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  • CHOGM: Commonwealth Head Of Governments Meeting
  • Transcript

    • 1. UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA COLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES GFPS 3043 GFPP2403 ORGANISATIONAL LEADERSHIP POWER, Authority & Influence in Organizational Leadership PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU 127445
    • 2. POWER IN ORGANISATION Power Power may be regarded as the ability to determine the behavior of others or to decide the outcome of conflict where there is disagreement. It is likely to be resolved according to the relative resources of power available to the participants. (Tony Bush, 2003)
    • 3. Influence Influence represents an ability to affect outcomes and depends on personal characteristics and expertise. (Tony Bush, 2003) Authority Authority is legitimate power which is vested in leaders within formal organizations. (Bolman and Deal,1991)
    • 4. POWER IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP 5 sources of power that leaders should draw on within organizations: 1. Legitimate power 2. Reward power 3. Coercive power 4. Expert power 5. Referent power
    • 5. The 5 Sources of power Tun Mahathir 1. REFFERENT POWER Referent power based on desires others have to identify favorably with us or with what we symbolize to them. Tun M; Foreign Policy South Africa - Apartheid (1948-1994) 1987 Tun M- boycott CHOGM 1989 Malaysia hosted Kuala Lumpur Declaration proposed Suspension of South Africa
    • 6. The 5 Sources of power Tun Mahathir 2. LEGITIMATE POWER Legitimate power is an officer believing that the orders being given are true, even if they may be coming from a higher power that does not normally give out orders. (Brandi Rivera, 2006) Operation Lalang; October 1987, detention of 105 political leaders, civil activists, prominent citizens on the basis of civil disruption and seduction on direct orders from the Prime Minister, Dr.M. (The Star; 28 Oct 1987; Retrieved 12 Sept 2010)
    • 7. The 5 Sources of power Tun Mahathir 3. EXPERT POWER • Expert power comes from experience or education. (Darek Kleczek, 2008) -Almost 40yrs of political career: 1963-2003 -Experience in various fields: Minister of education, International Trade, Deputy PM, consequently PM for 22 yrs -Education: a doctor by profession -Writer: of 15 titles, beginning with The Malay Dilemma(1970) till Chedet.com(2008)
    • 8. The 5 Sources of power Tun Mahathir 4. REWARD POWER Reward power is who employee believes that they are going to get some type of reward for doing their job or by following their supervisor order.(Brandi Rivera, 2006) Rebirth of UMNO, UMNO Baru – after 1988 crisis: Tan Sri Datuk Seri Mohamed B Haji Rahmat Singel handedly worked on & established UMNO (baru) He was reinstated as the information minister (1987- 1999) & subsequently Malaysian ambassador to Indonesia
    • 9. The 5 Sources of power Tun Mahathir 5. COERCIVE POWER Coercive power is a supervisor pursued an employee to do their work or they can be fired or demoted.(Brandi Rivera, 2006) Cabinet Reshuffles: Over 22 yrs as PM: 8 major Cabinet Reshuffles. During which Tun removed 36 Full ministers from any cabinet posts.
    • 10. INFLUENCE IN ORGANISATIONAL LEADERSHIP 9 general tactics in trying to influence others: (Angelo Kinicki and Brian K. Williams) Tactics Explanation 1. Rational Persuasion -Trying to convince someone by using reason, logic, or facts. 2. Inspirational Appeals -Trying to build enthusiasm or confidence by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values. 3. Consultation -Getting others to participate in a decision or change.
    • 11. INFLUENCE IN ORGANISATIONAL LEADERSHIP Tactics Explanation 4. Ingratiating Tactics -Acting humble or friendly or making someone feel good or feel important before making a request. 5. Personal Appeals -Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request. 6. Exchange Tactics -Reminding someone of past favors or offering to trade favors. 7. Coalition Tactics -Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. 8. Pressure Tactics -Using demands, threats, or intimidation to gain compliance. 9. Legitimating Tactics -Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors.
    • 12. 7 differences between authority and influence (Bacharach and Lawler ,1980) AUTHORITY INFLUENCE •Authority is the static, structural aspect of power in organizations. •Influence is the dynamic, tactical element. •Authority is the formal aspect of power. •Influence is the informal aspect. •Authority refers to the formally sanctioned right to make final decisions. •Influence is not sanctioned by the organization and is, therefore, not a matter of organizational rights.
    • 13. 7 differences between authority and influence (Bacharach and Lawler ,1980) AUTHORITY INFLUENCE •Authority implies involuntary submission by subordinates. •Influence implies voluntary submission and does not necessarily entail a superior subordinate relationship. •Authority flows downward, and it is unidirectional. •Influence is multi-directional and can flow upward, downward, or horizontally. •The source of authority is solely structural. •The source of influence may be personal characteristic, expertise, or opportunity. •Authority is circumscribed, that is, the domain, scope, and legitimacy of the power are specifically and clearly delimited. •Influence is uncircumscribed, that is, its domain, scope, and legitimacy are typically ambiguous.
    • 14. CONCLUSION • Power, influence and authority are the most important aspect in organization leadership. • It prevails as the administration of leaders that lack any one of it may collapse easily under pressure or problem. • Leaders, like Tun Mahathir whom has had and used all of the sources of power, authority & influence, had everybody to follow his mode of leadership.
    • 15. THANK YOU By: PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU