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  • 1. GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 Statistics, Trends, Facts & Figures for Key Policy IssuesGOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 4. GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013CONTENTS GROWING GEORGIA 7 Population growth and change  Migration  Demographics  Revenue  Job growth  Housing Exports MOBILE GEORGIA 21 Transportation infrastructure  Public trust  Airport  Rail  Bridge maintenance  Highway safety HEALTHY GEORGIA 31 Health status  Lifestyle  Insurance  Mental health services in communities  Mortality rates by disease  Trauma network EDUCATED GEORGIA 49 Educational attainment  National assessments  Graduation  SAT/ACT  Teacher salaries  Technical Colleges  Universities SAFE GEORGIA 69 Public safety  Criminal investigations  Drug offenses  Juvenile crime and justice  Adult corrections  Reconvictions  Pardons and Paroles RESPONSIBLE AND EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT 83 State spending  Debt management  Bond rating  State employment  Administrative operations  Technology GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 5. Editor’s Note:Georgia in Perspective is a compilation of data from a wide range of sources, including federal and state agenciesas well as private and non-profit organizations. The Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget has attempted topresent the most currently available annual data in this report. However, the most current year for which data areavailable at publication time for Georgia in Perspective varies considerably. For example, national data from feder-al agencies frequently have a two year lag time between occurrence of events being tracked and publication ofdata, due to the amount of time required to compile and publish national summary data for 50 states. Georgia stateagency data are generally available for the most recently completed fiscal year; however, for some types of datathe compilation time is greater for such reasons as fiscal closeout.GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 6. GROWING GEORGIA 2013 “Strategic economic growth in Georgia can be traced back to the state’s vast range of competitive resources that keeps Georgia top of LEADING mind for businesses here and around the world. From our talented INDICATORS workforce, comprehensive incentives and other business assets, Georgia takes intentional steps to make certain businesses in our state can compete in the global market place.” Georgia Department of Economic Development INDICATORS Population Growth 8 Population Change 9 Age Distribution and Population by Race 10 Limited English Proficiency 11 Income and Gross Domestic Product 12 Median Household Income and Poverty Rate 13 Unemployment Rate and TANF 14 SNAP and Homeownership 15 Housing Values and Employment by Industry 16 Jobs and Agricultural Production 17 Exports and Tourism 18 Energy Consumption and Clean Water 19 Air Quality 20GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 7. Population Growth Georgia’s population was relatively Georgias Population, 1900-2010 stable during the first half of the last century, followed by a period of rapid population growth. 12,000,000 During the 1960s, Georgia’s population grew by 16.3% followed by growth rates of approximately 19% during each of the 10,000,000 succeeding two decades.Number of Persons The fastest pace of growth occurred in 8,000,000 Georgia during the decade between 1990 and 2000, ranking it 6th in popula- tion growth among the 50 states. Growth 6,000,000 increased by 26.4%, twice the national average rate of 13.2%. 4,000,000 The overall population growth rate in Georgia for the decade between 2000 and 2010 was 18.3%. 2,000,000 During the most recent decade, the growth rate peaked at 2.6% between 0 2005 and 2006. The high growth rate 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 between 2005 and 2006 was due in part to migration following Hurricane Katrina.Source: U.S. Census Bureau In 2007, Georgia’s population growth Population Annual Growth Rate: United slowed in response to changing econom- States and Georgia, 2000-2012 ic conditions, reaching the lowest point (1.0%) in 2010. 3.0% Between 2010 and 2012 Georgia added 205,197 new residents. Despite 2.5% the 2nd lowest growth rate in more than a 1.8% decade (1.1%), the state was the 4th Annual Growth Rate 2.0% fastest growing in the nation. Between 2010 and 2011, 3 of Geor- 1.5% gia’s metropolitan statistical areas 1.1% ranked among the country’s 25 fastest 1.0% growing areas: 1.0% -Hinesville-Fort Stewart ranked 1st, with 0.5% 0.7% a 4.1% growth rate, -Warner Robins ranked 8th with a 0.0% growth rate of 2.2%, -Savannah ranked 16th with a growth rate of 2.0%, and -Fort Stewart and Warner Robins United States Georgia metropolitan areas are home to large military installations.Source: U.S. Census BureauA GROWING GEORGIA8 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 8. Population ChangeDuring the last decade, Georgia, NorthCarolina, and Florida registered annual Average Annual Population Growth Rates,growth rates exceeding 1.5%. Alabamaand Tennessee experienced the slowest 2000-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012growth rates in the region. 2.0%The slowdown in population growth Average Annual Percent Changethat occurred in the latter part of the lastdecade persisted into the first two years 1.5%of the current decade. Population growthrates between 2010 and 2012 are wellbelow the average annual growth ratesexperienced by southeastern states andthe nation as a whole during the prior 1.0%decade.During the last decade, Georgia andNorth Carolina experienced the highest 0.5%growth rates in the region. In the currentdecade, Georgia’s population grew atthe 2nd fastest rate among the southeast-ern states. 0.0% United Geo rgia North Florida Sou th Tennessee Alab amaPopulation growth rates between 2011 States Carolin a Carolin aand 2012 among the southeastern states 2000-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012ranged from 1.2% in Florida to 0.4% inAlabama. Source: U.S. Census BureauPopulation change occurs due tonatural increase (number of births minus Components of Population Change:number of deaths) and net migration Southeastern States, 2011-2012(people moving into the area minuspeople moving out). Since the shift ineconomic conditions in 2007, naturalincrease has become a larger contributor Alabamato population growth regionally.Overall, between 2000 and 2009 Georgianatural increase accounted for 45% ofthe state’s population growth. Between2011 and 2012, natural increase was the North Carolinadriving force in Georgia’s populationgrowth, accounting for 56.1% of the Tennesseepopulation increase.Migration represented more than halfof the population growth in 4 of the 6 South Carolinasoutheast states (Florida, South Caroli-na, North Carolina and Tennessee)between 2011 and 2012. Natural Floridaincrease was the major contributor togrowth in only 2 of the region’s states -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%(Alabama and Georgia). Domestic Migration International Migration Natural Increase Source: U.S. Census Bureau A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 9
  • 9. Age Distribution and Population by Race Georgia had the 6th youngest popula- Age Distribution: tion among the 50 states in 2010, with a United States and Georgia, 2010 median age of 35.3 years, and more than one-quarter of the population (25.7%), 30% 28.2% was under the age of 18 in 2010. 25.7% 26.6% 26.4% 24.0% 25.4% Georgia’s older population 25% continues to increase; residents who are Percentage of Total Population over the age of 65 years account for 10.7% of the total population, an in- 20% crease of 31.4% since 2000. The Centers for Disease Control and 15% Prevention reports that, by 2030, the 11.3% 9.9% 10.0% population aged 65 and over will double 9.5% 10% to 71 million people nationwide. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 5% approximately 4 out of 5 seniors in the 1.8% 1.2% United States have 1 chronic health condition and half have 2 or more 0% conditions. The conditions that most Under 18 18-24 25-44 45-64 65-84 85+ frequently limit activity among older Age in Years Americans include arthritis, hypertension, United States Georgia heart disease, diabetes and respiratory diseases.Source: U.S. Census Bureau Population by Race and Hispanic Origin: Georgia Whites represent the largest racial group in Georgia. However, as a per- centage of the total population, the white 2000 2010 population declined between 2000 and 1.2% 1.6% 0.2% 2010, from 62.7% to 55.9%. 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% Blacks represent the second largest 0.2% 5.3% 8.8% race group in Georgia, comprising 30% of the total population in 2010, a small increase from 28.4% in 2000. 28.4% The Hispanic population experienced 30.0% the fast growth between 2000 and 2010, nearly doubling from 429,976 to 853,689 during that decade. Asians represented the second fastest 2.1% growing group, increasing 83.6% 62.7% 55.9% between 2000 and 2010. 3.2% The number of persons indicating that they were of 2 or more races increased White Two or more races from 1.2% in 2000 to 1.6% in 2010. Asian Hispanic Black or African American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander The Native Hawaiian and other Pacific American Indian/ Alaskan Native Other Islander population increased from 3,146 to 5,152 over the last decade.Source: U.S. Census BureauA GROWING GEORGIA10 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 10. Limited English Proficiency Percentage of Population 5 Years and Over that Speak English Less Than Very Well: Georgia Counties, 2006-2010 Source: U.S. Census Bureau The U.S. Census Bureau’s five-year American Community Survey (ACS) provides information about language spoken at home for each county in the state. The 2006–2010 ACS data indicates that the percentage of households with residents who speak English less than very well ranges from 4 counties with 0% to 6 counties with more than 10% of households (Echols, Whitfield, Gwinnett, Hall, Atkinson, and Clayton). Spanish is the primary language spoken in 4 of Georgia’s counties (Atkinson, Hall, Whitfield, and Echols) with high proportions of households with residents who do not speak English well. Clayton and Gwinnett counties have the greatest diversity of languages spoken among their residents. While Spanish is the primary non-English language spoken, approximately one-quarter of limited English proficient residents speak an Asian language. A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 11
