• conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri
• conventional short form: Sri Lanka
• local long form: Shri Lamka Prajatantrika Samajaya di
Janarajaya/Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu
• local short form: Shri Lamka/Ilankai
• former: Serendib, Ceylon
• Location: Southern Asia, island in
the Indian Ocean, south of India
• Capital: Colombo
• Area: 65,610 sq km
• World: 128
• land: 64,630 sq km
• Water: 980 sq km
• Govt. Type: republic
• Language: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%, other 8%
• Population: 21,324,791 (world no. 54)
• Currency: Rupee (LKR)
• Literacy: 97.3%
• Male Literacy: 95.8%
• Female Literacy: 93.0%
Explain 3 historical events that shape
present day of country and why?
Question no. 1
1- At independence in 1948, Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon, was a
Commonwealth realm, with the monarch represented by the
Governor General. The Parliament was bicameral, consisting of a
Senate and a House of Representatives. In 1971, the Senate was
abolished, and the following year, Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka,
and became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with
the last Governor General becoming the first President of Sri Lanka.
Under the first republican Constitution, the unicameral legislature
was known as the National State Assembly.
2- Most powerful earthquake in 40 years erupted under the
Indian Ocean near Sumatra on Dec. 26, 2004. It caused giant,
deadly waves to crash ashore in nearly a dozen countries, killing
tens of thousands. A long stretch of Sri Lanka's coast was devastated
by these killer waves, with more than 40,000 dead and staggering
2.5 million people displaced. Although 1,600km from the epicentre,
the waves struck with huge force and swept inland as far as 5
kilometers. Waves as high as six meters had crashed into coastal
villages, sweeping away people, cars and even a train with 1700
passengers. It was the worst human disaster in Sri Lanka history.
3- The Sri Lankan government formally declared an end to the 25-
year civil war after the army took control of the entire island and
killed the leader of the Tamil Tigers.
Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa delivered a victory
address to parliament, declaring that his country had been
"liberated" from terrorism.
• The earliest archaeological evidence of human colonization in
Sri Lanka appears at the site of Balangoda. These Balangoda people
arrived on the island about 34,000 years ago and are identified as
Mesolithic hunter gatherers who lived in caves.
• After 500 B.C many kingdoms were formed like kingdom of
Ruhana, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Gampola,
Kotte, Sitawaka, Kandy.
• Then starts the Portuguese era when they conquest of Jaffna
Kingdom. Afterwards Dutch and British ruled over.
• After 1920s independence movement begun involving almost
all the parties.
• After British return it became independent on 4th February
• In July 1983 communal riots took place due to the ambush and
killing of 13 Sri Lankan Army soldiers by the Tamil Tigers. Using the
voters list which contained the exact addresses of Tamils, the Tamil
community faced a backlash from Sinhalese rioters including the
destruction of shops, homes and savage beatings. However, quite a
few Sinhalese kept Tamil neighbors in their homes to protect them
from the rioters.
• During these riots the government did nothing to control the
mob. Conservative government estimates put the death toll at 400,
while the real death toll is believed to be around 3000. Also around
18,000 Tamil homes and 5,000 homes were destroyed, with
150,000 leaving the country resulting in a Tamil Diaspora in
Canada, UK, Australia and other western countries.
• The Sri Lankan government declared total victory on Monday,
18 May 2009. On 19 May 2009, the Sri Lankan military effectively
concluded its 26 year operation against the LTTE.
• Later the LTTE admitted their leader Prabhakaran's death and
• February 4th 1948: Ceylon gains freedom
• 1951: Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) was created by S.W.R.D.
• 1952: The Second Election. United National Party (UNP) wins
• 1953: The Third Election. UNP win again. Sir John Kotelawala
elected as Prime Minister.
• 1956: Fourth Election. SLFP wins. S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike becomes
the prime minister
• 1959: Prime Minister S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike is assassinated on the
25th of September
• 1960: Fifth Election. The Fourth Parliament of Sri Lanka lasts for
only thirty days as the newly elected Prime Minister, Dudley
Senanayake is defeated by a motion of no-confidence.
• 1960: Sixth Election. Sirimavo Bandaranaike of the SLFP becomes
the prime minister and the world's first woman prime minister.
SLFP formes a coalition government with small parties.
• 1965: UNP wins in the Election and Dudley Senanayake becomes
the prime minister.
• 1970: SLFP-led coalition wins at the election and Sirimavo
Bandaranaike is the Prime Minister.
• 1972: The new Republican Constitution is introduced. Lanka is re-
named ‘Sri Lanka’
• 1977: UNP wins the election and J.R. Jayawardene is the prime
• 1978: A new constitution introduced creating the powerful
Executive Presidency. R Premadasa becomes the Prime Minister of
President J R Jayawardene’s Cabinet
• 1982: Repeated victory for J R Jayawardene at the Presidential election
• 1982: The UNP majority Parliament is extended until 1989 at the referendum
• 1989: Presidential election. R Premadasa of the UNP is the new President
• 1989: Parliament election: UNP wins the majority seats. D.B.Wijetunge becomes
the new Prime Minister
• 1993: President R Premadasa falls victim to a suicide bomber marking another
death in a line of political assassinations. D B Wijetunge assumes office as the
new President and Ranil Wickramasinghe is his Prime Minister.
