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  • 1. WARNING!!
    This presentation may contains explicit and disturbing pictures/videos.
    Remain calm and pay attention
    ~ Thank you
  • 2. PAY ATTENTION
    TAKE NOTES
    AND
    ASK QUESTIONS
  • 3. FPP 2623
    NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
     
    1994
    RWANDA GENOCIDE:
    A Power Struggle
    PRESENTED ON:
    10th SEPTEMBER 2009
    UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIACOLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
  • 4. 1994RWANDA GENOCIDE
  • 5. INTRODUCTION
    Genocide in international law:
    the crime of destroying, or committing conspiracy to destroy, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group
    The Genocide in Rwanda was a Power Struggle
    Creation of a state sparks ethnic tensions
  • 6. Video 1 crisis in Rwanda (0:00-1:04)
    Definition
    100 days
    800 000
    Killing Tutsi
    Primitive weapons
    Militia, armed forces and civilian people
  • 7. BACKGROUND OF RWANDA
    Rwanda located in central Africa
    Population 7 million people.
    Three ethnic groups Hutus, Tutsis and Twa.
  • 8. THE PEOPLE
    Hutus
    - 80%
    -Migrated from southern Africa
    -farmers and laborers.
    Tutsis
    - 20%
    -Migrated from Northern Africa
    (Egypt)
    -Before colonial: privileged class with control of cattle and arms
    -Most of the land was ruled by a
    Tutsi king, the Mwami,
    - Some Hutu areas were independent.
    Twa
    -1% -Mixed economy
  • 9. THE SOSIOLOGY
    • Focusing on the Hutu & Tutsi
    • 10. The two ethnic groups are actually very similar
    - same language
    - Inhabit the same areas
    - follow the same traditions
    • Physically;
    Tutsis are taller & thinner than Hutus, with some saying their origins lie in Northern Africa.
  • 11. CAUSES OF THE GENOCIDEpre- colonial
    Hutus - the natives
    Tutsis - the settlers
    The Tutsis established a monarchy (mwami)
    :land lords, own cattle,
    During the monarch - Oppressiveness of Hutus and perpetuated until colonial era
  • 12. Colonial Era
    After World War I,
    The League of Nations
    mandated
    Rwanda and Burundi
    to Belgium
  • 13. Colonial era
    Divide and rule:
    Tutsis - aristocrats - higher class
    Hutus - lower class – discriminated
    Tribal Card System:
    Discrimination: - education
    - government job
  • 14. TRIBAL CARD
  • 15. CIVIL WAR
    Belgians in the 1950s encouraged the growth of democratic political institutions.
    Resisted by the Tutsi traditionalists
    Threat to Tutsi rule.
    Sparked a revolt in November 1959, three years before independence.
    Resulting in the overthrow of the Tutsi monarchy.
  • 16. Post-Colonial
    Two years after the overthrowing the Tutsi king:
    Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) won UN-supervised referendum (election).
    The PARMEHUTU formed government
    Was granted internal autonomy by Belgium on January 1, 1962
    June 1962 UN General Assembly resolution terminated the Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda (and Burundi) effective July 1, 1962
    Gregoire Kayibanda, leader of the PARMEHUTU Party, became Rwanda's first elected president
  • 17. Unhappy by the political conditions
    The Tutsi guerrilla attacked Rwanda from Burundi in 1963
    Anti-Tutsi backlash: about 14,000 Tutsis killed by the Hutu Government
    Despite the progress made by the PARMEHUTU government:
    inefficiency and corruption began festering government ministries in the mid-1960s
  • 18. As a result of the inefficiency:
    Coup d’état:
    On July 5, 1973, a coup d'état under the leadership of Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana, dissolved the National Assembly
    PARMEHUTU Party abolished & all political activity ceased
    Elections:
    Mej Jen Habyarimana won as president in December 1978 elections and was re-elected in 1983 and again in 1988 (democratic election)
    Responding to public pressure for political reform, President Habyarimana announced in July 1990 his intention to transform Rwanda's one-party state into a multi-party democracy.
  • 19. In 1975, Mej Jen Habyarimana formed
    :National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND)
    :goals - to promote peace, unity, and national development.
    The movement was organized from the "hillside" to the national level and included elected and appointed officials
    Former President
    Mej Jen Juvanel Habyarimana
  • 20. The RPF 1990 invasion
    In the early 1990s, Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF)
    A Tutsi rebellion against Habyarimana's government began
    Launched from Uganda
    RPF reached Kigali
    CURRENT PRESIDENT OF RWANDA
    PAUL KAGAME
    (FORMER RPF COMMANDER)
  • 21. Goal: resolve the problems of some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in Diaspora around the world.
    The French and Zairian/Congolese
    (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) militaries intervened on behalf of Habyarimana's government forces.