  • 11. Income and Gross Domestic Product Per capita income in Georgia and the Per Capita Income: nation as a whole experienced a tempo- rary decline in response to changing United States and Georgia, 2000-2011 economic conditions during the last $45,000 41,663 decade. $40,000 Despite the temporary dip, Georgia experienced an overall 26.5% increase in $35,000 per capita income between 2000 and 30,319 36,104 2011, from $28,541 to $36,104. National- Per Capita Income $30,000 ly, income increased at a faster pace during this period (37.4%). $25,000 28,541 Although Georgia’s per capita income $20,000 lags behind the national average, the state has the 14th lowest cost of living $15,000 among the 50 states. $10,000 Income among Georgia’s counties varies considerably, from $23,887 in $5,000 Hancock County to $81,629 in Forsyth County. Forsyth and Fayette counties $0 rank among the top 50 highest income 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 counties in the country. United States GeorgiaSource: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts Per capita gross domestic product Per Capita Real Gross Domestic Product: (GDP) is the total value of goods and United States and Georgia, 2000-2011 services produced by a state per resident. In 2000, Georgia’s per capita real GDP $44,000 ($40,076) was very similar to the national 42,070 average ($39,775). $42,000 40,076 Nationally, per capita GDP generally increased until 2007, while in Georgia Per Capita GDP $40,000 GDP remained fairly stable. As a result, 39,775 there was a widening gap in GDP $38,000 between Georgia and the nation as a whole. $36,000 37,270 GDP declined steeply between 2008 $34,000 and 2009 both nationally and in Georgia, in response to the economic recession, followed by a period of stabilization. $32,000 The most current figures indicate $30,000 Georgia ($37,270) lagged behind the 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 nation ($42,070) in GDP in 2011. United States GeorgiaSource: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic AccountsA GROWING GEORGIA12 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 12. Median Household Income and Poverty RateMedian income in Georgia fluctuatedconsiderably over the past decade, Median Household Income:peaking mid-decade but declining during United States and Georgia, 2000-2011the economic downturn. There weregains, however, during 2010 and 2011. $55,000 $50,054 thAlthough Georgia ranks 36 for medianhousehold income among the states, the $50,000state’s median household income of$45,973 is the highest among southeast $41,990 $45,000 Household Incomestates. $45,973More than half of Georgia’s population, $40,000 $41,90153.8%, is in the prime workforce agesbetween 25 and 64 years old. According $35,000to the Census Bureau, among allmetropolitan areas in the country, the $30,000Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta metro-politan area has the second highestpercent of young workforce-aged adults $25,000between 35 to 44 years old. $20,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 United States Georgia Source: U.S. Census BureauThe poverty rate measures thepercentage of people in families with Poverty Rate:income below the thresholds specified by United States and Georgia, 2005-2011the federal government. The thresholds 25% Percentage of Families below Povertyvary by family size.Georgia’s poverty rate, 19.1% in 2011, 20% 19.1% 17.9%ranked 5th highest among the 50 states, 16.5%and higher than the national rate of 14.7% 14.7% 15.3% 15.9% 14.4% 14.3% 14.3% Threshold15.9%. 15% 13.3% 13.3% 13.0% 13.2%The poverty rate has increased bothnationally and in Georgia since the mid- 10%2000s. In Georgia, the poverty rateincreased from 14.4% in 2005 to 19.1%in 2011. 5%11 of Georgia’s 159 counties hadpoverty rates above 30% in 2010: 0%Stewart, Calhoun, Atkinson, Clay, 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Dougherty, Bulloch, Clarke, Wheeler, United States GeorgiaHancock, Burke, and Telfair. Size of Family Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Poverty Threshold ($) 11,170 15,130 19,090 23,050 27,010 30,970 34,930 38,890 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 13
  • 13. Unemployment Rate and TANF During the early part of the last Monthly Unemployment Rate: United States decade, Georgia’s unemployment rate and Georgia, 2006-2012 was below the national average. However, since August 2007, the state’s 12 unemployment rate has exceeded the national average every month. 10 According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Unemployment Rate (Percentage) Statistics, Georgia’s unemployment rate peaked in late 2009 at 10.5%, but has 8 since decreased and was 8.5% in November 2012. Annual unemployment rates vary 6 considerably at the local level. Two of Georgia’s counties registered average annual unemployment rates below 7% in 4 2011: Oconee and Miller. Five counties had rates exceeding 15% during that same year: Telfair, Warren, Chattahoo- 2 chee, Jenkins, and Hancock. 0 2006 2008 2010 2012 United States GeorgiaSource: Bureau of Labor Statistics, State and Local Unemployment Temporary Assistance for Needy Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Families (TANF) is a monthly cash and work opportunities assistance program Georgia, Monthly Caseload for low income families and children June 2003-June 2012 under the age of 18. 70,000 The TANF program has four purposes: - Assist needy families so children can 60,000 57,663 be cared for in their home. - Reduce dependency of needy parents Number of Cases 50,000 by promoting job preparation, work and marriage. 40,000 - Prevent out-of-wedlock pregnancies. - Encourage the formation and mainte- 30,000 nance of two-parent families. 18,586 The number of TANF cases decreased 20,000 67% from 57,663 in June 2003 to 18,586 in June 2012. 10,000 At $280, Georgia’s monthly TANF benefit ranked 8th lowest among the 0 states for a single parent family of three 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 in July 2011.Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children’s ServicesA GROWING GEORGIA14 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 14. SNAP and HomeownershipThe Supplemental Nutrition AssistanceProgram (SNAP) provides food and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programnutrition assistance to eligible families. (formerly Food Stamps): Georgia,SNAP cases can include one person orentire families. October 2007-July 2012Between October 2007 and July 2012, 1,000,000the number of SNAP cases increased by 900,000 Number of SNAP Cases127% in Georgia with an averagemonthly caseload of 860,000 in FY 2011. 800,000 898,825 thGeorgia ranked 10 among the states 700,000in the increase in average monthlyhousehold food stamp participation 600,000between 2007 and 2011. 500,000According to the Department of Human 400,000Services, the average amount a familyreceived in SNAP assistance in FY 2011 300,000 395,695was $305 per month. Households areeligible if total resources, such as 200,000checking accounts, savings accounts,and savings bonds are less than $2,000. 100,000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children’s ServicesHomeownership rates are the numberof owner-occupied housing units divided Homeownership Rates:by the total occupied housing units. United States and Georgia, 2000-2011Georgia’s homeownership rate hasfluctuated over the past decade, from a 69% Percent age of Units Occupied by Ownerhigh of 68.5% in 2007 to a low of 64.6%in 2011. The recent decline in homeown- 68%ership rates began in 2006 nationally andin 2007 in Georgia. 67%Homeownership rates in Georgia wereslightly higher than the national rate in all 66% 66.0%but one year during the period between2000 and 2011. 64.6% 65%Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta had 65.3%the 19th highest foreclosure rate among 64% 64.6%metropolitan areas in August 2012,however, foreclosures were down 22.3% 63%compared to a year earlier.New single unit residential construction 62%in Georgia fluctuated greatly over the 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011past decade, ranging more than 94,000 United States Georgiaunits in 2005 to less than 14,000 in 2011. Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 15
  • 15. Housing Values and Employment by Industry Median housing values peaked Median Housing Values: nationally and in Georgia in 2008 but United States and Georgia, 2000-2011 have declined each year since that time. $250,000 Median housing values in Georgia were slightly below national levels, during the last decade, but the gap widened during the middle part of the $200,000 $173,600 past decade. Median rent in Georgia’s 35 most Housing Value $150,000 populous counties ranged from $416 per $119,600 month in Walker County to $908 in $147,100 Forsyth County in 2011 according to the Census Bureau. $100,000 $111,200 Georgia has the 6th highest foreclosure rate in the nation, which has resulted in $50,000 declining housing values. As of August 2012, there were 9,478 foreclosure filings in Georgia, representing 1 in every 431 housing units. The August figure, $0 however, represents a decline in filings 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 statewide, compared to June 2010 when United States Georgia there were 12,037 filings.Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey Overall employment in Georgia Employment by Major Industry: declined 2.1% between 2001 and 2011. Georgia, 2001 and 2011 The recession and housing foreclo- 28,941 sures have impacted the construction Natural Resources & Mining 35,059 industry, which lost more than 58,000 jobs between 2001 and 2011. Other Services 1,421,660 1,248,828 Employment in the manufacturing industry decreased by 28.6% between Construction 145,437 2001 to 2011. 203,678 In contrast to construction and manu- Public Administration 239,673 facturing, the finance, professional and 218,122 business services sector remained relatively stable during the period Finance, Professional, Business Services 750433 736182 between 2001 and 2011, increasing by 1.9%. Manufacturing 349,048 498,218 Georgia’s service sector, which includes the industries of leisure and 844,529 hospitality, information, education and Trade, Transportation & Utilities 885,247 health, gained 172,832 jobs over the past decade, posting a 13.8% increase. 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2011 2001Source: Bureau of Labor StatisticsA GROWING GEORGIA16 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 16. Jobs and Agricultural ProductionThe Bureau of Labor Statistics tracksthe number of jobs covered by the Non-Agricultural Jobs: Georgia, 2002-2011Unemployment Insurance Tax Program,which excludes farm employment. 4.2The number of non-agricultural jobspeaked in Georgia at 4.1 million in 2007. 4.1As economic conditions worsened, thenumber jobs in Georgia declined to 3.84 Number of Jobs (In Millions)million in 2010. There was a smallrecovery in 2011, with the number of jobs 4.0increasing to 3.88 million.Small business contributes 1 out of 5 3.9 3.87 3.88jobs to the U.S. economy. The Depart-ment of Community Affairs State SmallBusiness Credit Initiative encouragessmall business through lending pro- 3.8grams, a loan participation program forunderserved markets, a hybrid loanguarantee/risk reserve pool program, and 3.7a portfolio insurance program.Georgia was ranked by ForbesMagazine as the 8th best state for 3.6business climate in 2012 because of the 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011state’s regulatory environment, laborsupply and growth prospects. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor StatisticsValue of agricultural sector productionis the gross value of the commodities Value of Agricultural Sector Production:and services produced. Overall, Georgia, 2000-2011Georgia’s agricultural value increasedfrom $5.8 billion to $9.8 billion between $122000 and 2011. $9.8Georgia’s top five agricultural $10commodities in 2011 were: - Broilers, - Cotton, $8 Billions of Dollars - Chicken Eggs, - Peanuts, and $5.8 $6 - Greenhouse/Nursery.Georgia also leads the nation in pecanproduction. Albany is known as the $4“pecan capital of the world”.Net farm income in Georgia increased $2between 2000 and 2011, from $2.1 billionto $2.5 billion according to the US $0Department of Agriculture. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 17
