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Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
Fluid therapy in paediatrics
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Fluid therapy in paediatrics

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  • 1. Fluid therapy in Paediatrics Prepared by: Ali Mazin Saad Izzat Supervised by : Dr.Ban
  • 2. Composition of body fluids Total Body Water  Water is the most plentiful constituent of the human body.  Total body water (TBW) as a percentage of body weight varies with age (Figure 1).  The fetus has a very high TBW, which gradually decreases to about 75% of birth weight for a term infant.  Premature infants have a higher TBW content than term infants. During the 1st year of life, TBW decreases to about 60% of body weight and basically remains at this level until puberty, by the end of puberty TBW in boys remain at 60%, but TBW in girls decreases to about 50% of body weight, due to difference in body fat content.  The high fat content in overweight children leads to decrease in TBW as a percentage of body weight.  During dehydration the TBW decreases and, thus, is a smaller percentage of body weight
  • 3. Figure 1: total body weight according to the age
  • 4. Fluid Compartments  TBW is divided between two main compartments: intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF).  In the fetus and newborn, the ECF volume is larger than the ICF volume.  By 1 year of age the ratio of the ICF volume to the ECF volume approaches adult levels.  The ECF volume is about 20-25% of body weight and the ICF volume is about 30-40% of body weight, close to twice the ECF volume.  The ECF is further divided into the plasma water and the interstitial fluid.  The volume of plasma water can be altered by a variety of pathologic conditions, including dehydration, anemia, polycythemia, heart failure, abnormal plasma osmolality, and hypoalbuminemia.  The interstitial fluid, normally about 15% of body weight, can increase dramatically in diseases associated with edema such as heart failure, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome, and other causes of hypoalbuminemia.
  • 5. Electrolytes compositions
  • 6. Fluid therapy  Fluid therapy is used to correct body water and electrolytes disturbance, to restore and maintain blood volume, osmolality, pH and electrolyte composition and to restore normal physiological function.
  • 7. Types of fluid therapy: 1- Oral fluid therapy (oral rehydration solution)  Glucose-based ORS  Cereal -based ORS 2- Intravenous fluid therapy  Crystalloids  Colloids
  • 8. Oral fluid therapy (oral rehydration solution) Glucose-based ORS  Composition: According to WHO formula:  Glucose:13.5-20 g  NaCl : (2.6) 3.5 g  KCl :1.5 g  Na citrate (Bi) : 2.9 g  Water 1 liter  Indications: 1. Diarrhea and dehydration especially in infants and old age. 2. All cases of loss of body fluids in non-comatosed patients (Moderate dehydration & Acidosis)
  • 9. Oral fluid therapy (oral rehydration solution)  Contraindications: 1. Coma 2. Severe uncontrolled vomiting. 3. Severe cases of dehydration that need IV therapy.  Advantages: 1. Effective in dehydration, preventing shock and even improving vomiting. 2. Less expensive than IV fluids 3. Easy; No need for expertise 4. Easily prepared 5. No need for sterilization 6. Given orally 7. No significant difference between IV & oral rehydration
  • 10. Oral fluid therapy (oral rehydration solution) Cereal -based ORS  They contain rice powder, glycine, or starch (as a source of glucose) instead of glucose  Advantages: 1. More effective in decreasing vomiting 2. More effective in treating diarrhea than ORS 3. Shorten duration of illness 4. Glucose-based ORS → ↑ stool volume →increase diarrhea 5. More effective in treating diarrhea due to cholera  Disadvantages: 1. Not readily available to use 2. Prepared by boiling 3. Should be prepared fresh (fermented 8-12 h). 4. Enzymes should be present (Amylase, maltase) not in infant. < 4 months
  • 11. Intravenous fluid therapy Indications: A.Diarrhea 1. Severe dehydration (> 10% of BW loss in infants) 2. Diarrhea is accompanied by severe uncontrolled vomiting 3. Inability to comply with oral fluids B. Other indications: 1. Hemorrhage 2. Shock 3. Electrolyte disturbances 4. Supplying fluids and food for patients who are unable to maintain oral intake.  In a collapsed patient IV fluids are given initially rapidly at a rate of 100 ml/min to avoid hypovolemia and irreversible shock.  Later on the fluid therapy is adjusted according loss in stools and sweat. Clinically by noting the neck veins & urine output.
  • 12. Plasma expanders  These are substances of relatively high MW, which when infused into the blood stream; remain there long enough to augment the volume of the circulating fluid by increasing its osmotic or oncotic pressure.  Properties of the ideal plasma expander: 1. High MW to be retained in circulation 2. Isotonic to that of plasma. 3. Not antigenic, allergic, or toxic 4. Not interfere with cross matching 5. Pharmacologically inert 6. Stable, easily sterilized, 7. A suitable viscosity. 8. Not affect any visceral function adversely. 9. Cheap, easily available.
