1.0 Job SatisfactionHRM theories assert that employees are indeed valuable. They are the key source of value creation in themodern firm, particularly in knowledge-based industries such as Pharmaceuticals and software. However,satisfying the latter requirement being hard to poach is difficult because talented employees can walk out of thedoor. This is where the role of job satisfaction lies (Edmands, 2012) Job satisfaction pays an important role inmaintaining an healthy workforce in the organization. The role of attracting, motivating and retaining anemployee for a long period of time is only successful in the event the employee is experiencing sufficient jobsatisfaction in the current state of employment.The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who defined it as ‗‗…a pleasurable orpositive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one‘s job or job experiences‘‘ Employees cognitiveappraisals and affective responses to work experiences evolve over time (Hausknecht et al., 2011), which maylead to increases or decreases in job satisfaction.When people speak of employee attitudes, they usually mean an evaluation of its characteristics. A person witha high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, while a person with low level holdsnegative feelings Because organizational behavior researchers give job satisfaction high importance (Stephen P.Robbins, 2013)Employee job satisfaction or dissatisfaction has implications for employee performance, organizationalcommitment, organizational citizenship behavior, turnover intentions or turnover, and job attitudes (Lan,Okechuku, Zhang, & Cao, 2012)2.0 Measuring Job SatisfactionSince 1930‘s, an estimated 2000 studies of job satisfaction have been published (Khan, 1972) and a larenumber of indicators have been used to measure the concept (Robinson, Athanasiou and Head, 1969).A research piece from the Netherlands (Saane, Sluiter, Verbeek and Frings-Dresen, 2003), comprising asystematic review of different instruments used to measure job satisfaction, concluded that only a few of theseinstruments have shown both high reliability and validity. Assessing the internal consistency, construct validity
and responsiveness of these instruments, researchers concluded that, from the 29 instruments analyzed; onlyseven of them were reliable and valid enough to assess job satisfaction in various environments.The findings are summarized in the table below,Name Item Answer Scale Factors AssessedJob in general scale 18 Item Three answer categories(yes or no)General jobsatisfactionAndrew and WithneyJob SatisfactionQuestionare5 Item Seven-point Likert scale(from 1 -delighted to 7 -not at all satisfied)General jobsatisfactionJob SatisfactionSurveyMultidimensionalinstrument (ninesubheadings,unknownnumber of items)Six-point Likert scale(from 1 - disagree to 6 -agree very much)Salary, promotion,supervision, fringebenefits, contingentrewards, operatingprocedures, co-workers, work andcommunicationEmergency PhysicianJob Satisfaction Scale79 itemmultidimensionalinstrumentSeven-point Likert scale(from -3 - stronglydisagree to 3 – stronglyagree)General jobsatisfactionand administrativeautonomy, clinicalautonomy, resources,social relationships,lifestyle andchallengesMcClosky/MuellerSatisfaction Scale31 itemmultidimensionalinstrumentFive-point Likert scale(from 1 - verydissatisfied to 5 - verysatisfied)Extrinsic rewards,Schedulingsatisfaction,work-life balance,co-workers,interaction,professionalopportunities,praise/recognition and
control/responsibilityMeasure of JobSatisfaction38 itemmultidimensionalinstrumentFive-point Likert scale(from 1 - verydissatisfied to 5 - verysatisfied)Personnel satisfaction,workload,professionalsupport, salary, andprospects and trainingNurse SatisfactionScale24 itemmultidimensionalscaleSeven-point Likert scale(from 1 - strongly agreeto 7 - strongly disagree)Administration,co-workers, career,patient care, relationswith supervisor,nursing education andcommunicationSource: Adapted from national contribution (Netherlands)3.0 Promote Job Satisfaction through Mental ChallengeMental challenge in promoting Job satisfaction is important, because the employee will feel their work and jobdescription will bring significant impact to the work environment (Lunenburg, 2011)developed a jobcharacteristics approach to job enrichment. The model is based on the assumption that jobs can be designed notonly to help workers get enjoyment from their jobs but also to help workers feel that they are doing meaningfuland valuable work.