• 1994: Presidential election: Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of the SLFP
led coalition People's Alliance (PA) gains victory
• 1994: Parliament election: Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the Prime Minister
as PA gets the majority seats.
• 1998: Ratnasiri Wickramanayake becomes the Prime Minister
• 2000: Presidential election: Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of the SLFP
led coalition People's Alliance (PA) win the election
• 2001: Parliament election: UNP-led coalition United National Front (UNF) win
• The British pound became Ceylon's official money of account in
1825, replacing the Ceylonese rixdollar.
• The Indian rupee was made Ceylon's standard coin 26 September
• The legal currency remained British silver and accounts were kept in
pounds, shillings and pence. However, payments were made in
rupees and annas at the "fictitious par" (fixed accounting rate) of 2
shillings per rupee (i.e., 1 pound = 10 rupees).
• The Bank of Ceylon was the first private bank to issue banknotes on
the island (1844) and Treasury notes were withdrawn in 1856.
• the rupee of 100 cents became Ceylon's money of account and sole
legal tender effective 1 January 1872,
Sri Lanka The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka has
one of the fastest economic growth rates in South Asia (7.2 percent
GDP increase in 2007, the second fastest growing economy in South
Asia after India). With South Asia's one of the modern armed forces
(After India & Pakistan) and with South Asia’s second fastest
growing economy by market exchange rates, Sri Lanka considered
to be a strong nation in South Asia. It is Sri Lanka’s fastest growing
friendly relations with China, Pakistan and India (Asia’s declared
nuclear powers) gives it a more prominent voice in South Asian
affairs. Sri Lanka maintains good relationships with both Russia and
United States at the same time; showing how important Sri Lanka is
to the welfare of South Asia and Indian Ocean.
• Sri Lanka receiving largest foreign aid from China( $1 Billion in
2007) and Japan( $800 Million in 2007). Sri Lanka also receiving
foreign aid from Arab states of the Persian Gulf (GCC).
• Sri Lanka has strong relations with Bangladesh and does cooperate
in different economic sectors.
• Sri Lanka also has great friendly relations with Bhutan and
• China helped Lanka in various affairs and specially provides greater
part of aid.
• India is the most important foreign player in Sri Lanka because
India is the only neighbor of Sri Lanka. The relation between India
and Sri Lanka are generally friendly, but were controversially
affected by the on-going Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of
Indian intervention during the Sri Lankan civil war.
ISRAEL, JAPAN, MALDIVES, KOSOVO & US:
• Sri Lanka has high attachment with these countries in its different
foreign affairs and most importantly for aid.
• Sri Lanka's ties with Pakistan is warming gradually. Pakistan has
been recently supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan armed
forces. In the past, Pakistan has been a major ally of Sri Lanka in
supplying High-Tech military equipment to the Sri Lankan army in
the civil war against the Tamil rebels prevailing in the country.
• There is a Pakistani embassy located in Sri Lanka and a Sri Lankan
embassy situated in Pakistan. Part of their friendship can be
attributed to their rivalry with neighbouring India.
• They are also working on a mutual cooperation agreement on
Srilanka has exports revenue of $8.1 billions and at no. 90 in all
over the world. Major Srilankan exports are textiles and apparel, tea
and spices, diamonds, emeralds, rubies, coconut products, rubber
These earn a lot for the country.
Followings are the major importers of Srilankan products.(2008)
S.NO. COUNTRY PERCENTAGE
1 US 21.7
2 UK 11.9
3 INDIA 6.8
4 GERMANY 5.1
5 BELGIUM 4.8
6 ITALY 4.7
• Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential
representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri
Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-
party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.
• The Politics of Sri Lanka reflect the historical and political
differences between the two main ethnic groups, the majority
Sinhala and the minority Tamils, who are concentrated in the north
and east of the island.
POLITICAL PARTY IN POWER
• UPFA (United Peoples National Front) led by President Mahinda
Rajapaksa, was formed by major political party SLFP (Sri Lankan
Freedom Party) and other small parties in the country. This alliance
includes SLFP, JVP, SLMP, MNUA, MEP, CPS, DVJP and LSSP.
• At the last legislative elections, 2 April 2004, the alliance won 45.6%
of the popular vote and 105 out of 225 seats.
• In April 2005 a key coalition party, JVP, left the alliance, causing
the government headed by President Chandrika Kumaratunga to
become a minority government in the Sri Lankan parliament.
• In the Sri Lankan presidential election, 2005, its candidate,
Mahinda Rajapakse, came first with 50.29% of the vote.
Candidate Party Votes %
Mahinda Rajapakse UPFA 4,887,152 50.29
Ranil United National Party 4,706,366 48.43
Siritunga Jayasuriya United Socialist Party 35,425 0.36
Ashoka Suraweera Jathika Sangwardhena 31,238 0.32
Reputation of being a quality apparel manufacturer for the mass market.
Compliance with International Labor regulations.
Relatively disciplined and skilled labor and a trainable work force.
Reputed International customer base.
On-time delivery of “all-season” products.
Isolation from trade partners and heavy dependence on local buying
Lack of geographical diversifications in terms of its overseas markets.
In-sufficient international and bi-lateral trade agreements to support
Increasing cost of labor compared with other countries in south Asian
Non-existence of Srilankan brand identity.
Relatively high cost of utilities.
Low productivity of labor, inefficient use of machinery and
Srilanka to become a total service provider for the global appar