WARNING!! This presentation may contains explicit and disturbing pictures/videos. Remain calm and pay attention ~ Thank you
PAY ATTENTION TAKE NOTES AND ASK QUESTIONS
UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA COLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FPP 2623 NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 1994 RWANDA GENOCIDE: A Power Struggle PRESENTED ON: 10 th SEPTEMBER 2009
1994 RWANDA GENOCIDE
Causes of the genocide
Events of the genocide
Effects of the genocide
Genocide in international law:
the crime of destroying, or committing conspiracy to destroy, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group
The Genocide in Rwanda was a Power Struggle
Creation of a state sparks ethnic tensions
BACKGROUND OF RWANDA
Rwanda located in central Africa
Population 7 million people.
Three ethnic groups Hutus, Tutsis and Twa .
THE PEOPLE Hutus - 80% -Migrated from southern Africa -farmers and laborers. Tutsis - 20% -Migrated from Northern Africa (Egypt) -Before colonial: privileged class with control of cattle and arms -Most of the land was ruled by a Tutsi king, the Mwami, - Some Hutu areas were independent. Twa -1% -Mixed economy
Focusing on the Hutu & T utsi
The two ethnic groups ar e actually very similar
- same language
- Inhabit the same areas
- follow the same traditio ns
Tutsis are taller & thinne r than Hutus, with some saying their origins lie in Northe rn Africa.
CAUSES OF THE GENOCIDE pre- colonial
Hutus - the natives
Tutsis - the settlers
The Tutsis established a monarchy (mwami)
:land lords, own cattle,
During the monarch - Oppressiveness of Hutus and perpetuated until colonial era
After World War I,
The League of Nations
Rwanda and Burundi
Colonial era Divide and rule: Tutsis - aristocrats - higher class Hutus - lower class – discriminated Tribal Card System: Discrimination: - education - government job
Belgians in the 1950s encouraged the growth of democratic political institutions.
Resisted by the Tutsi traditionalists
Threat to Tutsi rule.
Sparked a revolt in November 1959, three years before independence.
Resulting in the overthrow of the Tutsi monarchy.
Two years after the overthrowing the Tutsi king:
Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) won UN-supervised referendum (election).
The PARMEHUTU formed government
Was granted internal autonomy by Belgium on January 1, 1962
June 1962 UN General Assembly resolution terminated the Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda (and Burundi) effective July 1, 1962
Gregoire Kayibanda , leader of the PARMEHUTU Party, became Rwanda's first elected president
Unhappy by the politic al conditions
The Tutsi guerrilla atta cked Rwanda from Burundi in 1963
Anti-Tutsi backlash: ab out 14,000 Tutsis killed by the Hutu Governme nt
Despite the progress m ade by the PARMEHUTU governm ent:
inefficiency and corru ption began festering government ministries in the mid-1960s
As a result of the inefficiency:
On July 5, 1973, a coup d'état under the leadership of Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana, dissolved the National Assembly
PARMEHUTU Party abolished & all political activity ceased
Mej Jen Habyarimana won as president in December 1978 elections and was re-elected in 1983 and again in 1988 (democratic election)
Responding to public pressure for political reform, President Habyarimana announced in July 1990 his intention to transform Rwanda's one-party state into a multi-party democracy.
In 1975, Mej Jen Habyarimana formed
:National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND)
:goals - to promote peace, unity, and national development.
The movement was organized from the "hillside" to the national level and included elected and appointed officials
Former President Mej Jen Juvanel Habyarimana
The RPF 1990 invasion
In the early 1990s, Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF)
A Tutsi rebellion against Habyarimana's government began
Launched from Uganda
RPF reached Kigali
CURRENT PRESIDENT OF RWANDA PAUL KAGAME ( FORMER RPF COMMANDER )
Goal: resolve the problems of some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in Diaspora around the world.
The French and Zairian/ Congolese
(now Democratic Republic of the Congo ) militaries intervened on behalf of Habyarimana's government forces.
A ceasefire was officially reached in 1993 through the Arusha Accords
ARUSHA ACCORD 1993
The Arusha Accords
(also the Arusha Peace Agreement,
or the Arusha negotiations)
Signed in Arusha, Tanzania on August 4, 1993,
By the government of Rwanda and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
Contains of Arusha Accord
The Accords also negotiated points for lasting peace:
-The rule of law
- Repatriation of refugees both from fighting
and from power sharing agreements
- Merging of government and rebels armies
The Arusha Accords established a
Broad-Based Transitional Government (BBTG)
Included the insurgent Rwandese Patriotic Front (primarily Tutsi) with the five political parties that had composed a temporary government since April 1992 in anticipation of general elections.
Negotiation for a sharing of power between the rebels and the Rwanda government
The talks produced an agreement that favored the Rwandese Patriotic Front because of disagreements within the government side
The Arusha Accords stripped many powers from the office of the President, transferring them to the transitional government
ASSASINATION & GENOCIDE
On April 6, 1994, When Habyarimana's plane was shot down, it was the final nail in the coffin.
The death of the Hutu leader sparked
OTHER CAUSES THAT LED TO THE GENOCIDE
Drop Coffee production
Dependant on coffee production
Since the 1980s, farm sizes and food production have been decreasing,
Due in part to the resettlement of displaced people.
Thus despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports
The instability of the economy in that country leads to genocide
Through the 1980’s they experienced a series of severe environmental changes that affected their ability to export mass quantities of coffee.
Plus, the international price of coffee fell in the mid to late 1980’s the country felt the strain of having to compete in the market.
