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Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society  (by Barry Wellman)
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Behind The Paradigm Shift Towards a Networked Society (by Barry Wellman)

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Information & Social Networks Symposium 2010 …

Information & Social Networks Symposium 2010
SocialMediaLab.ca
Dalhouise University

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. The Turn to a Networked Society Barry Wellman Director, NetLab, Dept. of Sociology, Univ. of Toronto Mohammad Haque Community Health & Epidemiology, Univ. of Saskatchewan Lee Rainie Director, Pew Internet and American Life Project Keynote address to the Information & Social Networks Symposium Dalhousie University, Halifax, October 2010
  • 2. The Social Network Revolution • First, the social network revolution has provided the opportunities – and stresses – for people to reach beyond the world of tight groups.
  • 3. The Internet Revolution • Second, the internet revolution has given people communications power and information-gathering capacities that dwarf those of the past. It has also allowed people to become their own publishers and broadcasters and created new methods for social networking. This has changed the point of contact from the household (and work group) to the individual.
  • 4. The Mobile(-ization) Revolution • Third, the mobile revolution has allowed ICTs to become body appendages allowing people to access friends and information at will, wherever they go. In return, they are always accessible. That has major implications for social networking behavior and expectations.
  • 5. The Triple Revolution How the Intersection of 1. The Proliferation & Differentiation of The Personal Internet 2. The Personal Mobile Accessibility of Information & Communication 3. The Turn from Groups to Social Networks   Networked Individualism: A New Social Operating System Changing the Relationship between Transportation, Communication and Information To be an MIT book (2011) Rainie & Wellman: Networked: The New Social Operating System 5
  • 6. People function more as connected individuals and less as embedded group members. Household members now act at times more like individuals in networks and less like members of a solidary family. They spend less time doing things together as a group. Their homes are no longer their castles but bases for networking with the outside world, with each family member keeping a separate address book, calendar, mobile phone and personal computer account. Adults and children connect through mobile phones. Family members punch holes in the home-work boundary, often working at home or bringing work home.
  • 7. Many meet their social, emotional, and economic needs by tapping into loosely-knit networks of diverse associates rather than relying on tight connections To a relatively small number of core associates • Many don’t have one sure-fire “home” community. • Looser and more diverse social networks require more choreography and exertion to manage. • Often, they rely on many specialized relationships to meet their needs. A typical social network might have some members who are good at: – meeting local, logistical needs (pet sitting, watering the plants), – while others are especially useful when medical needs arise. – Yet others (often sisters) provide emotional support. – Still others are the ones whose political opinions carry more weight, while others give financial advice, restaurant recommendations, or music and books to enjoy.
  • 8. Networked individuals have partial membership in multiple networks rather than permanent memberships in settled groups • They must calculate where they can turn for different kinds of help – and what kind of help to offer others as they occupy nodes in others’ extended networks. • They have more transitory relationships than in the past. • At the same time, they have an easier time reattaching to those from their past even after extended periods of non-contact. • With a social environment in flux, people must deal with frequent turnover and change in their networks. Peter and Trudy call themselves “netweavers,” also: “net jugglers.”