  • 17. Exports and Tourism The value of Georgia’s exports more Value of Exports: Georgia, 2000-2011 than doubled between 2000 and 2011 from $14.9 billion to $34.8 billion. $40 $34.8 Georgia’s top 5 exports in 2011: - Transportation $35 equipment, - Machinery (except electrical), $30 - Chemicals, - Paper, and Billions of Dollars $25 - Computers and electronic products. Georgia’s top trade partners are $20 Canada, China, Mexico, Singapore, $14.9 Japan, Germany, and Brazil, exporting more than $1 billion worth of products to $15 each of these countries. $10 Georgia exported to 221 destinations in 2011 and is ranked 12th in the nation in terms of export value. $5 $0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Trade Statistics Express Georgia cultivates strong tourism Direct Tourism Expenditures: through convention and conference business, coastal tourism, and the Georgia, 2000-2011 world’s busiest airport. Despite a dip in tourism expenditures $24 in 2009, direct tourism expenditures in $22.7 Georgia increased 46.5% between 2000 $22 and 2011. Tourism generated more than $1.7 $20 billion in tax revenue for state and local Billions of Dollars governments in 2011. $18 According to the Georgia Department of Economic Development, travel $15.5 $16 industry spending directly supported 238,400 of the state’s jobs in 2011. $14 In 2011, $7.3 billion in wages and salaries were generated in Georgia from $12 the travel industry. Domestic travelers accounted for $20.5 billion in spending, and international travelers generated $10 $2.2 billion the same year. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: The Travel Industry AssociationA GROWING GEORGIA18 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 18. Energy Consumption and Clean WaterFour main fuel types contribute toGeorgia’s total energy consumption: Per Capita Energy Consumption:coal, petroleum, natural gas and electrici- Georgia, 2000-2010ty fuels such as nuclear, hydropower andwood. 400 363.3 353.7The average amount of energy 341.9 342.3 351.1 348.9 337.6 350 328.7 325.0consumed by each Georgian decreased 310.9by 10.6% between 2000 to 2010. 300.5 300 Million BTU Per CapitaGeorgia ranked 24th among the 50states for per capita total energy con- 250sumption in 2010.Georgia is a leading state in the 200production of lumber and pulpwood,which contribute feedstock for biomass 150electricity generation. In 2011, Georgiaranked 3rd in the nation in net electricity 100generation from biomass. 50Between 2006 and 2010, Georgia’selectric power generation from renewablesources increased by 8.6%. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: Energy Information Administration and Bureau of Economic AnalysisPollutants that cause water qualitystandard violations can pose risks to River Miles Assessed That Meet Waterhuman health, impact fish and wildlife Quality Standards: Georgia, 2000-2012populations and decrease therecreational quality of these waters. 16,000 13,838Total number of river miles in Georgia 14,000is 70,150 miles. 12,000The total number of river miles 9,996assessed in Georgia increased 38% 10,000 River Milesbetween 2000 and 2012, from 9,996 to 8,21113,838. 8,000The proportion of river miles assessed 5,983that met standards remained stable at 6,00040.2% in 2000 and 40.7% in 2012. 5,627 4,000Note: Water quality standards define the goals 4,013for a water body by designating its uses and 2,000setting criteria to protect those uses, includinglimits that define acceptable amounts of 0specific pollutants. 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Miles Fully Supporting Standards Miles Not Fully Supporting Standards Total Miles Assessed Source: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division A GROWING GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 19
  • 19. Air Quality Despite fluctuations over the past Ozone Levels: Georgia, 2000-2011 decade, ozone levels have decreased from 0.094 parts per million of volume of 0.10 0.094 air in 2000 to 0.074 in 2011. 0.089 0.09 0.084 0.084 The number of days the Air Quality Ozone (Parts Per Million Volume of Air) 0.082 Index exceeded 100 in the Atlanta 0.079 0.078 0.080 0.08 0.076 0.074 metropolitan area has also fluctuated 0.072 over the past decade, from a high of 81 0.068 0.07 in 2000 to a low of 15 in 2009. 0.06 The Clean Air Campaign in Georgia estimates that by using commute 0.05 alternatives, Georgians reduce the amount of pollutants released into the air 0.04 by 1,800 pounds per day. Commute alternatives include vanpools, carpools, 0.03 teleworking and public transit. The Georgia Clean Air Campaign 0.02 offers financial incentives to Georgians who use commute alternatives, including 0.01 commuter cash and prizes as well as carpool rewards. 0.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division, Ambient Monitoring Program Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM-2.5) is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) Concentration the air. Fine particles can be emitted directly Levels: Georgia, 2000-2011 from smoke or formed in the atmosphere 20 from emissions from sources such as power plants, industrial, and mobile sources. Fine 18 17.22 particulate matter is less than 2.5 microns in diameter. 16 15.03 14.56 14.87 14.69 13.72 14.09 13.74 Portions of Georgia, including Macon, Concentration of PM-2.5 14 Atlanta and Rome, have been in "non- 12.56 12.03 attainment status" for PM-2.5. Non- 12 11.14 11.19 Attainment occurs when the area in question does not meet the air quality standard set by 10 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 8 PM-2.5 concentrations declined in Georgia by 35% between 2000 and 2011, from 17.22 6 to 11.19. 4 2 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division, Ambient Monitoring ProgramA GROWING GEORGIA20 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 20. MOBILE GEORGIA 2013 Developing and maintaining Georgia’s transportation infrastructure to move people and products in a 21st century economy. LEADING INDICATORS INDICATORS Transportation Infrastructure 22 Public Transit 23 Airport Travelers and Freeway Runway Length 24 Rail System 25 Deep Water Ports 26 Interstate Maintenance and Bridges 27 Passenger Trips and Evening Peak Hour Speed 28 Motor Vehicle Fatalities 29 State Highway Safety 30GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 21. Transportation Infrastructure Georgia’s Logistics System Source: Georgia Center of Innovation for Logistics Transportation is an essential segment in Georgia’s economy, providing the infrastructure to move people and products within the state and to and from other states and nations. The transportation infrastructure encompasses roads, airports, rail, and ports. The logistics industry includes the transportation infrastructure as well as the firms that move freight in, out, and through the state. The logistics sector in Georgia generates more than $16 billion in sales each year. The 11,000 logistics providers in the state generate 142,000 jobs.A MOBILE GEORGIA22 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 22. Public Transit Source: Georgia Department of TransportationPublic transit in Georgia is provided by 14 urban systems and 114 rural systems.Urban transit system travel in 2010 totaled 65.4 million revenue vehicle miles and provided 177.5 million passenger trips.These services were provided through use of 1,182 buses and 318 rail cars.Rural transit systems travelled 12.4 million revenue vehicle miles, serving communities with 1.6 million passenger trips.Rural transit systems own 480 paratransit vehicles and 298 ADA compliant vehicles. A MOBILE GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 23
  • 23. Airport Travelers and Freeway Runway Length Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson Interna- Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport: tional Airport is the world’s busiest pas- Total Passengers, 2000-2011 senger airport. The airport hosts 31 pas- senger airlines which carried 92 million 100 passengers in 2011. 92 89 90 88 89 90 86 85 Hartsfield-Jackson improved interna- 84 tional capacity with the opening of its new 80 79 80 76 77 12 gate International Terminal in May 2012. Millions of Passengers 70 Hartsfield-Jackson has three main air 60 cargo complexes which maintain more than 1.3 million square feet of air cargo 50 handling space. According to the Air- 40 ports Council International, Hartsfield- Jackson Airport ranked 10th in the nation 30 in total cargo in 2011. 20 In September 2012, Atlanta’s airport handled 53,929 metric tons of cargo, a 10 3.1% decline from September of 2011. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport There are a total of 104 public use air- Number of Airports Meeting State ports in Georgia: 30 level I airports, 32 Recommendation for Runway Length, by level II, 33 level III general aviation air- Airport Type: ports, and 9 level III commercial service 45 Georgia, 2005-2010 airports. 39 40 40 37 38 The number of Georgia airports meet- 36 36 ing recommended runway length in- 35 creased from 66 in 2005 to 84 in 2010. Number of Airports 30 26  Aviation related industry accounted for 25 22 23 16% of Georgia’s GDP in 2010. 20 21 19 18 According to a study by the Georgia 20 16 Department of Transportation (GDOT), 15 12 13 the economic impact of Georgia’s air- 11 11 ports include $62.6 billion in overall eco- 10 nomic output, including 471,000 jobs with 5 an annual payroll of $17.8 billion. 0 Military airports in Georgia contribute 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 an additional 55,000 military and civilian jobs and $11 billion to the state’s econo- Local Airports 4000 Runway Business Airports 5000 Runway my. Regional Airports 5500 RunwaySource: Georgia Department of Transportation, Aviation ProgramsA MOBILE GEORGIA24 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 24. Rail System Georgia’s Rail SystemGeorgia has a rich rail history that began in the mid-1830s. Today, the state’s rail program includes passenger and freightrail services.Passenger rail services are provided by Amtrak and includes service from New York to New Orleans on the Crescent Lineand service from New York to Miami on the Silver Meteor/Silver Star. Amtrak stations are located in Toccoa, Gainesville,Atlanta, Savannah, and Jesup and served more than 200,000 passengers in 2011.Freight rail operates on a network of nearly 5,000 miles of railroad statewide. In addition to CSX and Norfolk Southern, 22short-line operators provide shipping services to Georgia business and industry. CSX operates 1,626 miles of railroad andNorfolk Southern operates 1,912 miles.The mainline tracks in Georgia include 2,436 railroad miles, moving more than 80 million gross tons of product each year.The top freight moved by rail in Georgia include clay, concrete, glass, stone, non-metallic minerals, and pulp/paper. A MOBILE GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 25
