MODERN WORLD HISTORY FPA2043 PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU 127445 & KARTHEGEISU 130287 PRESENTS;
What was the Renaissance? Discuss the changes that took place in Europe between the 14th & 16th centuries as a result of the Renaissance.
RENAISSANCE By the term Renaissance means “New Rebirth”. It’s the period when the fragmented feudal society of the Middle Ages, with its agricultural economy and Church-dominated intellectual and cultural life, Was transformed into a society increasingly dominated by central political institutions, with an urban, commercial economy and lay patronage of education, the arts, and music.
At all events the Renaissance was heralded through the recovery by Italian scholars of Greek and Roman classical literature. When the movement began, the civilization of Greece and Rome had long been exerting a partial influence, not only upon Italy, but on other parts of mediaeval Europe as well. But in Italy especially, when the wave of barbarism had passed, the people began to feel a returning consciousness of their ancient culture, and a desire to reproduce it.
RENAISSANCE BEGAN IN ITALY BECAUSE Just as the Reformation went forth from Germany and the political revolution from France, So did the Renaissance go forth from Italy; The development of the Italian cities. Ex: Florence, the second Athens. In Italy the break between the old and the new civilization was not so complete. The Romans & Italians The existence of so many monuments of the civilization and the grandeur of ancient Rome.
The Renaissance witnessed: -The discovery and exploration of new continents, -The substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, -The decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, -The invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations: paper, printing, the mariner's compass, and gunpowder.
THE SOUTHERN RENAISSANCE The Renaissance as it occurred in Southern Europe has been termed the “Southern Renaissance". The Southern Renaissance, refers to the changes that happened in Italy at that time. The birth of new political system and development of economic structure.
INVENTIONS -Tools developed in the Middle Ages for exploration continued to be used during the Renaissance. One of these was the astrolabe, the magnetic compass. -Maps, too, became more reliable as Portuguese map makers, called cartographers, incorporated information provided by travelers and explorers into their work. Shipbuilding also improved during the Renaissance, as large ships called galleons became common. These ships were powered by sail rather than by men using oars.
TRADE As the economy of the Renaissance continued to improve, there were ever-increasing demands for imported goods and new places to export local products. The Renaissance sailor first took to the seas to supply Europeans with the many Asian spices they demanded. Also from the East came precious gems and fine silk, a fabric especially sought after for women's clothing. These trading voyages were often paid for by investors
RENAISSANCE EXPLORERS Prince Henry of Portugal, known as Prince Henry the Navigator. With the help of mathematicians, astronomers, cartographers, and other navigators, Prince Henry sent expeditions to explore the west coast of Africa. These explorations led to trade for gold and ivory and, soon after, slaves. Later, Portuguese sailors discovered the route around the southern tip of Africa that would take them to India entirely by sea.
HUMANISME Renaissance humanism was a movement that affected the cultural, political, social, and literary landscape of Europe. Beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century, Renaissance humanism revived the study of Latin and Greek, with the resultant revival of the study of science, philosophy, art and poetry of classical antiquity.
The revival was based on interpretations of Roman and Greek texts, whose emphasis upon art and the senses marked a great change from the contemplation on the Biblical values of humility, introspection, and meekness. Beauty was held to represent a deep inner virtue and value, and an essential element in the path towards God.
Francesco Patriarco (1304-1374), was known as the first man of letters
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), wrote the Decameron,(ten days' work) collection of Italian prose and now accepted as his major work.
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), wrote ‘The Prince’, a book on effective governance and to establish a state capable of resisting foreign attack.
Bruni: wrote ‘Historiarum Florentini populi libri XII’, the history of Florentine in 1420.
The Influence Of Printing
Very important in the diffusion of the Renaissance and later in the success of the Reformation was the invention of printing in Europe. The essential elements - paper and block printing - had been known in China since 8th century. During the 12th century the Spanish Muslims introduced papermaking to Europe; in the 13th century Europeans were in close contact with China and block printing became known in the West.
The crucial step was taken in the 1440s at Mainz, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg and other printers invented movable type by cutting up old printing blocks to form individual letters. Gutenberg used movable type to print papal documents and the first printed version of the Bible (1454)
Soon all the major countries of Europe possessed the means for printing books. In 1465 two Germans brought printing to Italy, and within four years the works of eight classical authors (including Cicero, Livy, Virgil, Pliny, and Caesar) had been printed there. In all of Europe during the remainder of the century an estimated 40,000 titles were published. Prices of books sank to one eighth of their former cost thus placing books within the reach of many people. In addition, pamphlets and controversial tracts soon were widely circulated, and new ideas reached a thousand times more people in a relatively short span of time.
ARCHITECTURE In constructing churches, Renaissance architects no longer used the shape of a cross as a basis for their structures. Instead, they based them on the circle. Wealthy people of the Renaissance often adopted a Roman style, building the four sides of their homes around a courtyard.
SCIENCE The recovery of ancient manuscripts showed the humanists how the Greeks and Romans employed mathematics to give structure to their art. The relationship between these two studies is most evident in architecture, where numerical ratios were used in building design.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE One of the most interesting proportions used by Renaissance artists, the golden mean, had also been used by the ancient Greeks in art and architecture. The humanists also used the writings of Vitruvius, a Roman architect, to guide them in their architectural designs.
ARTS AND PAINTING One of the most interesting proportions used by Renaissance artists, the golden mean, had also been used by the ancient Greeks in art and architecture. The humanists also used the writings of Vitruvius, a Roman architect, to guide them in their architectural designs.
THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE The Renaissance as it occurred in Northern Europe has been termed the "Northern Renaissance". The Italian Renaissance had infused thought and art with humanistic values. In time the stimulating ideas current in Italy spread to other areas and combined with indigenous developments to produce a French Renaissance, an English Renaissance, and so on.
*Throughout the fifteenth century the matriculation records of Italian universities listed hundreds of northern European students. *Their chief interest was the study of law, medicine and such. *When these students returned home, they often carried manuscripts - and later printed editions - of classical and humanist writers.
EFFECTS OF RENAISSANCE Brought in new conception of life and the world. Restored broken unity of history. Beginning of Archeology and Historical criticism. Impulse of religious reform. Reformed Education. Development of vernacular literature.
FINALLY… Past final exam questions related to the topic: 2006:Explain what is meant by Renaissance. Discuss some of the changes that took place in Europe during this period. 2007:What is meant by Renaissance in Europe between the 14th – 16th centuries. Discuss some of the achievements of the Europeans during this period.