA. Xiang H T, Tian L. (2007), ―An autonomous helicopter system for aerial image collection.” In ASABE paper No: 071136, St. Joseph, Mich., USA Page 46 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013
  47. 47. CE00313 Smart Agriculture Monitoring Yanho Huang,Steven J.Thomson,W.Clint Hoffmann,Yubin,Bradley K.Fritz, (September, 2013) ―Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicle technologies for agriculture production management.‖ Vol.3 No.3 Books Hansmann, U., Purakayastha , A., Mettala, R., Thompson , P., SyncML – Synchronizing and Managing Your Mobile Data, Springer , 2002 Hause, K., et. Al., Review and Forecast of the worldwide Information. Miller, V.S., Use of Elliptic curves in cryptography, Advances in Cryptography- Crypto’ 85 Proceedings, Springer – Verlag, 1986, pp. 417-426. Page 47 of 47Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2013

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