  • 25. Deep Water Ports Georgia’s deep-water ports and inland Total Annual Tonnage: barge terminals include the Ports of Sa- vannah, Brunswick, Bainbridge, and Co- Georgia Ports, FY 2008-FY2012 lumbus. These ports contribute more 30,000 than 352,146 jobs and $66.9 billion in total sales to the state’s economy. 25,000 The total annual tonnage handled by 3,970 4,101 Georgia’s ports declined in 2009 but has Total Tonnage (1,000 Tons) 5,368 3,782 improved each year since. 20,000 4,235 The Port of Savannah ranks 4th among U.S. container ports in volume. In FY 15,000 2012, total container trade increased 1.9%. The Garden City Terminal has 22,053 22,484 been the fastest growing container port in 10,000 20,459 20,507 the country for the past 10 years. 18,397 Central America was the fastest grow- 5,000 ing import trade lane between FY 2008 and FY 2012 for the Port of Savannah, growing by 483%, and Northeast Asia 0 was the fastest growing export trade lane FY 2008 FY 2009 FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 during the same period with growth at Container Non-container 17%.Source: Georgia Ports Authority Vessel calls to Georgia’s ports are de- Vessel Calls to Georgia Ports: fined as vessel arrivals for the purposes FY 2003-FY 2012 of business, requiring an entry, clear- ance, and stay at a port. 3,100 2,923 The number of vessel calls to the state’s ports increased 19.5% between 2,900 2003 and 2012, from 2,446 to 2,923. Number of Vessel Calls 2,700 In FY 2012, 2,373 of the vessel calls to Georgia Ports were at the Port of Savan- 2,446 nah which was number two in export 2,500 volume in the country that year. 2,300 In FY 2012, Savannah’s top imports were furniture and retail consumer goods 2,100 and the top exports were wood pulp and food. 1,900 The Port of Brunswick autoport facility handles more than a dozen major manu- 1,700 facturers and is 3rd busiest U.S. port for automobile imports, behind only Los An- gels and Newark, New Jersey. 1,500 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Georgia Ports AuthorityA MOBILE GEORGIA26 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 26. Interstate Maintenance and BridgesThere are 15 interstates in Georgia,covering 1,248 miles. The greatest por- Percentage of Georgias Interstates Meetingtion of interstates (719 miles) is located Maintenance Standards, 2005-2012in rural areas. 465 miles of freeways are 100%located in urban areas, and the remain-der cover small urban areas. 95.1%Georgia’s interstates are evaluated 95% Percentage of Interstatesbased on COPACES (ComputerizedPavement Conditions Evaluation Sys-tem) which includes rating rutting, 90%cracks, and other surface deficiencies ona scale of 1 to 100. The evaluation judg-es how well the pavement structure is 85%maintained.The proportion of Georgia’s interstatesmeeting standards has declined from 80%95.1% in 2005 to 75.9% in 2012. 75.9%Well-maintained freeways reduce the 75%need for costly reconstruction. 70% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Georgia Department of TransportationThere are a total of 14,455 bridges inGeorgia. The state owns 6,583 of these Percentage of State-Owned Bridges Meetingbridges, and localities own 7,872 ofthese structures. Georgia Department Of Transportation Standards, 2004-2012The Georgia Department of 90% 89%Transportation (GDOT) is required to 89%inspect all bridges and bridge culvertsevery two years. 88% Percentage of BridgesGDOT evaluates bridges based on 87%strength and deck condition to determinea structure’s capacity to carry a load. 86% 85%Additionally, GDOT assists counties insolving bridge problems. 85%The percentage of bridges inspected 84%meeting GDOT standards increasedfrom 85% in 2004 to 89% in 2012. 83%GDOT has a web-based service that 82%allows the department to monitorpotential problems with bridges. 81% 80% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Georgia Department of Transportation A MOBILE GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 27
  • 27. Passenger Trips and Evening Peak Hour Speed Passenger trips per transit hour re- Number of Passsenger Trips per Transit flects the average number of unlinked Service Hour: Atlanta, 2000-2010 passenger trips per revenue hour that trains and buses are running and are 60 available to carry passengers in a given Number of Passenger Trips Per Transit Hour 53 year. An increase in passenger trips per transit hour equates to an increase in the 50 transit system effectiveness. 44 The number of passenger trips per 40 transit service hour in the Atlanta metro- politan area decreased over the past decade by 16.9% for the Metropolitan 30 Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), from 20 to 15 and by 25% for non-MARTA transit services, from 53 to 20 44. 20 15 In addition, Atlanta’s overall transit 10 ridership decreased 8% between 2000 and 2010, from 170 million passenger 0 boardings to 157 million boardings in 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010. MARTA Non-MARTA Ridership on MARTA decreased 12.6% between 2002 and 2010, from 159 million to 139 million.Source: The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority Evening peak hour speed measures Metropolitan Atlanta Evening Peak Hour the average speed on metropolitan Atlan- Speed, 2008-2012 ta highways between 3 p.m. and 7 p.m. The target average peak hour speed is 46 40 miles per hour on interstate freeways. During the five-year period between 44 2008 and 2012, evening peak hour speed did not meet the Georgia Depart- 42 ment of Transportation (GDOT) target in 39.6 2 years (2008 and 2012). 38.2 Miles Per Hour 40 GDOT estimated that the annual cost of congestion statewide in 2010 was 38 $2.49 billion, a decrease of 19.4% since 2005, when the cost was estimated at 36 $3.09 billion. One of the ways GDOT is working to 34 reduce highway congestion is through use of Highway Emergency Response 32 Operators (HERO). HERO units clear traffic incidents that delay traffic in metro- 30 politan Atlanta. Average HERO response 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 time was 13.0 minutes in September 2012.Source: The Georgia Regional Transportation AuthorityA MOBILE GEORGIA28 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 28. Motor Vehicle FatalitiesIn 2011, motor vehicle crashes killed1,226 people in Georgia. 1 out of 4 of Motor Vehicle Fatality Rate: Georgia Counties,these crashes involved an alcohol- 2007-2011 (Five-year Average)impaired driver.Georgia counties with the highest 5year average motor vehicle fatality ratesbetween 2007 and 2011 were Taliafer-ro, Warren, Talbot, Stewart, andGreene counties. Metropolitan Atlantacounties with low fatality rates includeFayette, Cobb, Cherokee, Gwinnett,and Forsyth.Rural areas of the state have higherfatality rates per 100 million vehiclemiles driven (1.78), compared to urbanareas (0.79).In 2011, 130 Georgian pedestrianswere among those killed in motor vehi-cle accidents. Source: National Highway Safety Travel Administration National Center for Statistics and AnalysisMotor vehicle crashes are the leadingcause of death for 15-20 year olds in theUnited States. Fatalities in Crashes Involving Young Drivers (Ages 15-20): Georgia, 2010During 2010, 175 young Georgia driv-ers under the age of 21 years were in-volved in fatal crashes, a 41% decrease Nonoccupants 9% Young Driversfrom 298 in 2006. 34%197 people were killed in motor vehiclecrashes involving a driver between theages of 15 and 20 years in Georgia in2010. In these crashes, the young driv-ers represented one-third of thosedeaths and nearly one-third were occu-pants of other vehicles involved in the Occupants ofcrash. Other Vehicles 31%According to the National HighwayTraffic Safety Administration, 11% ofdrivers under the age of 20 involved infatal accidents nationally were distractedat the time of the crash. Passengers in Drivers Vehicle 26% Source: National Highway Safety Travel Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis A MOBILE GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 29
