Prince jai nproject report


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heat sensor using ic 555 timer

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Prince jai nproject report

  1. 1. 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON HEAT SENSOR USING IC 555 TIMER SUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTED BY- DR. NEELAM R. PRAKASH PRINCE JAIN ME(ELECTRONICS) I SEM ROLL NO- 13207013 Department of Electronics & Electrical Communications Engineering PEC University of Technology A Deemed University under Section 3 of UGC Act (formerly Punjab Engineering College Chandigarh)
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Apart from the efforts of me, the success of any project depends on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Dr. NEELAM R. PRAKASH. I can’t say thank you enough for her motivation and encouragement every time I attend her class. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this project, was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.
  3. 3. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………..….....4 Literature Survey..........................................................4 Circuit Diagram……………………………………….5 Circuit diagram description………………………….5 Components Used……………………………………..7 Component Description................................................8 1. IC 555 TIMER…………………………………….8 2. VR-1Megaohm……................................................13 3. BC547…………………………………..................14 4. IN34………………………………………….........15 5. LED.........................................................................15 6. Piezo buzzer…………………………………...….16 7. Uses and Application..…………………..17 References…………………………………………….18
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION In today’s era everyone wants that everything should be automatic means men power should not be much. From alarm clock in morning to reminder in mobile, self-start bike, key less cars, automatic fuel ignition off at traffic light, home security without watchman and many more. On the same track we are introducing one more device to maintain the temperature. In AC buses, metro trains, conference rooms, class rooms and other places where density of people may vary with time, this device has a great advantage. This is the circuit of a simple fire alarm that uses an ordinary signal diode as heat sensor. As soon as the temperature near the diode rises above the preset value, alarm will be generated to indicate high temperature. Alarm will automatically turns off after some minutes(depends on the timing components). LITERATURE REVIEW Project idea is taken from the fire alarm. As a mini project this project is very attractive and very economical .We use the VR(variable resistor), IC-555 timer, transistor BC547, diode IN34 and piezo buzzer to design a economical circuit on a general purpose PCB.
  5. 5. 5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION Signal diodes are generally used in radio circuits to detect signals. But these are capable of sensing temperature. Its resistance is high at normal temperature, but decreases when temperature near the diode increases. Timer IC 555 can be designed as a Monostable timer. That is its output remains low when not triggered. When the trigger pin2 of timer gets a negative pulse its output becomes high for a period determined by the values of resistor connected to its pin7 and capacitor to pin6.The reset pin4 of IC should be high to trigger the IC. When the temperature is normal, diode is out of conduction so that the base of transistor T1 gets sufficient base current through VR and R1and it conducts. This keeps the reset pin4 of timer IC low. So that the timer will not work. When the temperature near the diode increases, resistance of diode decreases and it
  6. 6. 6 conducts. At this time, base current of T1 will be removed and T1 turns off. As a result, reset pin4 of timer becomes high through R2 and timer becomes active. Buzzer beeps for 2 minutes indicating high temperature. The trigger pin2 is connected to the negative to keep it always negative. So the high and low status of the reset pin controls the working of timer. Resistor R3 and capacitor C1 are timing components. With the given values, output will be high for 2 minutes.VR adjust the temperature level at which buzzer beeps.
  7. 7. 7 COMPONENTS USED S. NO. NAME OF COMPONENT QUANTITY OF COMPONENT 1. Resistors - a) 4.7kΩ, b) 100kΩ, c) 100Ω 1 2 1 2. Capacitors- a) 10uF 1 3. VR (Variable resistor)-1MΩ 1 4. IC 555 timer 1 5. Transistors a) BC547 1 6. LED 1 7. Piezo buzzer 1 8. 9V Battery 1
  8. 8. 8 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION 1. 555 TIMER IC The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package.
  9. 9. 9 Pin Name Purpose 1 GND Ground, low level (0 V) 2 TRIG OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. 3 OUT This output is driven to approximately 1.7V below +VCC or GND. 4 RESE T A timing interval may be reset by driving this input to GND, but the timing does not begin again until RESET rises above approximately 0.7 volts. Overrides TRIG which overrides THR. 5 CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC). 6 THR The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. 7 DIS Open collector output; may discharge a capacitor between intervals. In phase with output. 8 V+,VC C Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V.