Source : (Lunenburg, 2011)The five core job characteristics are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback.Skill variety: Skill variety is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves theuse of a number of different skills and talents of the employee. Jobs that are high in skill variety are seen byemployees as: more challenging because of the range of skills involved; relieve monotony that results fromrepetitive activity; and gives employees a greater sense of competence. For example, an administrative assistantwith high skill variety may have to perform many different tasks, e.g., schedule meetings, make airline andhotel reservations, do research, prepare written reports, and meet with customers. (Lunenburg, 2011)Task identity: Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a ―whole‖ and identifiablepiece of work—that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. When employees work on asmall part of the whole, they are unable toidentify any finished product with their efforts. They cannot feel anysense of completion or responsibility for the whole product. However, when tasks are broadened to produce awhole product or an identifiable part of it, then task identity has been established. For example, dress designerswill have high task identity if they do everything related to making the whole dress, e.g., measuring the client,selecting the fabric, cutting and sewing the dress, and altering it to fit the customer.(Lunenburg, 2011)Task significance: Task significance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives ofother people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the external environment. Forexample, medical researchers working on a cure for a terminal disease most likely recognize the importance oftheir work to society. Even more modest contributions to an organization can be recognized as being importantto the extent that employees understand therole of their jobs to the overall mission of the company. The point isthat employees should believe they are doing something important in their organization or society, orboth.(Lunenburg, 2011)Autonomy: Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, anddiscretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in doing thework. It is considered fundamental in building a sense of responsibility in employees. Although most employees
are willing to work within the broad constraints of an organization, employees want a certain degree offreedom. Autonomy has become very important to people in the workplace. For example, a salesperson isconsidered to be highly autonomous by scheduling his or her own work day and deciding on the most effectiveapproach to use for each customer without supervision. (Lunenburg, 2011)Job feedback: Job feedback is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job providesthe individual with direction and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Feedbackcan be positive or negative, but it is best when it is balanced appropriately. Feedback should occur frequentlyrather than be delayed until the annual evaluation meeting. The only way employees can make adjustments intheir performance is to know how they are performing now, not later. Feedback can come directly from the jobitself, or it can be provided verbally by management or other employees. For example, salespersons receiveinformation regularly about how many contacts they make per day or week and the monetary value of salesmade.(Lunenburg, 2011)As shown in the model, these core job characteristics have important effects on various critical psychologicalstates. For example, skill variety, task identity,and task significance together contribute to a person‘sexperienced meaningfulness of the work. Jobs that provide a great deal of autonomy are said to contribute to aperson‘s experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work. When they have the freedom to decide what to doand how to do it, employees feel more responsible for the results. Finally, job feedback is said to giveemployees knowledge of the actual results of work activities. When a job is designed to provide employees withinformation about the effects of their actions in the workplace, they are better able to develop an understandingof how well they have performed—and such knowledge improves their effectiveness.(Lunenburg, 2011)The job characteristics model indicates that the three critical psychological states affect various personal andwork outcomes—namely, people‘s internal work motivation, growth satisfaction, general job satisfaction, andwork effectiveness. The higher the experienced meaningfulness of work; experienced responsibility foroutcomes of the work; and knowledge of the actual results of work activities, the more positive the personal andwork outcomes will be. When employees perform jobs that incorporate high levels of the five core job