  • 29. State Highway Safety The motor vehicle fatality rate Motor Vehicle Fatalities per 100 Million measures the number of fatalities per Vehicle Miles Traveled: United States and 100 million vehicle miles traveled. Georgia, 2000-2011 The motor vehicle fatality rate declined between 2000 and 2011, both nationally 1.80 and in Georgia. Georgia’s fatality rate 1.53 declined by 29.9% during this period, and 1.60 declined 28.1% nation-wide. 1.40 1.47 Nationally, motor vehicle accidents 1.20 1.10 were the leading cause of death for chil- Fatality Rate dren age 4 and ages 11-14 years. 1.00 1.03 Seat belt usage is the most effective 0.80 way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle accidents, according the 0.60 Centers for Disease Control an Preven- 0.40 tion. The use of seat belts reduces crash- related injuries and death by 50%. 0.20 The Governor’s Office of Highway - Safety reports that the percentage of 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Georgians using seatbelts increased between 2000 and 2011, from 73.6% to United States Georgia 93.0%.Source: National Highway Safety Travel Administration National Center for Statistics and AnalysisA MOBILE GEORGIA30 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 30. HEALTHY GEORGIA 2013 Ensuring access to care and encouraging active lifestyles. LEADING INDICATORS INDICATORS Health Status of Georgians 32 Oral Health 33 Insurance Status 34 Georgia Physicians and Safety Net Clinics 35 Emergency Room Utilization 36 Mental Health and Children with Special Health Care Needs 37 Vaccinations: Children and Adults 38 Teen Birth Rate and Low Birthweight Babies 39 Obesity: Youth and Adults 40 Smoking in Georgia: Youth and Adults 41 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease 42 Breast and Cervical Cancer Screenings 43 Colorectal Cancer Screening and Cancer Mortality 44 Cancer Mortality Rates by County 45 HIV/AIDS and Pneumonia Mortality 46 Georgia Trauma Network 47GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 31. Health Status of Georgians Americas Health Rankings™ combine Georgia Index of Health Compared to measures on personal behaviors, clinical Nationally Ranked States, 2002-2012 care, community environment and health policy into a composite score* of a 1.5 state’s health. The composite score MN VT VT indicates the percentage a state is above UT MN MN VT HI VT VT MN or below the national norm in overall 1 health. A score of -0.2 is 20% below the national average. 0.5 AK/WY* MT NY MT Over the past decade, Georgia has State Score WY AZ WY KS MT AZ MD ranked below the national average on health factors, and in 2012 ranked 36th 0 -0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -0.4 -0.3 among all states. -0.5 -0.4 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 Georgia’s strengths include: -0.5 -Low prevalence of binge drinking -High immunization coverage -1 MS MS MS MS Georgia’s challenges include: MS MS MS MS MS MS LA/MS* -Low high school graduation rate, -1.5 -High levels of air pollution, 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 -High infant mortality rate, and -High prevalence of low birthweight. 1st State 25th State Georgia Overall score 50th State *Note: In 2002 Arkansas and Wyoming tied for 25th state ranking. In 2012, LouisianaSource: United Health Foundation, America’s Health Rankings and Mississippi tied for 49th.. According to the Centers for Disease Factors Influencing Health Status Control and Prevention (CDC), over the past decade the percentage of adults in Georgia rating their health as good or better has remained stable at 84%. Health Care Nationwide, the proportion of adults 10% rating their health as good or better is similar (85%). Environmental factors impacting health include housing, access to food, income Environment distribution, transportation means, racial 19% disparities, and physical conditions such as air quality.Lifestyle 51% Lifestyle factors include smoking, obesity, stress, nutrition, blood pressure, and alcohol and drug use. Health care factors include insurance Human Biology status, prenatal care, immunizations and 20% dental care. According to the CDC, lifestyle choices have the greatest impact on a person’s health.Source: Georgia Health Policy Center, Georgia State University, Centers for Disease Controland Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health PromotionA HEALTHIER GEORGIA32 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 32. Oral HealthSince 2000, the number of dentists inGeorgia per 10,000 residents has Number of Dentists per 10,000 Residents:remained stable, at 4.4 to 4.5 per 10,000 United States and Georgia, 2000-2008Georgians, lower than the nationalaverage of 6.0. 7.0 Number of Dentists Per 10,000 ResidentsThe Georgia Health Sciences 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0University is the only dental school in 6.0Georgia. In 2010, Georgia’s dentalschool graduated 63 students. Over the 5.0last 30 years, 85% of graduates from 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.4Georgia’s dental program haveremained in Georgia to practice. 4.0According to the Center for Health 3.0Workforce Planning and Analysis at theUniversity System of Georgia, nearly 1 in7 counties in the state have no dentists 2.0and 6.9% of counties have only onedentist. There are 104 dental health 1.0professional shortage areas in Georgia.Georgia is among 20 states receiving 0.0CDC funding to enhance the 2000 2003 2006 2007 2008infrastructure and capacity of the state’soral health programs. United States Georgia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health, United StatesArticles in the American Journal ofPublic Health (2011) and the Journal of Oral Health Among 3rd Graders:Pediatrics (2012), indicate that Georgia, 2005 and 2011childhood dental problems are linked toschool absenteeism and poorer 90%academic performance. 81% 80% Percentage of 3rd Grade Students 73%Tooth decay is the most prevalentchronic disease among children, 70%according to the CDC. 60% 56% 52%The Georgia Department of PublicHealth reports that there was a small 50%decline in the percentage of 3rd grade 39% 37% 40%children with a history of dental decaybetween 2005 and 2011, from 56% to 30% 27%52%. 19% rd 20%The percentage of 3 grade childrenwith untreated tooth decay also declined, 10%from 27% to 19% between 2005 and2011. 0% History of tooth Untreated tooth Protective sealants No dental3rd grade children in rural areas are decay decay treatment needsmore likely to have a history of tooth 2005 2011decay (60%) compared to urban children(48%) but in both areas, children havethe same likelihood of having untreated Source: Georgia Department of Public Healthdental problems (19%). A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 33
  • 33. Insurance Status Employers are the primary sponsor of Health Insurance Coverage: Georgia, 2011 health insurance in the United States and Georgia. In Georgia, the proportion of residents with employer sponsored Uninsured health insurance declined from 55% to 20% 48% between 2008 and 2011. Nationally, a similar percentage of the population (49%) was covered by employer sponsored health insurance in 2011. The average family premium for private Other Public sector employer based health insurance 3% in Georgia more than doubled (110%) Employer between 2000 and 2011, from $6,637 to 48% $13,963. However, the national average Medicare family coverage premium ($15,022) was 10% significantly higher than the cost in Georgia in 2011. Approximately 1.8 million (20%) Georgians are uninsured, ranking Georgia 6th highest among the states for Medicaid the percentage of total population uninsured. 14% Individual 5%Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, State Health Facts Medicaid is a joint state and federal Average Monthly Medicaid and Peachcare partnership providing health care Enrollment: Georgia, 2000 to 2011 coverage. Nationally, Medicaid accounts for 16% of health care spending and is the largest source of payment for nursing 1,600 1,498 home care and childbirth. 1,400 Average monthly Medicaid enrollment in Georgia increased 50.2% between FY Enrollment in Thousands 1,200 997 2001 and FY 2011, from 996,901 to 1,498,405. 1,000 PeachCare is Georgia’s State 800 Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), providing low cost health 600 insurance for children in families who are not eligible for Medicaid and cannot 400 afford private health insurance. 200 112 200 PeachCare enrollment increased by 77.7% between 2001 and 2011, from 0 112,261 to 199,505. 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 In 2009, Georgia ranked 40th among the states with respect to the percentage Medicaid PeachCare of eligible children enrolled in the SCHIP.Source: Georgia Department of Community HealthA HEALTHIER GEORGIA34 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 34. Georgia Physicians and Safety Net ClinicsGeorgia ranked 39th in the nation withrespect to the number of physicians per Physicians per 100,000 Population: Georgia,capita in 2010, an increase from 40th in 2000-20102008, according the American Medical 250Association.The number of physicians per 100,000 Number per 100,000 Populationresidents increased from 192 in 2000 to 200204 in 2010, and the number of primary 204care physicians declined during the 192same period from 83 to 77. 150Health Professional Shortage Areasare designated by the federal HealthResources and Services Administration 100as having shortage of primary medicalcare. There are 143 primary health pro-fessional shortage areas in Georgia. 83 77 50The state dedicated $2 million in fund-ing to the Georgia Board for PhysicianWorkforce and the Board of Regents for 0resident development in FY 2013. 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Physicians, all specialties Primary Care Physicians Source: Georgia Board for Physician WorkforceSafety net clinics include the following Number of Safety Net Clinics:in Georgia: Federally Qualified HealthCenters, Georgia Farm Worker Health Georgia Counties, 2010Programs, Georgia Volunteer HealthCare Program, and Rural Health Clinics.128 of Georgia’s 159 counties havesome type of safety net clinic; howev-er, 31 counties do not have this type ofresource available to serve its resi-dents.The counties with the greatest numberof safety net clinics include Fulton (23),Chatham (12), DeKalb (10), andDougherty (9).8 of the counties without safety netclinics are located in the northwesternportion of the state and 6 of these coun-ties are located in the central portion ofthe state. Source: Georgia Department of Community Health A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 35