  • 13. Plasma expanders
  • 14. Crystalloids  They are aqueous solutions containing electrolytes.. Isotonic solutions are the most commonly used. These solutions contain sodium as the major osmotically active particle which contain either normal saline (0.9% Na Cl) or saline equivalent (lactated Ringer’s solution).  Advantages: 1. Readily available 2. Inexpensive 3. Easily stored 4. Reaction free. 5. Quickly Correct the extracellular electrolyte and fluid deficit. 6. Reduce blood viscosity 7. Recently recommended for initial resuscitation of all forms of hypo-volemic shocks.  Disadvantages: 1. Large volumes are required to increase extravascular volume (edema) 2. Excess or too rapid infusion can cause peripheral and pulmonary edema. 3. If not proper Dose & Type, it will cause Electrolyte disturbances
  • 15. Types of crystalloids 1- Normal saline (NaCl 0.9%):  Is the most commonly used, osmolality is 308 M osm/kg.  Other forms of saline are (0.45% NaCl, .45% NaCl + Glucose 5%)  Distribution: Stays almost entirely in the Extracellular space  1 liter of normal saline gives increase in the blood volume of 300 ml.  Indications that circulation is improving include normalization of BP, pulse pressure, heart rate, improvement in the mental status, warmth and color of the skin, improved acid-base balance, and increased urine output.  Replaces Na, cl, water  Leaves the blood rapidly → short duration.
  • 16. Types of crystalloids 2- 0.45% Normal saline = ‘Half’ Normal Saline = hypotonic saline:  Can be used in severe hyperosmolar states E.g. dehydration  Leads to hyponatraemia if plasma sodium is normal (dilution if unchecked)  May cause rapid reduction in serum sodium if used in excess or infused too rapidly. This may lead to cerebral oedema and rarely, central pontine demyelinosis.
  • 17. Types of crystalloids 3- 1.8, 3.0, 7.0, 7.5 and 10% Saline = hypertonic saline:  Reserved for plasma expansion with colloids or acute hyponatrema  In practice rarely used in general wards; Reserved for high dependency, specialist areas  Distributed almost entirely in the ECF and intravascular space an osmotic gradient between the ECF and ICF passage of fluid into the EC space.  This fluid distributes itself evenly across the ECF and intravascualr space, in turn leading to intravascular repletion.  Large volumes will cause hypernatraemia and IC dehydration.
  • 18. Types of crystalloids 4- Glucose 5%, 10%, and 50%  Glucose 5% is a source of water and nutrient  Not optimal for volume replacement as its osmolality = 253 m osm/kg.  1 liter of glucose→100 ml blood volume.  IV drugs could be mixed with it.  Disadvantages:  Cannot make blood volume  Large amounts can cause water intoxication  Hyperglycemia
  • 19. Types of crystalloids  5- Ringer lactate  - content 0-10 gram glucose/100cc Na 130 mEq/L  - NaHCO3 28 mEq/L as lactate K 4 mEq/L  - 273 mOsm/L  6- Other crystalloid solutions  Ringer acetate  Sodium lactate
  • 20. Types of crystalloids
  • 21. Colloids  Colloids are solutions containing plasma proteins or other colloidal molecules.  Albumin is relatively expensive and offers no advantage over cheaper, synthetic colloids (solutions 5% to 25%)  Colloids cause less extravascular water acumulation in the lung  Colloids could be used alone or in combination with hypertonic saline in resuscitatation of hypovolemic shock in cases of poor vascularity.
  • 22. Types of colloids  1-dextran  It is a complex polysaccharide extracted from beet sugar.  There are two types: high molecular weight (70000) and low molecular weight (40000).  Dose: 10-20-ml/kg/ d IV infusions (For restoration of BV)  Advantages: 1. Almost ideal 2. Easily sterilized 3. Easily stored for long time.  Disadvantages: 1. Induce rouleoux of red cells which interferes with blood grouping and cross matching. 2. Interfere with platelets function and may be associated with abnormal bleeding.  Contraindications:  Hypersensitivity, Marked hemostatic defects, Heart Failure & Severe renal disease.