characteristics, they should feel highly motivated, be highly satisfied with their jobs, and perform workeffectively.(Lunenburg, 2011)4.0 Job Satisfaction and TurnoverJob satisfaction and staff turnover have long been two of the major concerns of human resource managers ofaccounting firms (Brierley 1999). Studies have found a positive correlation between job satisfaction and jobperformance and between job satisfaction and organizational commitment (George and Jones 2008). Aftercontrolling for the average level of job satisfaction during a given period, they found that decline (increase) injob satisfaction was significantly related to an increase (decline) in turnover intentions(Liu, Mitchell, Lee,Holtom, & Hinkin, 2012).In the context of a job satisfaction decrease, an individual may be motivated to seek new job opportunities andwithdraw from the present organization to prevent a further decline. In contrast, in the presence of a jobsatisfaction increase, the person will tend to develop a positive perspective on continuing employment (Ariely&Carmon, 2000)Employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to perform better than those who are not. Job dissatisfaction,on the other hand, has been associated with absenteeism, tardiness, turnover, and negative attitudes (Randolph2005).Many studies conducted in different settings found a significant negative correlation between the facets of jobsatisfaction and turnover intention. Rahman, (2008) found that job satisfaction had negative effect on turnoverintentions of IT professional.The most significant predictors of turnover intention were low levels of job satisfaction, high levels of workstress, low levels of workplace support and negative perceptions about remuneration. Interventions aimed atthese factors need to be developed and implemented if the issue of turnover is to be effectively addressed(Duraisingam, Pidd, & Roche, 2009)organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospitalemployees. The results indicated that hospital employees are moderately satisfied and committed towards theirjob and the organization. Employee‘s job satisfaction organizational commitment and turnover intention wereinterrelated. The study conducted by Lew (2008) on job satisfaction and affective commitment of employees in
tourism industry revealed that the three most important factors to motivate employees are interesting work, jobsecurity and opportunities for advancement and development. The same study confirmed that satisfiedemployees tend to be more committed to their organizations and offer high quality service to the customers. Thestudy conducted by Paul and Anantharaman (2004) among Indian software professionals emphasized the role ofHRD variables, such as inculcating and enhancing organizational commitment and suggested that HRDpractitioners and researchers should further develop commitment oriented organization policies in order toreduce employee turnover.Job enrichment is a job-design strategy for enhancing job content by building into it more motivating potential.Expanding on the work of Frederick Herzberg, Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham provide an explicitframework for enriching jobs. Based on their own work and the work of others, they developed a jobcharacteristics model. In particular, the model specifies that enriching certain elements of jobs alters people‘spsychological states in a manner that enhances their work effectiveness5.0 Control Voluntary Turnover by Understanding its CausesJob satisfaction reflects the degree of fulfillment an individual derives from theirwork (Spector, 2000). Previousstudies have indicated that workers who are satisfied are more likely to produce a higher standard of workperformance (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001) and remain with the organization (Tett& Meyer, 1993)Turnover intention may be defined as the intention of employees to quit their organization. Price (1977) hasdefined ―turnover‖ as the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period beingconsidered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the periodIn a study of AOD treatment agencies in the USA Pacific Northwest, it was estimated that agencies, on average,experienced a 25% turnover rate per year with voluntary resignations being the most frequent form of turnover(Gallon, 2003)Work stress refers to psychological, physical and behavioural responses to workrelated demands over a discreteor short-term period (Dollard, Winefield, &Winefield, 2003). Longitudinal studies of turnover by Wright&Copranzano, (1998) have shown that emotional exhaustion, which is a primary indicator of work stress, is a
significant predictor of voluntary turnover. Health and human service workers often experience high levels ofwork-related demands and are therefore particularly at risk of stress and burnout (Dollard, Winefield,Winefield, 2001)Job satisfaction reflects the degree of fulfillment an individual derives from their work (Spector, 2000).Previous studies have indicated that workers who are satisfied are more likely to produce a higher standard ofwork performance (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001) and remain with the organization (Tett& Meyer,1993).6.0 ConclusionJob satisfaction is thought to influence their work outcomes such as organizational commitment and turnoverintentions. It is identified the potential relationships of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, andturnover intentions. In addition, organizations be aware of organizational commitment and turnover intentionsamong employees who vary in job satisfaction levels. (Yücel, 2012)
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