  • 35. Emergency Room Utilization Emergency Room visits Per 100,000 Population: Georgia Counties, 2010Data from the American Hospital Association’s 2010 Annual Survey indicates that there were 422 emergency room visitsper 1,000 residents in Georgia, ranking 27th among the states. The emergency room visit rate in Georgia increased 11% be-tween 2000 and 2010. In comparison, the national rate increased 13%, from 366 to 412 visits per 1,000 residents.Data from the Georgia Department of Public Health indicates that there were 3.5 million visits to the state’s emergencyrooms. Medicaid paid for more than a quarter (27.8%) of these visits. Other major sources of payers from emergency roomvisits include self-pay (27.1%), private insurance (24.1%), and Medicare (14.1%). Nationally, the collection rate for self paypatients ranges between 5% and 10%.According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, in 2009, the averagecost for an emergency room visit in the United States was $1,318.A HEALTHIER GEORGIA36 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 36. Mental Health and Children with Special Health Care NeedsUtilization of public community mentalhealth services declined during the early Mental Health Utilization Rates: Georgia,portion of the last decade. However, 2003-2011since 2009 utilization has increased from15.2 per 1,000 residents in 2009 to 17.0in 2010. 20 18.1 18.2 17.7 17.2 17.8 17.6 17.7 17.0 17.0 17.0The state of Georgia settled a law suit 16.7 16.1 15.8 16.1 Rate per 1,000 Populationwith the U.S. Department of Justice in 16 15.0 14.1 15.22010 that included provisions to increase 13.5access to community services for mentalhealth patients. Since then, the rate at 12which mental health consumers usedhospital services has declined. 8Department of Behavioral Health andDevelopmental Disabilities providedhousing vouchers for 648 people with 4mental illness in FY 2012. 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.8More than 3 out of 4 (76.2%) Georgia’s 0adult mental health consumers in 2011 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011reported being positive about servicesreceived, higher than the national Hospital Utilization Community Utilization Total Utilization rateaverage of 70.5%. Source: SAMSHA Center for Mental Health Services, Uniform Reporting System, Mental Health National Outcome MeasuresChildren with special health careneeds have or are at increased risk for a Percent of Children Ages 0-17 Years with achronic physical, developmental, behav- Special Health Care Need: United States andioral, or emotional condition and requirehealth and related services of a type or Georgia, 2001, 2006, 2010amount beyond that required by children 18%generally. 16.0% 16% 15.1% Percentage of Children 0-17 YearsThe percentage of children with special 13.9% 13.9%health care needs has increased both 14% 12.8% 12.7%nationally and in Georgia over the pastdecade. In 2001, 12.7% of children un- 12%der the age of 18 years had some type 10%of special need, and by 2010 that pro-portion had increased to 16.0%. 8%Nearly 1 out of 4 (23.7%) children with 6%special health care needs have a condi-tion that affects their activities and 4%13.2% miss 11 or more days of school. 2%Approximately 1 out of 5 (19%) ofGeorgia’s families with special health 0% 2001 2005-2006 2009-2010care needs children pay $1,000 or moreout of pocket for medical expenses an- United States Georgianually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 37
  • 37. Vaccinations: Children and Adults All children attending day care or Percentage of Vaccinations for Children 19-35 school are required to be vaccinated Months of Age: United States and Georgia, against: diphtheria, polio, measles, 2007-2011 mumps and rubella, Haemophilus 79.5% influenzae type b, Hepatitis B, varicella, 80% as well as pneumonia and pertussis. To overcome barriers to vaccination, Georgia’s public health departments: 73.6% Percentage Vaccinated 75% -Remind parents when their children’s vaccinations are due -Offer extended clinic hours 70% -Provide vaccinations on a walk-in 66.5% basis -Distribute educational materials on 65% immunization. 65.9% In 2011, Georgia ranked 5th nationally for the percentage of children 19-35 60% months of age who were vaccinated. 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Georgia ranks 1st among the six southeast states for the percentage of United States Georgia children vaccinated.Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Survey Infections caused by pneumococci are Adults 65 Years and Older a major cause of death and disease globally. Pneumococcal vaccinations in Who Have Had a Flu Shot in the Past Year: Georgia are given year round and are United States and Georgia, 2001-2010 administered only once after the age of 65 years. Some adults with weakened 75% Percentage of Adults 65 Years and Older immune systems may receive more than one dose over their lifetime. Pneumonia and meningitis are the 70% 67.3% 67.5% most common manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease. Bacteria spread in the respiratory tract to cause ear infection, sinusitis or recurrent bronchitis. 65% 62.2% The highest rate of pneumococcal disease occurs in the elderly and young children and affects those suffering from 60% 61.8% chronic conditions and weakened immune systems. 61.8% of elderly Georgians were 55% vaccinated against pneumococcal 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 disease in 2010, the 3rd lowest rate among the states. United States GeorgiaSource: Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Prevalence and Trends DataA HEALTHIER GEORGIA38 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 38. Teen Birth Rate and Low Birthweight BabiesIn 2010, Georgia ranked 13th nationallyfor the rate of teen births per 1,000 fe- Teen Birth Rate:males aged 15-19 years, and ranked 4th United States and Georgia, 2002-2010highest among its southeast neighbors. 60Georgia’s teen birth rate is consistently 55.7higher than the national rate. In 2010,Georgia’s rate was 41.4 compared to the 55 Rate per 1,000 Populationnational rate of 34.2.The teen birth rate has steadily de- 50clined both nationally and in Georgiasince 2007. 45Children born to teen mothers are 41.4more likely to have increased health and 43.0 40behavioral problems and poor schoolperformance (Child Trends 2012). 35Educating expectant mothers aboutsmoking cessation during pregnancy, 34.2prenatal care, eating right and appropri- 30ate weight gain can help deter low birth- 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010weight. Socioeconomic factors must alsobe considered; low birthweight babies United States Georgiaand teen mothers are more likely to useMedicaid and state services. Source: Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for Health StatisticsLow birthweight babies weigh lessthan 5 pounds, 8 ounces and very low Percentage of Babies Born with Lowbirthweight infants weigh less than 3pounds, 5 ounces. Birthweight: United States and Georgia, 2002-2010Low birthweight is the leading cause of 10.0%death within the first months of life for 9.7%infants. Babies born at low birthweightface an increased risk of physical and 9.5%developmental health problems. 8.9% Percentage of Births 9.0%Georgia’s low birthweight rate hasincreased over the last decade, from8.9% in 2002 to 9.7% in 2010. During 8.5%that time, the state’s rate remainedabove the national rate. 8.0%Five of Georgia’s counties had high 8.1%percentages of babies born at lowest 7.5% 7.8%birthweight between 2006 and 2010:Taliaferro, Quitman, Terrell, Randolph,and Ben Hill. Counties with the lowest 7.0%rates were Echols, White, Dawson, 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Brantley, and Fayette.Beginning in 2011, Georgia imple- United States Georgiamented a Medicaid waiver, Planning forHealthy Babies, intended to improve Source: Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for Health Statisticsbirth outcomes. A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 39
  • 39. Obesity: Youth and Adults A child who is classified as obese has a Percentage of High School and Middle body mass index (BMI) for age and sex School Students Who Are Obese: that is greater than or equal to the 95th United States and Georgia, 2003-2011 percentile. 17% In 2011, 15% of Georgia’s high school students were obese, compared to 13% 15.0% nationally. Georgia ranked 9th with re- spect to the percentage of high school Percentage of Students students who were obese in 2011. The percentage of Georgia’s high school students who are obese in- 12% 11.1% 12.8% creased from 11% in 2003 to 15% in 2011. Georgia’s SHAPE Initiative has provid- ed 21 schools with a total of $87,000 for 10.6% projects to reduce obesity among the state’s children. In 2013, the Georgia State Health Ben- 7% efit Program coverage was expanded to 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 include primary care and dietitian ser- vices for children age 3-18 years with a United States Georgia diagnosis of obesity.Source: CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Georgia’s Department of Public Health Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: (DPH) defines obesity as having a body Georgia, 2003-2010 mass index (BMI) of 24.9 or greater. 29.6% Many factors, including poor diet and 30% physical inactivity have contributed to the rise in both adult and youth obesity. 26.6% Georgia’s DPH estimates the annual 28% cost of obesity in the state at $2 billion annually. Percentage of Adults Obesity increases the risk of many 25% diseases and health conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, dyslipidemia and some cancers. 23% Despite fluctuating over the past dec- ade, the percentage of Georgia’s adults who are obese increased 11.3%, from 20% 26.6% in 2003 to 29.6% in 2010. 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Georgia was ranked as the 24th most obese state in the nation in 2010.Source: Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance SystemA HEALTHIER GEORGIA40 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 40. Smoking in Georgia: Youth and AdultsApproximately 19,000 (5%) middleschool students and 72,000 (17%) high Percentage of High School Students Whoschool students in Georgia smoke ciga- Smoked Cigarettes At Least 1 Dayrettes. Georgia’s high school students in the Last 30 Days:rank 20th among their peers nationally onthe percentage who smoke. United States and Georgia, 2003-2011 24%The percentage of Georgia students Percentage of High School Studentswho have tried smoking declined be- 23% 21.9%tween 2003 and 2011, 28% among mid-dle school students and 22% among 22%high school students. 21%Tobacco use in adolescence is associ-ated with other risky behaviors including 20%sexual behavior and alcohol and druguse. 19% 20.9% 18.1%In 2005, Georgia banned smoking in 18%all public places, except bars or restau-rants that do not serve children, mandat- 17%ed separate hotel rooms for smokers, 17.0%and required workplaces to have sepa- 16%rate ventilation for smokers. 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 United States Georgia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance SystemApproximately 1.3 million adults inGeorgia smoke cigarettes. Percentage of Adults Who Are Current Smokers:The percentages of smokers fluctuat- United States and Georgia, 2003-2011ed over the past decade. Georgia saw areduction in the proportion of adults that 24%smoke from 22.8% in 2003 to 17.6% in 22.8%2010. However, rates in Georgia and 23%nationally increased in 2011 to 21.2%. Percentage of Adults 22%A 2010 study prepared by the Pennsyl- 21.2%vania State University College of Medi- 21%cine estimated that smoking accountedfor $2.9 billion in direct medical expendi- 20% 22.0%tures in Georgia.Adult smokers lose an average of 16 19%years of life compared to adult non-smokers, and 1 out of 6 Georgians die 18%annually from smoking related illnesses. 17%Tobacco use during pregnancy cancause premature births, sudden infant 16%death, and stillbirths, in addition to 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011changes in fetal brain and nervous sys-tem development. United States Georgia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 41
