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  1. 1. 1st Project Zohaib Waheed MBA-SP09-156
  2. 2. SRILANKA
  3. 3. SRILANKA • conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka • conventional short form: Sri Lanka • local long form: Shri Lamka Prajatantrika Samajaya di Janarajaya/Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu • local short form: Shri Lamka/Ilankai • former: Serendib, Ceylon
  4. 4. SRILANKA • Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India • Capital: Colombo • Area: 65,610 sq km • World: 128 • land: 64,630 sq km • Water: 980 sq km
  5. 5. SRILANKA • Govt. Type: republic • Language: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8% • Population: 21,324,791 (world no. 54) • Currency: Rupee (LKR) • Literacy: 97.3% • Male Literacy: 95.8% • Female Literacy: 93.0%
  6. 6. Explain 3 historical events that shape  present day of country and why? Question no. 1
  7. 7. MAJOR EVENTS 1- At independence in 1948, Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon, was a Commonwealth realm, with the monarch represented by the Governor General. The Parliament was bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. In 1971, the Senate was abolished, and the following year, Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka, and became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with the last Governor General becoming the first President of Sri Lanka. Under the first republican Constitution, the unicameral legislature was known as the National State Assembly.
  8. 8. MAJOR EVENTS 2- Most powerful earthquake in 40 years erupted under the Indian Ocean near Sumatra on Dec. 26, 2004. It caused giant, deadly waves to crash ashore in nearly a dozen countries, killing tens of thousands. A long stretch of Sri Lanka's coast was devastated by these killer waves, with more than 40,000 dead and staggering 2.5 million people displaced. Although 1,600km from the epicentre, the waves struck with huge force and swept inland as far as 5 kilometers. Waves as high as six meters had crashed into coastal villages, sweeping away people, cars and even a train with 1700 passengers. It was the worst human disaster in Sri Lanka history.
  9. 9. MAJOR EVENTS 3- The Sri Lankan government formally declared an end to the 25- year civil war after the army took control of the entire island and killed the leader of the Tamil Tigers. Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa delivered a victory address to parliament, declaring that his country had been "liberated" from terrorism.
  10. 10. HISTORY Question no. 2
  11. 11. SOCIAL HISTORY • The earliest archaeological evidence of human colonization in Sri Lanka appears at the site of Balangoda. These Balangoda people arrived on the island about 34,000 years ago and are identified as Mesolithic hunter gatherers who lived in caves. • After 500 B.C many kingdoms were formed like kingdom of Ruhana, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Gampola, Kotte, Sitawaka, Kandy. • Then starts the Portuguese era when they conquest of Jaffna Kingdom. Afterwards Dutch and British ruled over.
  12. 12. SOCIAL HISTORY • After 1920s independence movement begun involving almost all the parties. • After British return it became independent on 4th February 1948. • In July 1983 communal riots took place due to the ambush and killing of 13 Sri Lankan Army soldiers by the Tamil Tigers. Using the voters list which contained the exact addresses of Tamils, the Tamil community faced a backlash from Sinhalese rioters including the destruction of shops, homes and savage beatings. However, quite a few Sinhalese kept Tamil neighbors in their homes to protect them from the rioters.
  13. 13. SOCIAL HISTORY • During these riots the government did nothing to control the mob. Conservative government estimates put the death toll at 400, while the real death toll is believed to be around 3000. Also around 18,000 Tamil homes and 5,000 homes were destroyed, with 150,000 leaving the country resulting in a Tamil Diaspora in Canada, UK, Australia and other western countries. • The Sri Lankan government declared total victory on Monday, 18 May 2009. On 19 May 2009, the Sri Lankan military effectively concluded its 26 year operation against the LTTE. • Later the LTTE admitted their leader Prabhakaran's death and accepted defeat.
