User experience & design user centered analysis

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UCA is a multistage process which allows designers to analyze and foresee how user is going to use the product. UCA employs proven and objective data-gathering and analysis techniques to develop a …

UCA is a multistage process which allows designers to analyze and foresee how user is going to use the product. UCA employs proven and objective data-gathering and analysis techniques to develop a clear understanding of who the users are and how they will approach a website or application.

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  • 1. User Centered Analysis
  • 2. What is UCAUCA is a multistage process which allows designers to analyze and foreseehow user is going to use the product. UCA employs proven and objective data-gathering and analysis techniques to develop a clear understanding of whothe users are and how they will approach a website or application.Process of discovering….•Who the users are•How they think and work•The stakeholder goals and objectivesCollecting data on…•User profiles•Work environment•Scenarios of how user’s will use the interface•Task analysis
  • 3. Uncovering the user’s mental model•People come with mental models•It usually come from past experience•Mental models don’t always match reality•Mental models set expectations, which drive shape and behavior•80% of usability derives from matching the conceptual model•People can’t describe their own mental model
  • 4. UCA vs. UTUCA•Data gathering and analysis to design a product•How do users think and work in the entire domain•What are the factors affecting users’ tasks?•What do users want or expect from the design?•What are the users’ aspirations, problems and motivations?UT•Evaluation of existing design with set criteria•Is the design usable?•Does design match the way users think and work?•Is the design effective, efficient and satisfactory for the user?•Can users complete their tasks?
  • 5. UCA vs. UTUCA techniques•Interview•Surveys•Contextual observation•Focus groups•JAD SessionsUT techniques•Walk through•Performance test•Subjective Rating•Heuristics•A-B testing•Click Stream
  • 6. Creating Design strategy•The design strategy fosters cross-department communication by pullingtogether all the goals for everyone to see. It documentsconsistencies, allowing priorities, scope, and objective to be discussed.•It specifies the description of the problem and the definition of good solutionby identifying critical aspects of the solution.•A design strategy communicates a positive message to the team by includingtheir point of view and concerns, valuing and trusting previous work, andworking as efficiently as possible.•It incorporates existing documentation if possible to increase efficiency andprevent reinventing of the wheel.
  • 7. Components of Design strategy• Business Goals – usually phrased as specific metrics regardingsales, costs, name recognition, etc.•Target Users – Primary users for whom the interface must be a success•General tasks – Conceptually, the tasks users are expected to accomplish•Technological constraints – what is possible given the technology of existingdatabase, architecture, standards, etc.•Marketing/Branding Goals – The values and personality the interface mustproject. Aspects that differentiate the interface, product or service fromcompetitors•Critical success factors – Key outcomes that must be met to succeed.Outcomes usually phrased in terms of user experience or business metrics.
  • 8. Usability improvementsHow user-performance can be improved?•Highly specific to the project•Measurable•Get management’s input•Communicate to whole project team•Use as usability testing objectives
  • 9. Profiles and personas•User groups•User profiles•Task profiles•Environmental profiles•Personas
  • 10. User GroupsSites or applications typically have some target users; a user group. Focusingon many user groups creates design challenges. Selecting the important usergroups to focus on is business decision.
  • 11. User ProfilesProfiles clarify assumptions about users and their tasks, including the taskenvironment, and communicate those assumptions. Profiles highlight theaspects of the user groups that influence design, and provide a means todocument the rationale for early design decisions. They emphasize thevariation among user groups, and form a basis for prioritizing the user group.
  • 12. User ProfilesCharacteristic Customer service Customer System representative AdministratorAge/Gender 75% Female, 75% Male, Age 25- 80% Male, Age 25- Median Age 32 40 Median 30 35 Median 27Education Some higher Most have degrees Technical education educationLanguage English, Spanish, English English FrenchComputer/web Low to med Med HighexperienceDomain Expertise Low to high Med HighTask knowledge Initial : Low to Med Low to med high after 1 week highExpectation Ease of use, speed Ease of use Comprehensive of task functionality
  • 13. Task profilesOne way to select which tasks to analyze and redesign is to examine whichtasks are performed by which types of users.Tasks Roles Customer Outside Sales Customer Administrator service RepresentativeRequest New XUser name &PasswordFind customer X X XView customer X XEnter/ edit X Xcustomer dataView reports X X
  • 14. Environmental ProfilesCapture characteristics of the user’s location, workspace, lightingconditions, hardware and software.Characteristic Variable Design ImplicationsLocation Indoor/outdoor weather Equipment options exposure position entryWorkspace Cramped / spacious Display size position entryLighting Bright to dim Color contrast fontsHardware Monitor size/resolution Legibility presentation color system sound card options color palette video card compatibilitySoftware Browser technology HTML/script support constraints response time detail design compatibility
  • 15. PersonasA persona is a concrete characterization of a single user group. It synthesizesinformation from the user, task and environment profiles. It is a detailedexample of a potential end user that represents a specific target audiencetype and focuses on probabilities not possibilities. Create a persona for eachmajor target group do not develop personas for less important groups. Designup to three personas rarely more.Personas help designer think in terms of users by providing a concretecharacterization of them and how they might use the site.