Disruption in Agriculture
The escalation of the Rwandan civil war in April 1994 resulted in the death of one million people and the displacement of another two million.
Agriculture, was acutely affected as civil disruptions peaked in the middle of a major growing season.
Agriculture in pre-war Rwanda exhibited all the characteristics and problems of small farm agriculture.
The disruption of agriculture putting a strain upon the production and distribution of food for the population as well as the country’s export.
Rwanda and its economy were overwhelmed by ethnic strife between
: the Hutu (about 80 percent of the population) and
: the Tutsi (10–15 percent of the population).
During colonial times political power and administrative authority had rested with the minority Tutsi. (Hutu was discriminated)
Starting in the immediate post-independence period (1959), the Hutu gained political dominance.
(Tutsi were discriminated)
7 TH APRIL 1994 The Genocide The unfolding events
A private radio station owned by members of Habyarimana's inner circle, the Radio Télévision Libre des Milles Collines
"fill the half-empty graves”
By the 3 rd day, the broadcasts became more virulent and began targeting individuals who were named as "enemies" or "traitors" who "deserved to die"
Among those so labeled were Lando Ndasingwa,
The then Minister of Labor and Social Affairs, who was one of the first killed once the massacres began (along with his mother, his wife and his children)
Monique Mujawamariya, a human rights activist, who narrowly escaped with her life.
The west labeled it as the “ Hate Radio ”
On the 1 st day, the genocide was only taking place in Kigali
The radio broadcast triggered the man slaughter in the interiors of Rwanda
The Broadcasts were entirely manned by the government officials
To mobilize the unemployed youths of Rwanda in to Interahamwe Militia
Is it possible to carry out a mass murder in the 20th century like the
1994 Rwanda Genocide?
Where were every one else?
Where was the International Law?
Was The World Asleep…..??
The United Nations
United Nations (UN) was not able to act, as its member states was not responding well
Due to various political and military interests
The United States
The most powerful member of the UN turned away from the conflict
Because of the previous experience in the Mogadishu, Somalia
Political pressure on the Clinton administration
Though fully briefed on the unfolding crisis,
The Clinton Administration took no action to halt the growing violence, and instead began to lobby for the withdrawal of the UN force in Rwanda.
The genocide unfolded, the US made an “ informed decision ” in choosing not to act to stop the genocide in Rwanda.
FORMER PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON
The Clinton Administration also refused to name the unfolding as genocide.
It blocked international intervention in Rwanda claiming that there was no domestic constituency nor compelling foreign policy interest to support US action on this crisis.
Republic of France
The French ignored the problem & assisted the Interahamwe
(accused by Rwanda)
This further delayed help to Rwanda
Current President of Rwanda
You kept quiet...
When these victims
wanted your help to survive,
you kept quiet…
The Former commander of
After the genocide, there were many organizations, governments and leaders of the world apologizing
For not doing anything and
not doing enough to help the victims of the genocide
President Bill Clinton Former President of USA “ all over the world there were people like me sitting in offices, day after day after day, who did not fully appreciate the depth and the speed with which you were being engulfed by this unimaginable terror.”
Kofi Annan Former UN Secretary General
“ Now we know that
what we did was not merely enough,
not enough to save Rwanda from itself not enough to uphold the ideals for which the United Nations exists”
“ The world is too dangerous to live in,
not because of the people who do evil,
But because of the people who sit and
let it happen”
~ Albert Einstein
EFFECTS OF THE GENOCIDE
The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race or religion
The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity
A series of massive population displacements
A nagging Hutu extremist insurgency
Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo
Social Effects of the Genocide
The genocide in overall has tarnished the moral of the community
The Tutsi lost not only their lives, families and property
Also their dignity, social organization and the will to live
A lot of Tutsi women were raped, tortured, mutilated and killed.
There were eradicated to prevent the birth of new generation
Many women raped by men knew they where HIV positive and were sadistically trying to transmit the virus to Tutsi women and Tutsi families
Women as a “sexual weapon”
(Medium of propaganda)
Victims of sexual abuse during the genocide have suffered persistent with health problem such as
Syphilis ,Gonorrhea and HIV/AIDS
A survey of 304 women taken soon after the genocide shows 35% said
: They been pregnant after being raped
Almost all of the women and girls who survive in genocide are the victims of rape.
The Innocent victims
The children born of rape, “children of hate” are estimated around 2000 and 5000
Social pressure for women
Shamed by society
Social degradation tough to be brought upon to the family and community
Blame is shifted from rapist to victims.
- 1995 , 12000 children were crowded in to 56 centers has a temporary orphanage .
- Children got psycho social trauma
- Unaccompanied children:
400000 unaccompanied children found in Rwanda
- Children in detention:
1995- 1400 children in some form of detention
Themselves to combat units during the war
Children and youth are used
as -porters, spies, and cooks; once they are trained, they will actively participate as soldiers
After genocide- 5,000 children under 18 were members of the Rwandan Patriotic Army .
Economic Effects of the Genocide
in mid 1989 coffee prizes dropped to 50%
-Its make the coffee production decrease
-Earning of government was decline from 144 million in 1985 to 30 million in1993.
It also made every family in Rwanda suffer a substantial income.
In the same time school fee, health care and even water price increased:
it made the Rwandans become extremely poor
in 1989 small farmers were producing cash crops for export that they could no longer feed themselves.
Many families were died because of hunger
Democratic Multi party state
Led by Paul Kagame
Deeply effected by the power struggle
The nation building of Rwanda has just began
Moving back to our theme Rwanda Genocide: A Power struggle