  10. 10. 10 The 555 has three operating modes:  Monostable mode: In this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.  Astable: free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.  Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: The 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches. 555 Timer as Monostable Multivibrator A monostable multivibrator (MMV) often called a one-shot multivibrator, is a pulse generator circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the R-C network, connected externally to the 555 timer. In such a vibrator, one state of output is stable while the other is quasi-stable (unstable). For auto- triggering of output from quasi-stable state to stable state energy is stored by an externally connected capacitor C to a reference level. The time taken in storage determines the pulse width. The transition of output from stable state to quasi- stable state is accomplished by external triggering. The schematic of a 555 timer in monostable mode of operation is shown in figure.
  11. 11. 11 555-timer-monostable-multivibrator Monostable Multivibrator Circuit Pin 1 is grounded. Trigger input is applied to pin 2. In quiescent condition of output this input is kept at + VCC. To obtain transition of output from stable state to quasi-stable state, a negative-going pulse of narrow width (a width smaller than expected pulse width of output waveform) and amplitude of greater than + 2/3 VCC is applied to pin 2. Output is taken from pin 3. Pin 4 is usually connected to + VCC to avoid accidental reset. Pin 5 is grounded through a 0.01 u F capacitor to avoid noise problem. Pin 6 (threshold) is shorted to pin 7. A resistor RA is connected between pins 6 and 8. At pins 7 a discharge capacitor is connected while pin 8 is connected to supply VCC.
  12. 12. 12 555 IC Monostable Multivibrator Operation. 555 monostable-multivibrator-operation For the operation of timer 555 as a monostable multivibrator, necessary internal circuitry with external connections are shown in figure. The operation of the circuit is explained below: Initially, when the output at pin 3 is low i.e. the circuit is in a stable state, the transistor is on and capacitor- C is shorted to ground. When a negative pulse is applied to pin 2, the trigger input falls below +1/3 VCC, the output of comparator goes high which resets the flip-flop and consequently the transistor turns off and the output at pin 3 goes high. This is the transition of the output from stable to quasi-stable state, as shown in figure. As the discharge transistor is cutoff, the capacitor C begins charging toward +VCC through resistance RA with a time constant equal to RAC. When the increasing capacitor voltage becomes slightly greater than +2/3 VCC, the output of comparator 1 goes high, which sets the flip-flop. The transistor goes to saturation, thereby discharging the capacitor C and the output of the timer goes low, as illustrated in figure. Thus the output returns back to stable state from quasi-stable state.
  13. 13. 13 The output of the Monostable Multivibrator remains low until a trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. Trigger input, output voltage and capacitor voltage waveforms are shown in figure. 2. VR-1Megaohm These are resistors whose resistance can be altered and they have three connections. There are two connections at either end of the resistance material, which is commonly known as the track. The third connection is made to a conducting slider, commonly known as the wiper, which is in contact with the track and can be slid along it from one end to the other. The current or voltage available at the wiper is then related to the position that it has along the track. Variable Resistors can be used in a circuit to alter resistance and in this situation only two connections are used One end and the wiper. It is good practice to connect the free end to the wiper so in the event that the wiper fails to connect, the variable resistor will go to maximum resistance protecting the circuit.
  14. 14. 14 3.BC547 BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals. BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current gain of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549. The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter. BC547 is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.
  15. 15. 15 4. IN34 Sensor-: Semiconductor junction Temperature Range (typical)-: -70 to 150˚C Accuracy (typical)-: 0.5 to 5.0˚C Long-term Stability @ 100˚C-: >1˚C/year Output -: Digital, various outputs Linearity-: Linear Response Time -: Slow 5 to 50 seconds Cost -: Moderate Advantages-: Ease of Use, Board Mounting, Rugged, Overall Cost. Disadvantages-: Accuracy, Limited, Applications, Stability, Response time. 5. LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting.When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form
  16. 16. 16 of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2 ), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players and other domestic appliances. LEDs are also used in seven-segment display. 6. PIEZO BUZZER The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of the piezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlying principle. These buzzers can be used alert a user of an event corresponding to a switching action, counter signal or sensor input. They are also used in alarm circuits. The buzzer produces a same noisy sound irrespective of the voltage variation applied to it. It consists of piezo crystals between two conductors. When a potential is applied across these crystals, they push on one conductor and pull on the other. This, push and pull action, results in a sound wave. Most buzzers produce sound in the range of 2 to 4 kHz. The Red lead is connected to the Input and the Black lead is connected to Ground.
  17. 17. 17 USES AND APPLICATION: A Heat sensor, for use on • Global Wave. • Satellite communications products. • Infrared beam technology,Used extensively in household remotes appliances
  18. 18. 18 REFERENCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. istors1.html 8. 9. 10.