  • 9. In a Nutshell – The Triple Revolution: Internet, Mobile, Social Net 1. People function more as networked individuals 2. Families function as networks, not groups 3. Social networks are larger 4. More internet use  more in-person contact 5. Networks are sparsely-knit, loosely-bounded 6. ICTs provide more & more diverse information 7. Shift to interest-based communities 8. Public-private boundaries blurring 9. Transportation fungible, additive with ICTs
  • 10. Precursors to Networked Individualism Technological & Socioeconomic Affordances that have facilitated the Triple Revolution Affordances: opportunities and constraints GUIs help the illiterate; hurt the blind Low light switches But this talk is about large-scale phenomena
  • 11. I. Widespread Connectivity 1. Automobile and airplane trips have made travel wider-ranging and broadly affordable  spread out social networks
  • 12. Percentage of U.S. Households By Number of Vehicles 60% T 48% 50% Two 40% 37% Two 31% 30% 26% One 23% 20% 21% One Three + 10% 5% 8% None Three + 0% 1969 1977 1983 1990 1995 2001 None Year 60% of Households Have 2+ Cars Passenger Miles Up 60%: 900 Billion (1970)  1.5 Trillion (2007) Average miles driven rose 20%: 10K  12K miles Interstate Highway System: a main driver
  • 13. Per-Capita Airline Boardings in U.S. 3.00 2007 Airbus A380 Per-Capita Passenger Boardings introduced 2.50 2.55 2.00 1.50 1970 Boeing 747 introduced 1.00 1958 Boeing 707 0.50 introduced 0.22 0.00 1954 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 Year Deregulation  Lower prices Very few crashes Flights to more airports
  • 14. 2. The rapid growth of affordable telecom and computing have made communicating and gaining information more powerful and more personal. Direct dialing in 1930s, without operators Direct distance dialing in 1960s: area codes replace operators International calling becomes more affordable, even before internet phone (Skype)
  • 15. Revenue per U.S. Billed Call (US$) 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1985 8.20 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Revenue per U.S. Billed International Calls 2005 2006 0.53
  • 16. Number of and Revenue per U.S. Billed International Calls 16000 9.00 13,673 14000 8.00 8.20 Revenue per call of U.S. billed calls 7.00 12000 Number of calls (million) 6.00 Revenue per call (US$) 10000 5.00 8000 4.00 6000 3.00 4000 Number of U.S. billed calls 2.00 2000 0.53 1.00 425 0 0.00 1997 2001 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2002 2006 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 2003 2004 2005 Year
  • 17. Number of Residential Landlines and Mobile Phones in the U.S. per 100 Population (1920-2006) 80.0 73.4 67.9 70.0 Phones per 100 population 57.6 60.0 Residential Landlines 50.0 40.0 30.0 Wireless Subscribers 20.0 9.6 10.0 1.8 0.0 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year
  • 18. Number of Personal Computers In U.S. and Canada (1981-2006) 100 94.6 90 Number of PCs per 100 inhabitants 80 US data missing 70 for 2002-2003 79.9 60 50 40 U.S. 30 Canada 20 0.9 10 0.8 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2005 2006 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year Internet Opened to Public
  • 19. 3. The outbreak of peace & the spread of trade have driven commercial & social interconnectedness Most wars of little relevance to developed world’s trade and tourism Iraqistan the only exception for U.S. troops Opening of China and shredding of Iron Curtain major changes, 1980s-1990s Expansion of the European Union to 27 nations Labor and travel mobility with the 25- nation Schengen Agreement (1985)
  • 20. Number of World Conflicts, 1946-2005 50 Extrastate 45 Interstate Internationalized Intrastate 40 Intrastate 35 Number of Conflicts 30 27 25 20 15 10 8 5 5 5 2 0 0 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 Ye ar Last interstate conflict
  • 21. U.S. Imports and Exports as a Proportion of GDP 0.20 0.180 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.130 0.12 U.S. Imports/GDP 0.10 0.08 0.058 U.S. Exports/GDP 0.06 0.04 0.054 0.02 0.00 2006 2008 1990 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
  • 22. Globalized Fruit in Toronto Toronto, June 1010
  • 23. II. Weaker Boundaries 4. Inside countries, population migration from rural and urban areas to houses in suburban areas aided more mobile, less communal interactions.
  • 24. Percentage of Americans Living in Central Cities and Suburbs, 1940-2000 90 80.3 Metropolitan Areas 80 (cities+suburbs) 70 60 47.8 50.0 Percent 50 Suburbs 40 32.5 30.3 30 Cities 15.3 20 10 0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year U.S. Home Ownership 69% in 2005 before artificial boom
  • 25. 5. Households as Home Bases Family composition, roles and responsibilities have transformed households from groups to networks.