  14. 14. POLITICAL HISTORY • February 4th 1948: Ceylon gains freedom • 1951: Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) was created by S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike • 1952: The Second Election. United National Party (UNP) wins • 1953: The Third Election. UNP win again. Sir John Kotelawala elected as Prime Minister. • 1956: Fourth Election. SLFP wins. S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike becomes the prime minister • 1959: Prime Minister S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike is assassinated on the 25th of September • 1960: Fifth Election. The Fourth Parliament of Sri Lanka lasts for only thirty days as the newly elected Prime Minister, Dudley Senanayake is defeated by a motion of no-confidence.
  15. 15. POLITICAL HISTORY • 1960: Sixth Election. Sirimavo Bandaranaike of the SLFP becomes the prime minister and the world's first woman prime minister. SLFP formes a coalition government with small parties. • 1965: UNP wins in the Election and Dudley Senanayake becomes the prime minister. • 1970: SLFP-led coalition wins at the election and Sirimavo Bandaranaike is the Prime Minister. • 1972: The new Republican Constitution is introduced. Lanka is re- named ‘Sri Lanka’ • 1977: UNP wins the election and J.R. Jayawardene is the prime minister. • 1978: A new constitution introduced creating the powerful Executive Presidency. R Premadasa becomes the Prime Minister of President J R Jayawardene’s Cabinet
  16. 16. POLITICAL HISTORY • 1982: Repeated victory for J R Jayawardene at the Presidential election • 1982: The UNP majority Parliament is extended until 1989 at the referendum • 1989: Presidential election. R Premadasa of the UNP is the new President • 1989: Parliament election: UNP wins the majority seats. D.B.Wijetunge becomes the new Prime Minister • 1993: President R Premadasa falls victim to a suicide bomber marking another death in a line of political assassinations. D B Wijetunge assumes office as the new President and Ranil Wickramasinghe is his Prime Minister. • 1994: Presidential election: Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of the SLFP led coalition People's Alliance (PA) gains victory • 1994: Parliament election: Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the Prime Minister as PA gets the majority seats. • 1998: Ratnasiri Wickramanayake becomes the Prime Minister • 2000: Presidential election: Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of the SLFP led coalition People's Alliance (PA) win the election • 2001: Parliament election: UNP-led coalition United National Front (UNF) win majority seats
  17. 17. CURRENCY Question no. 3
  18. 18. CURRENCY • The British pound became Ceylon's official money of account in 1825, replacing the Ceylonese rixdollar. • The Indian rupee was made Ceylon's standard coin 26 September 1836 • The legal currency remained British silver and accounts were kept in pounds, shillings and pence. However, payments were made in rupees and annas at the "fictitious par" (fixed accounting rate) of 2 shillings per rupee (i.e., 1 pound = 10 rupees). • The Bank of Ceylon was the first private bank to issue banknotes on the island (1844) and Treasury notes were withdrawn in 1856. • the rupee of 100 cents became Ceylon's money of account and sole legal tender effective 1 January 1872,
  19. 19. FOREIGN RELATIONS Question no.4
  20. 20. FOREIGN RELATIONS Sri Lanka The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka has one of the fastest economic growth rates in South Asia (7.2 percent GDP increase in 2007, the second fastest growing economy in South Asia after India). With South Asia's one of the modern armed forces (After India & Pakistan) and with South Asia’s second fastest growing economy by market exchange rates, Sri Lanka considered to be a strong nation in South Asia. It is Sri Lanka’s fastest growing friendly relations with China, Pakistan and India (Asia’s declared nuclear powers) gives it a more prominent voice in South Asian affairs. Sri Lanka maintains good relationships with both Russia and United States at the same time; showing how important Sri Lanka is to the welfare of South Asia and Indian Ocean.
  21. 21. FOREIGN RELATIONS • Sri Lanka receiving largest foreign aid from China( $1 Billion in 2007) and Japan( $800 Million in 2007). Sri Lanka also receiving foreign aid from Arab states of the Persian Gulf (GCC). BANGLADESH: • Sri Lanka has strong relations with Bangladesh and does cooperate in different economic sectors. BHUTAN, HUNGARY: • Sri Lanka also has great friendly relations with Bhutan and Hungary. CHINA: • China helped Lanka in various affairs and specially provides greater part of aid.