  • 41. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease In 2010, 9.7% of Georgia adults were Percentage of Adults Diagnosed with Diabetes: diabetic compared to 8.7% nationwide. United States and Georgia, 2004-2010 The percentage of adult Georgians with diabetes declined slightly from a high of Percentage of Adults Diagnosed with Diabetes 11% 10.1% in 2007 to 9.7% in 2010. The Centers for Disease Control and 10% 9.7% Prevention estimates that 25.8 million people have diabetes, the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure. 9% The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey estimates the national expenditures for 8.7% the treatment of diabetes exceeded $51 8% 7.3% billion in 2010; 10% of the cost was paid for by Medicaid. Diabetes is a disease with serious com- 7% plications and can lead to premature 7.0% death. However, those living with the disease can control the disease and re- 6% verse the course of the disease through 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 proper nutrition, regular physical activity and well-managed treatment plans. United States GeorgiaSource: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Five Year, Age-Adjusted Major Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease includes all diseases of the heart and blood vessels, Death Rate: Georgia Counties, 2005-2008, 2010 including ischemic heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, hypertensive disease and atherosclerosis. Like diabetes, cardiovascular disease can be moderated by living a healthier life and understanding what risk factors influence an individual’s likelihood of developing the disease. Total expenditures for heart conditions nationally exceeded $107 billion in 2010 and hypertension accounted for an addi- tional $42 billion. Nearly 21,000 Georgians died of cardi- ovascular disease in 2010, representing 30% of all deaths during that year. The lowest rates were registered in Towns, Fayette, Rabun, DeKalb, and Gwinnett counties. The highest cardiovascular disease death rates were reported for Montgomery, Jeff Davis, Wilkinson, Treutlen, and Upson counties.Source: Georgia Department of Public Health, OASISA HEALTHIER GEORGIA42 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 42. Breast and Cervical Cancer ScreeningsBreast cancer is the most commoncancer among women and one of the Percentage of Women Aged 40 and Olderleading causes of cancer deaths among Who Have Had a Mammogram Within thewomen of all races and Hispanic origin. Past 2 Years: United States and Georgia,Mammograms screen for breast cancer 2000-2010and allow for early detection. When de- 80% Percentage of Women Aged 40+tected early, especially when the womanexhibits no other signs or symptoms ofthe cancer, her survival rate increases by 79%as much as 30%. 78% 77.2%Mammograms are recommended bien-nially for women over 40 years of ageand annually for those over the age of 77% 76.1%50.The percentage of women 40 years 76%and older who have had a mammogram 76.1%in the previous two years in Georgia fluc- 75%tuated within a narrow range between 75.2%2000 and 2010, ranging from a high of78.9% to a low of 74.5%. Georgia wom- 74% 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010en were screened at a slightly higherrate in 2010, (77.2%) compared to the United States Georgianation as a whole (75.2%). Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance SystemPap tests primarily detect cervicalcancer; and like mammograms, early Percentage of Women 18 and Older Whodetection improves survival rates. Have Had a Pap Test Within the Past 3 Years:Nationwide, in 2010, 81.3% of women United States and Georgia, 2004-2010 89%18 years and older had a pap test within 87.9%the last three years. 88% Percentage of Women Aged 18+Georgia ranked 4th among the 50 86.6% 87%states with respect to the percentage ofwomen having a pap test within three 86%years in 2010 (86.6%). 85%The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is 86.0%the primary risk factor for cervical 84%cancer, however, a woman’s age andgenetic factors also play a role. 83%According to the Centers for Disease 82%Control, in 2011, 53.0% of females 13-17 year olds in the United States and 81%48.4% in Georgia had received at least 81.3%one shot in the three series HPV 80%vaccination. 2004 2006 2008 2010 United States Georgia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 43
  • 43. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Cancer Mortality Colorectal cancer screenings are rec- Percentage of Adults 50 Years and Older Who ommended for both men and women Have Had a Sigmoidoscopy or Colonoscopy: over the age of 50. United States and Georgia, 2002-2010 Colon cancer is detected through co- 70% lonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy and 67.7% fecal occult blood test. Polyps in the co- lon detected by these tests can be re- 65% moved and prevent the onset of cancer Percentage of Adults Screened or allow for earlier, aggressive treatment. 65.2% In men, colorectal cancer is the third 60% most common type of cancer deaths, after lung and prostate cancers. 55%  It is estimated that as many as 60% of deaths from colorectal cancer could be 48.6% prevented if all men and women over the age of 50 years were screened routinely 50% for colorectal cancer (CDC). 49.2% Among cancers that affect men and 45% women, colorectal cancer is the second 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States (CDC). In Georgia, United States Georgia cancer is the second leading cause of all deaths; cardiovascular disease is theSource: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System leading cause. Cancer mortality rates in Georgia Cancer Mortality Age-Adjusted Rate Per declined all but one year between 2000 and 2008, from 206.0 to 172.6 per 100,000: United States and Georgia, 100,000 residents. Men in Georgia have 2000-2008 a higher cancer mortality rate (219.8 per 210 100,000 population) than women (142.9 206.0 per 100,000). 205 Age-Adjusted Rate per 100,000 Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Georgians (51.1 200 per 100,000 population), followed by 195 198.8 male prostate cancer (25.8 per 100,000) and female breast cancer (21.8 per 190 100,000). The Medical Expenditures Panel 185 Survey estimates that medical expenses for cancer in 2010 nationwide at $81.7 180 175.8 billion. 175 A significant public-private investment 172.6 resulted in Winship Cancer Institute at 170 Emory University becoming Georgia’s 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 first cancer center designated by the United States Georgia National Cancer Institute.Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, CDC WONDERA HEALTHIER GEORGIA44 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 44. Cancer Mortality Rates by County Five Year, Age-Adjusted Cancer Death Rate: Georgia Counties, 2005-2008, 2010 Source: Georgia Department of Public Health, OASISDuring the period between 2005-2008 and 2010, 72,950 Georgians died of cancer. The cancer mortality rate during thisperiod declined 8%, from 186.1 to 171.2 per 100,000 residents (OASIS).The highest cancer mortality rates for cancer during this period were recorded in the following counties: Taliaferro,Quitman, Calhoun, Tattnall, Warren. Three of the five counties with the highest cancer mortality rates are small communitieswith fewer than 5,000 residents.Note: Data are unavailable for 2009. A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 45
  • 45. HIV/AIDS and Pneumonia Mortality The human immunodeficiency virus AIDS/HIV Mortality Rate Per 100,000: (HIV) affects the immune system, and United States and Georgia, 2000-2009 the acquired immunodeficiency syn- 10 drome (AIDS) is the advanced stage of HIV. 9 In 2010, there were 23,451 known 8 9.0 Georgians living with AIDS. Of individu- Rate per 100,000 Population als with AIDS, 77% were male and 23% 7 were female. The largest number of per- 6 sons (39%) were 40-49 years of age. 5 The age-adjusted mortality rates for 5.5 individuals with AIDS/HIV declined dur- 4 5.2 ing the last decade nationally and in Georgia. In Georgia the rate declined 3 from 9.0 to 5.5 per 100,000 residents 2 3.0 and nationally the rate declined from 5.2 per 100,000 to 3.0. 1 Effective drug treatments and therapies 0 are prolonging the lives of those living 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 with AIDS. Early screening helps detect HIV earli- Georgia United States er, prevents the transmission of HIV and allows for initiation of treatment to slowSource: CDC National Center for Health Statistics, CDC WONDER the onset of AIDS. Pneumonia related deaths most often Pneumonia Mortality Age-Adjusted Rate Per occur among the elderly population, the 100,000 Residents: United States and very young (under the age of 2 years) or in patients with diseases that weaken Georgia, 2000-2009 the immune system, such as AIDS. 35.0 During the period between 2000 and 29.0 2009 the age-adjusted pneumonia death 30.0 Rate per 100,000 Residents rate per 100,000 residents in Georgia declined 38.3%, from 29.0 to 17.9. Na- 25.0 tionally the pneumonia death rate de- 23.1 17.9 clined 33.8%, from 23.1 to 15.3. 20.0 During the period between 2005 and 15.0 2010, more than 6,000 Georgia resi- 15.3 dents aged 60 and older died of pneu- 10.0 monia. The highest death rates for this condition were recorded in Stewart, Mil- 5.0 ler, Bacon, Washington, and Wilcox counties. - 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Flu and pneumonia together are the 8th leading cause of death in the United Georgia United States States.Source: CDC National Center for Health Statistics, CDC WONDERA HEALTHIER GEORGIA46 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 46. Georgia Trauma Network Level I Georgia Trauma Centers 2012 - Atlanta Medical Center - Georgia Health Sciences Medical Center - Grady Memorial Hospital - Medical Center of Central Georgia - Memorial University Medical Center Level II - Athens Regional Center - Floyd Medical Center - Gwinnett Medical Center - Hamilton Medical Center - John D. Archbold Memorial Hospital - Medial Center-Columbus - North Fulton Hospital - Wellstar Kennestone Level III - Clearview Medical Center - Taylor Regional Hospital Level IV - Effingham Health Center - Emanuel Medical Center - Lower Oconee Community Hospital - Morgan Memorial Hospital - Wills Memorial Hospital Pediatric - Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta-Egleston - Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta-Scottish Rite Burn Centers - Grady Burn Center - Joseph M. Still Burn Center Source: Georgia Trauma Care Network Commission Trauma Levels Designation Criteria  Full range of clinical services  Specialists on-site 24/7 I  Trauma education and research  Community outreach  Attached to medical schools  Full range of clinical services II  Specialists on-site 24/7  Limited range of clinical services III  Specialists on call 24/7; available within 20 minutes IV  Ability to stabilize and transfer patients as appropriateThe leading causes of unintentional injury deaths in Georgia are motor vehicle accidents, falls, poisoning, fire and drown-ing. Traumatic injuries include multiple fractures, paralysis, punctured lungs, stab wounds and brain injuries. These types ofinjuries must be treated at a trauma center as death or the inability to recover may result if not treated within the first hour ofinjury.Each year, an estimated 700 Georgians lose their lives to traumatic injuries. Georgia’s trauma mortality rate is 20% higherthan the national average. A HEALTHIER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 47