  • 26. Distribution of Households in the U.S. (1980-2005) 35 31 30 Married with Minor 30 28 Children 25 26 Married without Minor 23 23 Children Percent 20 Single Parent 15 One Person 13 10 9 Other 9 8 5 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year % of households married with minor children declined by ¼,1980 -2005: 31%  23%
  • 27. 6. Structured and bounded voluntary organizations becoming supplanted by ad hoc, open and informal networks of civic involvement. See Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone, 2000
  • 28. 7. Common culture passed along through a small number of mass media firms has shifted to fragmented culture dispensed through more channels to more hardware.
  • 29. Home TV Shrine, 1960s Zenith Color Console Do Large Flat-Screen TVs serve the same purpose today?
  • 30. Number of Televisions per U.S. Household, 1970-2008 3.5 3.3 3.0 Mean number of TVs per homes with multiple TVs 2.8 Mean Number of TVs 2.5 2.2 2.0 Mean number of TVs per home 1.4 1.5 1.0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2005 2006 2007 2008 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 2003 2004 Year
  • 31. III. Increased Personal Autonomy 8. Work has become more flexible in the developed world, especially the shift from pushing atoms in manufacturing to pushing bits in white-collar “creative” work. Networked teams Distributed work Flexible work schedules
  • 32. Percentage of Creative Class “Bit Workers” In the U.S. (1900-2006) 70.0% 60.0% 57.2% 50.0% 47.2% Percentage of Total Workforce Service 45.1% 40.0% 35.8% Working Class 30.0% 30.5% Creative 23.0% 24.1% 20.0% 16.1% 12.7% Super-Creative 12.4% 10.0% Core 7.2% 5.7% 3.3% 0.9% Farming 0.0% 0.3% 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1991 2006 Source: Kevin Stolarick & Richard Florida, Martin Prosperity Institute, University of Toronto
  • 33. 9. A broad movement towards a society based on achievement rather than on ethnic, gender, religion & sexual orientation. 14.5% of US marriages are interracial Few worry about inter-ethnic: Protestant-Catholic-Jewish boundaries no longer immutable
  • 34. Changing Interracial Marriage Norms 1967 Shocker 2010 Commercial Dating Ad
  • 35. Percentage of Adult Americans Aged 18+ Who Would Not Favor A Law Against Racial Intermarriage 100.0 90.5 90.0 72.9 Percentage Not in Favor 80.0 71.1 70.0 63.2 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1980 1982 1984 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Year US Supreme Court Banned States Making Interracial Marriage Illegal, 1967
  • 36. 10. The shift away from traditional religion in America to do-it-yourself religion or no religion. Switch away from religion of birth: Catholicism (-8% net change); Baptist (-4%); Methodist (-2%) Non-denominational Christianity (+3%); Unaffiliated (+9%). Rise of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism & Confucianism in North America & Western Europe
  • 37. Interfaith: Ex-President Clinton’s Daughter Chelsea Marries Kepi-Wearing Marc Mezvinsky Kepi July 31, 2010 
  • 38. Political Party Affiliation in the U.S. (1957-2009)
  • 39. 11. The decline of defined benefit pensions and the rise of independent retirement accounts.
  • 40. Percentage of Employees Participating in Defined Benefit Pensions (US), 1980-2009
  • 41. Percentage of U.S. Households Owning Individual Retirement Accounts
  • 42. Towards Networked Individualism • Moves towards flexible, mobile, fragmented social systems • More personalization • Weakening of traditional boundaries: neighborhood, region, state, race, and gender • Wider range in travel, communication and information • Helped to set the stage for the Triple Revolution:  Social networks, not groups  Personal broadband connectivity  Mobile availability via phones & WiFi These changes are both causes & results of the turn away from walled gardens – bounded, insulated, homogeneous groups – towards networked individualism
  • 43. Networked: The New Social Operating System Part I: The Triple Revolution The Social Network Revolution The Internet Revolution The Mobile Revolution Part II: The Triple Revolution in Practice Networked Relationships Networked Families Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman Networked Work MIT Press, January 2012 Networked Information Networked Creators Part III: What Is – What Will Be The State of Networked Individualism The Triple Revolution in the Future Research supported by: SSHRCC, Intel, GRAND-NCE

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