    A ceasefire was officially reached in 1993 through the Arusha Accords
  • 22. ARUSHA ACCORD 1993
    The Arusha Accords
    (also the Arusha Peace Agreement,
    or the Arusha negotiations)
    Signed in Arusha, Tanzania on August 4, 1993,
    By the government of Rwanda and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
  • 23. Contains of Arusha Accord
    The Accords also negotiated points for lasting peace:
    -The rule of law
    - Repatriation of refugees both from fighting
    and from power sharing agreements
    - Merging of government and rebels armies
    The Arusha Accords established a
    Broad-Based Transitional Government (BBTG)
    Included the insurgent Rwandese Patriotic Front (primarily Tutsi) with the five political parties that had composed a temporary government since April 1992 in anticipation of general elections.
  • 24. Arusha Accord
    Negotiation for a sharing of power between the rebels and the Rwanda government
    The talks produced an agreement that favored the Rwandese Patriotic Front because of disagreements within the government side
    The Arusha Accords stripped many powers from the office of the President, transferring them to the transitional government
  • 25. ASSASINATION & GENOCIDE
    On April 6, 1994, When Habyarimana's plane was shot down, it was the final nail in the coffin.
    The death of the Hutu leader sparked
    instantaneous
    and catastrophic
    violence against
    the Tutsis
  • 26. Video 2 - Crisis in Rwanda (2:36-4:41)
    • 1950’s ending reign by UN (school and politics)
    • 27. 1975 habryamana – productive country
    • 28. Rich and poor (inbalance of power and wealth)
    • 29. Tutsi access decrease
    • 30. 600 000 run away
    • 31. 1990 RPF attack until kigali
    • 32. 1993 un peace keepers
    • 33. Plane attack
    • 34. genocide
  • OTHER CAUSES THAT LED TO THE GENOCIDE
    Drop Coffee production
    Dependant on coffee production
    • Since the 1980s, farm sizes and food production have been decreasing,
    • 35. Due in part to the resettlement of displaced people.
    • 36. Thus despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports
  • The instability of the economy in that country leads to genocide
    Through the 1980’s they experienced a series of severe environmental changes that affected their ability to export mass quantities of coffee.
    Plus, the international price of coffee fell in the mid to late 1980’s the country felt the strain of having to compete in the market.
  • 37. Disruption in Agriculture
    The escalation of the Rwandan civil war in April 1994 resulted in the death of one million people and the displacement of another two million.
    Agriculture, was acutely affected as civil disruptions peaked in the middle of a major growing season.
    Agriculture in pre-war Rwanda exhibited all the characteristics and problems of small farm agriculture.
    The disruption of agriculture putting a strain upon the production and distribution of food for the population as well as the country’s export.
  • 38. Social Causes
    Ethnic discrimination
    Rwanda and its economy wereoverwhelmed by ethnic strife between
    : the Hutu (about 80 percent of the population) and
    : the Tutsi (10–15 percent of the population).
    During colonial times political power and administrativeauthority had rested with the minority Tutsi. (Hutu was discriminated)
    Starting in the immediate post-independence period(1959), the Hutu gained political dominance.
    (Tutsi were discriminated)
  • 39. 7TH APRIL 1994The Genocide
    The unfolding events
  • 40. Propaganda
    A private radio station owned by members of Habyarimana's inner circle, the Radio TélévisionLibre des Milles Collines
    Slogans:
    "fill the half-empty graves”
    By the 3rd day, the broadcasts became more virulent and began targeting individuals who were named as "enemies" or "traitors" who "deserved to die"
  • 41. Among those so labeled were LandoNdasingwa,
    The then Minister of Labor and Social Affairs, who was one of the first killed once the massacres began (along with his mother, his wife and his children)
    Monique Mujawamariya, a human rights activist, who narrowly escaped with her life.
    The west labeled it as the “Hate Radio”
    (video-help us president: 0:17-0:53)
  • 42. On the 1st day, the genocide was only taking place in Kigali
    The radio broadcast triggered the man slaughter in the interiors of Rwanda
    The Broadcasts were entirely manned by the government officials
    To mobilize the unemployed youths of Rwanda in to Interahamwe Militia
  • 43. AUDIO paying tribute (0:00-0:28)
    Is it possible to carry out a mass murder in the 20th century like the
    1994 Rwanda Genocide?
    Where were every one else?
    Where was the International Law?
    Was The World Asleep…..??
  • 44. Video 4: crisis in Rwanda (6:15-6:30)
    The evacuation of white
    Humanitarian speech
  • 45. The United Nations
    United Nations (UN) was not able to act, as its member states was not responding well
    Due to various political and military interests
  • 46. The United States
    The most powerful member of the UN turned away from the conflict
    Because of the previous experience in the Mogadishu, Somalia
    Political pressure on the Clinton administration
  • 47. Video 3: crisis in Rwanda (4:41-6:10)
    Turn away
    mogadishu
  • 48. Though fully briefed on the unfolding crisis,
    The Clinton Administration took no action to halt the growing violence, and instead began to lobby for the withdrawal of the UN force in Rwanda.