  • 23. Types of colloids 2- Gelatin (Haemaccel 30-35000):  MW 5000 to 50000 (24000)  Duration is about 2-5h  Two types succinylated gelatin or polygeline  Succinylated gelatin is less antigenic  Haemaccel (Urea-linked gelatin)  Conc. 3.5 % up to 2.5L/day.  Stable for 3 years  60-80 % secreted by kidney  Less antigenic  Not interfere with cross matching.  No bleeding
  • 24. Types of colloids  3- Hydroxy ethyl starch: Indications:  Hypovolemic shock: (low Albumin-burns-nephrotic syndrome) Used as 6% IV infusion in H shock  Adverse effects:  Like dextran (hypersensitivity, Bleeding (reduction of platelet count, increase in PT, PTT, and decrease factor VIII)  Expensive, with no advantage over gelatin and dextran.
  • 25. Principles of fluid therapy:
  • 26. Maintenance and replacement therapy Goals of maintenance fluids: 1. Prevent dehydration 2. Prevent electrolyte disorders 3. Prevent ketoacidosis 4. Prevent protein degradation Infants are more susceptible for water loss due to: 1. Physiological inability of their renal tubules to concentrate 2. Higher metabolic rate 3. Larger body surface area 4. Poorly developed thirst mechanism 5. Larger turnover water exchange
  • 27. Maintenance fluid Maintenance fluid volume is calculated according to body weight:  Body Weight Fluid per Day  0-10 kg 100 mL/kg  11-20 kg 1,000 mL + 50 mL/kg for each kg > 10 kg  > 20 kg 1,500 mL + 20 mL/kg for each kg > 10 kg  The maximum total fluid per day is normally 2,400 mL.  Fluid of choice either :  D5 ¼ NS + 20 mEq/L Kcl or D5 ½ NS + 20 mEq/L Kcl  The maximum fluid rate is normally 100 mL/hr.  0-10 kg: 4 mL/kg/hr  10-20 kg: 40 mL/hr + 2 mL/kg/hr  >20 kg: 60 mL/hr + 1 mL/kg/hr
  • 28. Electrolytes maintenance:  Sodium, potassium, and chloride are given in maintenance fluids to replace losses from urine and stool.  Maintenance requirements for sodium and potassium.  Sodium: 2-3 mEq/kg/24 hr  Potassium: 1-2 mEq/kg/24 hr  Adequate chloride is provided as long as at least half of the sodium and potassium are given as chloride salts.  Glucose  Maintenance fluids usually contain 5% dextrose (D5), which provides 17 calories per 100 mL and close to 20% of the daily caloric needs.  This is enough to prevent ketone production and helps minimize protein degradation. It is a diet, and a child will lose weight on this regimen.
  • 29. Conditions that cause fluid loss which require replacement therapy: 1)Diarrhea 2)Emesis and Nasogastric Losses 3)Altered Renal Output
  • 30. Diarrhea Adjusting Fluid Therapy Diarrhea: AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF DIARRHEA  Sodium: 55 mEq/L  Potassium: 25 mEq/L  Bicarbonate: 15 mEq/L  APPROACH TO REPLACEMENT OF ONGOING LOSSES  Solution: D5 1/4 NS + 15 mEq/L bicarbonate + 25 mEq/L KCl  Replace stool mL/mL every 1-6 hr
  • 31. Emesis and Nasogastric Losses Adjusting Fluid Therapy for Emesis or Nasogastric Losses AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF GASTRIC FLUID  Sodium: 60 mEq/L  Potassium: 10 mEq/L  Chloride: 90 mEq/L APPROACH TO REPLACEMENT OF ONGOING LOSSES  Solution: D5 1/2 NS + 10 mEq/L KCl  Replace output mL/mL every 1-6 hr
  • 32. Altered Renal Output Adjusting Fluid Therapy for Altered Renal Output OLIGURIA/ANURIA  Place the patient on insensible fluids (1/3 maintenance) *RATE  Replace urine output mL/mL with 1/2 NS POLYURIA  Place the patient on insensible fluids (1/3 maintenance)  Measure urine electrolytes  Replace urine output mL/mL with a solution that is based on the measured urine  Electrolytes.