  22. 22. FOREIGN RELATIONS INDIA: • India is the most important foreign player in Sri Lanka because India is the only neighbor of Sri Lanka. The relation between India and Sri Lanka are generally friendly, but were controversially affected by the on-going Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of Indian intervention during the Sri Lankan civil war. ISRAEL, JAPAN, MALDIVES, KOSOVO & US: • Sri Lanka has high attachment with these countries in its different foreign affairs and most importantly for aid.
  23. 23. FOREIGN RELATIONS PAKISTAN: • Sri Lanka's ties with Pakistan is warming gradually. Pakistan has been recently supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan armed forces. In the past, Pakistan has been a major ally of Sri Lanka in supplying High-Tech military equipment to the Sri Lankan army in the civil war against the Tamil rebels prevailing in the country. • There is a Pakistani embassy located in Sri Lanka and a Sri Lankan embassy situated in Pakistan. Part of their friendship can be attributed to their rivalry with neighbouring India. • They are also working on a mutual cooperation agreement on combating terrorism.
  24. 24. EXPORTS Question no.5
  25. 25. MAJOR EXPORTS Srilanka has exports revenue of $8.1 billions and at no. 90 in all over the world. Major Srilankan exports are textiles and apparel, tea and spices, diamonds, emeralds, rubies, coconut products, rubber manufactures, fish.(2008) These earn a lot for the country.
  26. 26. MAJOR EXPORTS Followings are the major importers of Srilankan products.(2008) S.NO. COUNTRY PERCENTAGE 1 US 21.7 2 UK 11.9 3 INDIA 6.8 4 GERMANY 5.1 5 BELGIUM 4.8 6 ITALY 4.7
  27. 27. POLITICS Question no.6
  28. 28. POLITICS • Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi- party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. • The Politics of Sri Lanka reflect the historical and political differences between the two main ethnic groups, the majority Sinhala and the minority Tamils, who are concentrated in the north and east of the island.
  29. 29. POLITICAL PARTY IN POWER • UPFA (United Peoples National Front) led by President Mahinda Rajapaksa, was formed by major political party SLFP (Sri Lankan Freedom Party) and other small parties in the country. This alliance includes SLFP, JVP, SLMP, MNUA, MEP, CPS, DVJP and LSSP. • At the last legislative elections, 2 April 2004, the alliance won 45.6% of the popular vote and 105 out of 225 seats. • In April 2005 a key coalition party, JVP, left the alliance, causing the government headed by President Chandrika Kumaratunga to become a minority government in the Sri Lankan parliament. • In the Sri Lankan presidential election, 2005, its candidate, Mahinda Rajapakse, came first with 50.29% of the vote.
  30. 30. ELECTIONS RESULTS presidential election results Candidate Party Votes % Mahinda Rajapakse UPFA 4,887,152 50.29 Ranil United National Party 4,706,366 48.43 Wickeremesinghe (UNP) Siritunga Jayasuriya United Socialist Party 35,425 0.36 (USP) Ashoka Suraweera Jathika Sangwardhena 31,238 0.32 Peramuna
  31. 31. SWOT ANALYSIS Question no. 7
  32. 32. STRENGTHS Reputation of being a quality apparel manufacturer for the mass market. Compliance with International Labor regulations. Relatively disciplined and skilled labor and a trainable work force. Reputed International customer base. On-time delivery of “all-season” products.
  33. 33. WEAKNESSES Isolation from trade partners and heavy dependence on local buying agencies. Lack of geographical diversifications in terms of its overseas markets. In-sufficient international and bi-lateral trade agreements to support the industry. Increasing cost of labor compared with other countries in south Asian region. Non-existence of Srilankan brand identity. Relatively high cost of utilities. Low productivity of labor, inefficient use of machinery and manufacturing processes.
  34. 34. OPPORTUNITIES Srilanka to become a total service provider for the global appar