    The genocide unfolded, the US made an “informed decision” in choosing not to act to stop the genocide in Rwanda.
    FORMER PRESIDENT
    BILL CLINTON
  • 49. The Clinton Administration also refused to name the unfolding as genocide.
    It blocked international intervention in Rwanda claiming that there was no domestic constituency nor compelling foreign policy interest to support US action on this crisis.
  • 50. Republic of France
    The French ignored the problem & assisted the Interahamwe
    :Military training
    (accused by Rwanda)
    :Diplomatic cover
    This further delayed help to Rwanda
  • 51. Current President of Rwanda(million voice audio)
    You kept quiet...
    When these victims
    wanted your help to survive,
    you kept quiet…
    ~PAUL KAGAME
    The Former commander of
    RPF
  • 52. Apologies
    After the genocide, there were many organizations, governments and leaders of the world apologizing
    For not doing anything and
    not doing enough to help the victims of the genocide
  • 53. President Bill ClintonFormer President of USA
    help us president (audio: 8:51-9.05)
    “all over the world there were people like me sitting in offices, day after day after day, who did not fully appreciate the depth and the speed with which you were being engulfed by this unimaginable terror.”
  • 54. Kofi Annan Former UN Secretary General
    “Now we know that
    what we did was not merely enough,
    not enough to save Rwanda from itself not enough to uphold the ideals for which the United Nations exists”
    (crisis in Rwanda audio: 9:16-9:29 )
  • 55. “The world is too dangerous to live in,
    not because of the people who do evil,
    But because of the people who sit and
    let it happen”
    ~Albert Einstein
  • 56. EFFECTS OF THE GENOCIDE
    The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race or religion
    The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity
    A series of massive population displacements
    A nagging Hutu extremist insurgency
    Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • 57. Social Effects of the Genocide
    The genocide in overall has tarnished the moral of the community
    The Tutsi lost not only their lives, families and property
    Also their dignity, social organization and the will to live
  • 58. Sexual abuse
    A lot of Tutsi women were raped, tortured, mutilated and killed.
    There were eradicated to prevent the birth of new generation
    Many women raped by men knew they where HIV positive and were sadistically trying to transmit the virus to Tutsi women and Tutsi families
    Women as a “sexual weapon”
    (Medium of propaganda)
  • 59.
    • Victims of sexual abuse during the genocide have suffered persistent with health problem such as
    • 60. Syphilis ,Gonorrhea and HIV/AIDS
    • 61. A survey of 304 women taken soon after the genocide shows 35% said
    : They been pregnant after being raped
    • Almost all of the women and girls who survive in genocide are the victims of rape.
  • The Innocent victims
    The children born of rape, “children of hate” are estimated around 2000 and 5000
    Social pressure for women
    Shamed by society
    Social degradation tough to be brought upon to the family and community
    Blame is shifted from rapist to victims.
  • 62. Orphans
    - 1995 , 12000 children were crowded in to 56 centers has a temporary orphanage .
    - Children got psycho social trauma
    - Unaccompanied children:
    400000 unaccompanied children found in Rwanda
    - Children in detention:
    1995- 1400 children in some form of detention (what forms?)
  • 63. Child Soldier
    Themselves to combat units during the war.
    Children and youth are used
    as -porters, spies, and cooks; once they are trained, they will actively participate as soldiers
    After genocide- 5,000 children under 18 were members of the Rwandan Patriotic Army .
  • 64. Economic Effects of the Genocide
    in mid 1989 coffee prizes dropped to 50%
    -Its make the coffee production decrease
    -Earning of government was decline from 144 million in 1985 to 30 million in1993.
  • 65. It also made every family in Rwanda suffer a substantial income.
    In the same time school fee, health care and even water price increased:
    • it made the Rwandans become extremely poor
    • 66. in 1989 small farmers were producing cash crops for export that they could no longer feed themselves.
    • 67. Many families were died because of hunger
  • Rwanda today
    Democratic Multi party state
    Led by Paul Kagame
    Power sharing
    Deeply effected by the power struggle
    The nation building of Rwanda has just began
  • 68. CONCLUSION
    Moving back to our theme Rwanda Genocide: A Power struggle
    Before the colonization - lived together
    During colonization – discrimination
    Social system – caste system
    After colonization – fight over power
    Ended becoming genocide
  • 69. THANK YOU audio paying tribute (0:00-0:28)
    1994 RWANDA GENOCIDE : A POWER STRUGGLE