  • 33. Deficit therapy Dehydration Isonatriamaemic HypernatriaemicHyponatriaemic
  • 34. What is Dehydration? Dehydration is simply the excessive loss of body water resulting a decrease in total body water Total Fluid Loss > Total Fluid Intake Fluid lost from both intravascular & extravascular compartments Intravascular loss – Hypovolaemia & Serum osmolality Extravascular loss – Impairment of cellular function & Loss of tissue laxity Often there is an associated electrolyte loss with diarrhoea Sodium is the most affected electrolyte – Hypernatremia or Hypernatremia
  • 35. Approach to Dehydration 1) Initial Resuscitation 2) Determine % dehydration 3) Define the type of dehydration 4) Determine the type and rate of rehydration fluids
  • 36. Assessment History Examination Increased thirsty Body weight loss Reduced level of consciousness (Drowsy) Anterior fontanelle - Sunken Reduced urine output Sunken eyes Reduced/Absent tears Dry mucous membranes Loss skin turgor Pulse rate – Increased Capillary refill time – Prolonged (>2 seconds) Blood Pressure – Low Respiration – Deep & Rapid
  • 37. Clinical Evaluation of Dehydration Mild dehydration (3-5%):  normal or increased pulse, decreased urine output, thirsty, normal physical examination Moderate dehydration (7-10%):  tachycardia, little or no urine output, irritable/lethargic, sunken eyes and fontanel, decreased tears, dry mucous membranes, mild tenting of the skin, delayed capillary refill, cool and pale Severe dehydration (10-15%):  rapid and weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, no urine output, very sunken eyes and fontanel, no tears, dry mucous membranes, tenting of the skin, very delayed capillary refill.
  • 38. Isonatriamaemic dehydration  The child with dehydration has lost water; there is almost always a concurrent loss of sodium and potassium. Most patients have isotonic dehydration and therefore have normal serum sodium values.  Calculation of Deficits  WATER DEFICIT: Percent dehydration × weight  SODIUM DEFICIT: Water deficit × 80 mEq/L  POTASSIUM DEFICIT: Water deficit × 30 mEq/L
  • 39. Isonatriamaemic dehydration  The child with dehydration requires acute intervention to ensure that there is adequate tissue perfusion. This requires restoration of the intravascular volume with an isotonic solution such as normal saline (NS) or Ringer lactate.  When there is adequate intravascular volume, it is appropriate to plan the fluid therapy for the next 24 hr. The general approach is outlined as following:  Restore intravascular volume  Normal saline: 20 mL/kg over 20 min (Repeat until intravascular volume restored)  Calculate 24-hr water needs  Calculate maintenance water  Calculate deficit water
  • 40. management  Calculate 24-hr electrolyte needs  Calculate maintenance sodium and potassium  Calculate deficit sodium and potassium  Select an appropriate fluid (based on total water and electrolyte needs)  Administer half the calculated fluid during the first 8 hr, first subtracting any boluses from this amount  Administer the remainder over the next 16 hrs  Replace ongoing losses as they occur
  • 41. Hyponatremic dehydration:  The pathogenesis of hyponatremic dehydration is usually due to a combination of sodium and water loss and water retention to compensate for the volume depletion.  Occurs in children who have diarrhea and consume a hypotonic fluid (water or diluted formula).  The initial goal in treating hyponatremia is correction of intravascular volume depletion with isotonic fluid (NS or Ringer lactate).  The following formula can be used to calculate a patient's sodium deficit:  where [Na+]d = desired sodium concentration, [Na+]i = initial sodium concentration, and Wt = weight in kilograms.
  • 42. Hyponatremic dehydration:  Rapid correction of hyponatremia (>12mEq/L/24hrs) thought to contribute to…. Central Pontine Myelinolysis  Fluctuating LOC  Pseudobulbar palsy  Quadraparesis
  • 43. Hypernatremic Dehydration:  Hypernatremic dehydration is the most dangerous form of dehydration due to complications of hypernatremia and of therapy.  The movement of water from the intracellular space to the extracellular space during hypernatremic dehydration protects the intravascular volume. Thus, children with hypernatremia often appear less ill than children with a similar degree of isotonic dehydration.  Urine output may be preserved longer and there may be less tachycardia. Unfortunately, the milder manifestations often lead to children with hypernatremic dehydration being brought to medical attention with more profound dehydration.
  • 44. Management Restore intravascular volume  Normal saline: 20 mL/kg over 20 min (Repeat until intravascular volume restored) Determine the time for correction based on the initial sodium concentration  [Na]: 145-157 mEq/L: 24 hr  [Na]: 158-170 mEq/L: 48 hr  [Na]: 171-183 mEq/L: 72 hr  [Na]: 184-196 mEq/L: 84 hr Administer fluid at a constant rate over the time for correction  Typical fluids: D5 1/4 NS or D5 1/2 NS (both with 20 mEq/L KCl unless contraindicated)  Typical rate: 1.25-1.5 times maintenance  Increase sodium concentration of intravenous fluid, or  Decrease rate of intravenous fluid  Decrease sodium concentration of intravenous fluid, or  Increase rate of intravenous fluid
  • 45. Management  Follow serum sodium concentration  Adjust fluid based on clinical status and serum sodium concentration  Signs of volume depletion: administer NS (20 mL/kg)  Sodium decreases too rapidly  Sodium decreases too slowly  Replace ongoing losses as they occur

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