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Chris Rodriguez:  History & Diversity Part 1
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Chris Rodriguez: History & Diversity Part 1


Part 1 (of 2) of Chris Rodriguez's 3/15/2013 Presentation on History & Diversity in Mexico for Primary Source. For educational use only.

Part 1 (of 2) of Chris Rodriguez's 3/15/2013 Presentation on History & Diversity in Mexico for Primary Source. For educational use only.

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  • Begin with song: Juan García de Céspedes (1619 – 1678), CONVIDANDOESTÁ LA NOCHE Many Mexicos overview of geography and major ethnic groups List and map of Languages Spanish North, mixed Middle, indigenous SouthSources:
  • 80% mestizo (Afro-mestizo)10% Indigenous10% European
  • Possible migration routes to Americas 50,000-12,000 years ago
  •, 1491, 103-105orTawantinsuyu (People of the Four Corners)New studies b/c ariel photos of deforested lands
  • 3. Creation Story from the PopulVuh of the Quiché Maya.My adaptation from Dennis Tedlock, PopolVuh: the Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings (New York: Touchstone Books, 1996).
  • Son of Corn God, floating with birds tied to hunting basket letting blood and offering sacrificed turkey before one of five cosmic trees
  • Mural by Miguel COvarrubias


  • 1. Primary Source 9:15 - 10:45 am, March 15, 2013Guest Speaker, Chris RodriguezHow has Mexico’s history and diversity shaped itstraditions?1. Mexico’s Geography and Indigenous Roots - Many Mexicos Mayan Popul Vuh2. Spanish Conquest and Cultural mestizaje - Many Mexicos Dias de los muertos Indigenous, European, and African mestizaje Virgin Mary of Guadalupe3. Mexican Revolution and “Racial Homage” Celebrating Many Mexicos
  • 2. Many Mexicos
  • 3. Mexico: 3 times the size of Texas
  • 4. Mexico City population, 20 million
  • 5. Working class neighborhood, Mexico City
  • 6. Mexico City high rises
  • 7. Mexico City middle class family
  • 8. Market in southern Mexico
  • 9. 1. Mexico’s Population, including Indigenous speakers Mexico’s population density, 2010
  • 10. 2. IndigenousPeoples, 2000speak at least 1indigenous language 7.7 millionspeak no Spanish 1.3 millionSpanish and 1indigenous language 5 millionIndigenous languages: 88
  • 11. Ethnolinguistic Map of Mexico
  • 12. Where do Mexicans come from?
  • 13. Scientific Story: first American migrants 10,000-40,000 years ago
  • 14. By 1492approximately25 million First Mexicans XEarth: 500 MillionAmericas: 60 Million
  • 15. Maya Pyramid, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, 600 AD
  • 16. 3. Creation Story from Popul Vuh of Quiché Maya “Book of the Community”“Discovered” 1702Middle Americans (Maya, Aztec, etc.) had 10,000s books
  • 17. Why didChristianPriests burnmost booksin early 1500s?“Burning the booksof the gods.”Codex Tlaxcala.
  • 18. Tepeu, the MakerGucumatz, Feathered SpiritPerfect Beings mustWorship properly,Keep days/calendar,Give gods offerings,Walk upright,Reproduce,Care for each other,Work, Speak properlyDevine-Social Contract1. Mud/clay2. animals3. wood4…
  • 19. 4th try, creatureshelped, used white andyellow cornKept calendar,Gave gods offerings,Walked upright,Reproduced,Cared for each other,Worked,Spoke properly,Worshiped properlyleader sacrificed own bloodToo perfect:“Breadth on a mirror”
  • 20. When Popol Vuh performed - mirror wiped cleanMaya priests performingPopul Vuh, 2001 and 1930s
  • 21. Section of oldest Maya mural yet found, 100 BC.WhatstrikesyouaboutthePopulVuhstory?
  • 22. 1490sChristian EuropeansArrive toColonize and ConvertNative Americans
  • 23. Maya Sacred World Tree connected Spirit and Human worldsChristian Europeanstold story of the sacrificeof their God’s son on crossMaya and others,“we can relate.”
  • 24. Origin Storyof the Aztecs (people from Aztlan)Emerged fromChicomoztoc“Place of Seven caves”
  • 25. Chichimecs Groups of northern Mexican peoples begin migrating south in 1000s.Deer skin drawing, ca 1530s
  • 26. Historical Migration to Valley of Mexico: 1000-1300Aztlan Tenochtitlan
  • 27. 1324 foundedTenochtitlan“place of thecactus”Image: The Foundingof Tenochtitlan,Codex Mendoza,1530s.
  • 28. Mexican Flag
  • 29. 1491: Aztec capital of empire, Tenochichtlan250,000 in Tenochichtlan 1 Million in surrounding basin
  • 30. Extreme makeover: nomads to city dwellers
  • 31. 100 miles of artificial lakes Miles of aqueducts
  • 32. Aztec Market: jade, Queztal feathersSection ofDiegoRiveramural, PalacioNacional, MexicoCity, 1930s