  • 16. Field studies•Direct and indirect data gathering methods•One-on-one interview techniques•User observations
  • 17. Three dimensions of data-gathering methodsDirect – obtaining data from actual userIndirect – obtaining data from users without direct contactIndividual vs. groupIndividual – one person at a timeGroup- more then one person at a timePerformance vs. discussionPerformance-the tasks are performed in the sessionDiscussion-the tasks are discussed, recalled, projected, opinions given etc.
  • 18. One on one interviewsOne on one interviews are a good choice if it is difficult to have peopleperform a task while being observed. It also helps to complete a picture oftheir perspective and ideas instead of just observing them.
  • 19. Complementary data-gathering methodsMethods that are less expensive or use less time are referred to ascomplementary methods because their advantages and disadvantages aredifferent then field studies.•Direct data gathering methods for groups•Indirect data gathering methods
  • 20. Direct methodsGroup of users•Focus groups•JAD (joint application development sessions)•User group meetings and usability roundtables
  • 21. Direct methods•Focus groups – are made up of small groups of participants (8-10participants) that are led through a set of subjects by facilitator. The session ismade up of moderated discussion and brainstorming. Focus groups are bestused early in the development process.Benefits include:•Rapid feedback from users•Design team gets a window on user’s stated priorities•Generates product possibilities that stakeholders may have missedDrawbacks include:•Participants may influence each other•Some participants may dominate conversation•Talking about something is different from actually doing it
  • 22. Direct methodsJAD (joint application development sessions)A facilitated workshop or JAD session is similar to a focus group, but it includea cross section of stakeholders, engineers and users.•They help getting rapid feedback on big decisions, as they bring theusers, developers and designers together. They can also help identify missedor unnecessary design elements.•The concerns are the same as those for focus groups. They also need a goodmoderator. Also it may be tempting to design on the spot, and to educateusers about the backend rather then offer solutions.
  • 23. Direct methodsUser group meetings and usability roundtables- user group meetings andusability roundtables are similar to user interviews, but are conducted in agroup. They typically include more sophisticated or longtime users, and areconducted away from the user environment. The participants bring worksamples to present and discuss.•Benefits include user feedback on problems from the actual users, and also asample of real world examples of the user’s work.•However, participants are not always good at selecting important samples,and samples are out of context. Also participants may influence one anotheron important topics.
  • 24. Indirect methodsReviewing customer feedback•Conducting surveys•Analyzing help desk or support line calls•Analyzing bulletin boards or discussion groups•User representatives•Analyzing web trends
  • 25. Indirect methodsConducting surveys•Surveys offer a fast and cheap data collection method with the ability to casta wide net quickly. Data collection and analysis can be automated to reducetime and cost.•Surveys tend to focus on preferences and rely on memory. It is harder tolearn about performance and there is no opportunity to probe or follow up.Also the reliability of the data is difficult to establish. The motivation andattention span of the participants are critical and it can be difficult to achievea representative sample.Three common types of surveys are-•Marketing survey•Needs assessment survey•Evaluation survey
  • 26. Indirect methodsHelp desks and support linesSummaries of logged communications from phone support, email and inperson requests for help.•These summaries highlight the difficult functions or interactions and relativefrequency of problems. They can identify additional needs and provide directaccess to the user vocabulary.•This sampling is neither systematic nor complete and only highlights theproblems people could not solve on their own. Only irritated users who can’tget help elsewhere call.
  • 27. Indirect methodsMonitoring bulletin or discussion boardsBulletin and discussion boards typically summarize bug reports/fixes userproblems and work- around.•The problems are chronologically reported and often include user generatedtroubleshooting. They usually include user wish lists (if read carefully) and canbe used to create FAQs.•Many users may not take advantage of these resources as they may bedifficult to use and users may not know they exist. They offer a systematicmethod for discovery of problems but not for determining the frequency orcriticality of the problems.
  • 28. Indirect methodsUser or organizational representativesUser or organizational representatives are intermediaries who documentuser’s goals and needs.•They may impart a basic understanding of the task.•They may not an actual user even if they used to be. Hence their perspectiveson the tasks are quite different. They may also have a design agenda. Theymay supervise users and therefore may not hear accurate information fromthem. Also they may not impartially diagnose users needs, but project theirown opinions. An intermediary’s presence may make direct contact seemunnecessary.
  • 29. Indirect methodsWeb analysis logsWeb analysis logs of frequently hit pages, path analysis and exit points. Theyalso offer an insight into time on task.•They provide guidance on the kinds of questions to ask.•Web log data are often inaccurate.
  • 30. Selecting the right methodThere is no perfect or even best method of gathering data about users. Eachmethod has advantages and disadvantages. The detailed circumstances ofyour situation will determine which you want to use and when.The richest data are produced by•Direct – from the user themselves with no filtering through someone else•Individual-no summarizing across users and believing there is an ‘averageuser’Use more then one method for optimum results.
  • 31. Thank you By Preeti AroraPriiti_chopra@hotmail.com