  • 48. EDUCATED GEORGIA 2013 Developing life, college, and work ready students LEADING INDICATORS INDICATORS Education Level of Population 25 Years and Older 50 Earnings and Unemployment by Educational Attainment 51 Pre-K through 12th Grade Enrollment 52 Enrollment by Race and Home School Enrollment 53 National Assessment of Educational Progress 54 High School Graduation and Dropout Rates 56 SAT and ACT Scores 57 Special Education 58 Educator Salaries 59 Technical College Enrollment and Employment 60 Adult Basic Education and Passage Rates 61 Strategic Industries and University System of Georgia (USG) Enrollment 62 USG Minority and International Student Enrollment 63 USG Retention and Graduation Rates 64 USG Research Awards 65 HOPE Scholarship and Tuition Costs 66 Technical College System of Georgia Map 67GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 49. Education Level of Population 25 Years and Older The percentage of adult Georgians Attainment of High School Diploma of completing high school has increased Population 25 Years and Older: United States significantly since the 1970s, from less than half (40.6%) to more than 4 out of 5 and Georgia, 1970-2011 (84.3%) adults 25 years and older in 2011. The proportion of adults complet- 100% 85.6% ing high school remained stable in 2010 85.9% Percentage of Population 25 Years+ 84.1% 84.3% 84.3% and 2011. 77.6% 80.0% 70.9% Georgia lagged behind the nation as a 75% whole with respect to high school com- 66.3% pletion by the age of 25 years. During the 56.5% 52.3% 1970s and 1980s, the discrepancy was 50% at least 10%. Since the 1990s, however, 40.6% the gap has gradually decreased. Georgia invests a significant portion of 25% the State’s annual budget to educate its citizens. Education represents more than half of the state’s total budget. 0% 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011 United States GeorgiaSource: U.S. Census Bureau Education is a crucial element in sus- Attainment of College Degree of Population taining and growing the economy of the 25 Years and Older: United States and state. Georgia has made significant in- vestments in education and training in Georgia, 1970-2011 strategic industries and high demand professions, such as health professions 28.2% 28.5% with service cancelable loans and other 30% Percentage of Population 25 Years+ 27.3% 27.6% 25.6% incentive programs. 25% 23.1% The proportion of Georgians 25 years 21.3% and older completing college tripled be- 19.3% tween 1970 and 2011, from 9.2% to 20% 16.3%15.8% 27.6%. 15% The percentage of adult Georgians 10.7% completing a college education has re- 9.2% mained similar to the national average. 10% Georgia was the first state in the nation 5% to have a completion plan for every pub- lic higher education institution. The plans 0% detailed how the University System of 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011 Georgia and the Technical College Sys- tem of Georgia will attain the state’s goal United States Georgia of adding 250,000 post-secondary gradu- ates to Georgia’s rolls by 2020.Source: U.S. Census BureauAN EDUCATED GEORGIA50 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 50. Earnings and Unemployment by Educational AttainmentEducation is a key to earnings, withmedian income increasing with each Median Earnings by Educational Attainment,level of education completed. Population 25 Years and Over: Georgia andA college graduate with a bachelor’s United States, 2011degree in Georgia earns, on average,$17,566 more per year compared to a $70,000 $64,322high school graduate. $60,916 $60,000Earnings for Georgia’s college gradu- $48,309 Median Earningsates ($48,405) are comparable to the $50,000 $48,405national average ($48,309). $40,000 $32,321Median earnings for adults with less $30,840 $26,699than a high school education have de- $30,000 $25,312 $18,794clined recently. Between 2007 and 2011,earnings in Georgia declined 13.6%, $20,000 $17,318from $20,050 to $17,318. $10,000In contrast to adults with less than ahigh school education, median earnings $0for Georgia’s college graduates in- Less than high High school Some college Bachelors Graduate orcreased 2.9% between 2007 and 2011 school graduate or associates degree professionaland increased by 3.6% for adults com- graduate degree degreepleting a graduate or professional de- United States Georgiagree. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community SurveyEducation prepares adults for laborforce participation. The American Com- Unemployment Rate by Educationalmunity Survey data confirm that thehigher the level of education, the more Attainment for Population 25 to 64 Years:employable an adult becomes. United States and Georgia, 2011Less educated working age adults be- 20% Percentage of Population 25 to 64 yearstween the ages of 25 to 64 years are 17.9%more likely to be unemployed comparedto college graduates. 15.6% 15%More than 1 out of 7 adults in Georgia 12.7%and nationwide who had not completed 11.0%high school were unemployed in 2011. 10.4% 10% 8.8%Unemployment rates are lower for highschool graduates (12.7%) and adultscompleting some college (10.4%) com- 4.5% 5.1%pared to high school drop outs (17.9%). 5%Adults with a college degree or higherare most likely to be employed; only 1 0%out of 20 college educated adults were Less than high High school Some college or Bachelors degreeunemployed both nationally and in Geor- school graduate graduate associates degree or highergia in 2011. United States Georgia Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 51
  • 51. Pre-K through 12th Grade Enrollment Georgia was the first state to establish Pre-K Enrollment: Georgia, Fall 2002-2012 a universal Pre-K program for four year olds. The Pre-K program is available in public schools, through Head Start agen- 90,000 cies, private child care centers, faith- based organizations, military facilities, 85,000 81,182 and state colleges and universities. 80,000 Pre-K enrollment in Georgia has in- Number of Students creased 24.2%, from 65,364 in Fall 2002 to 81,182 in Fall 2012. 75,000 During the Fall of 2012, 58.6% of Geor- 70,000 65,364 gia’s four-year-olds enrolled in Pre-K. Georgia’s Lottery funds the Pre-K pro- 65,000 gram. The FY 2013 budget for the lottery contributed more than $299 million to the 60,000 Pre-K program. 55,000 Children who attend Pre-K perform better in reading, language and math in 50,000 kindergarten. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning Georgia’s 181 public school districts K-12 Public School Enrollment: enrolled more than 1.6 million kindergar- ten through 12th grade students in Fall Georgia, Fall 2002-2012 2012. 1,700,000 1,657,506 Between Fall 2002 and Fall 2012, K-12 1,650,000 public school enrollment increased by nearly 200,000; a 13.4% increase. 1,600,000 Over the past decade, annual student Number of Students 1,550,000 enrollment increased steadily until Fall 1,461,267 1,500,000 2007, followed by annual growth of less than 1% between Fall 2008 and Fall 1,450,000 2011. Enrollment growth showed a more robust increase in Fall 2012 (1.1%). 1,400,000 Approximately 1 out of 12 public school 1,350,000 students are kindergarteners (8.3%), 2 out of 5 attend elementary school 1,300,000 (39.2%), 1 out of 4 are middle school 1,250,000 students (23.5%) and more than 1 out of 4 attend high school (29.0%). 1,200,000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Georgia Department of EducationAN EDUCATED GEORGIA52 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 52. Public School Enrollment by Race and Home School EnrollmentGeorgia’s public school population hasbecome increasingly diverse. In Fall Percentage of Public School Students by2012, 56.5% of students are racial or Race/Ethnicity: Georgia, Fall 2002-2012ethnic minorities compared to 48.4% inFall 2002. 2012Since Fall 2002, the Hispanic public 2011school student population increased atthe fastest pace, more than doubling 2010 Percentage of Students(135.3%). 2009The percentage of Black students en- 2008rolled in Georgia’s public schools has 2007remained relatively stable at approxi- 2006mately 37% over the past decade. 2005The Other population includes Asian, 2004multi-racial, American Indian, and PacificIslander students. This population of 2003students increased by 80.0% over the 2002past decade. 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%Georgia’s White public school studentpopulation decreased by 4.0% between Black Hispanic Other WhiteFall 2002 and Fall 2012, from 771,809 to740,645. Source: Georgia Department of Education1 out of 8 of Georgia’s children attenda private school or are home schooled. Home Study and Private School Enrollment:The number of Georgia students home Georgia, FY 2000-FY 2011schooled or attending private schools 120,000increased 28% between FY 2000 and 108,565FY 2011, from 116,412 to 149,544. Thepublic school population, in contrast 100,000 87,514grew by 17.8% during the same period. Number of StudentsAmong students not attending public 80,000school, the number enrolled in HomeStudy increased the fastest between FY2000 and FY 2011 (41.8%), from 28,898 60,000to 40,979. 40,979Private school enrollment in Georgia 40,000 28,898increased 24.1% between the FY 2000and FY 2011, from 87,514 to 108,565. 20,000More than twice as many Georgia stu-dents attend private school than arehome schooled. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Home Study Private School Source: Georgia Department of Education AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 53
  • 53. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) The No Child Left Behind Act required Fourth Grade NAEP Math Scores: United states to participate in the biennial Na- States and Georgia, 2000-2011 tional Assessment of Educational Pro- gress (NAEP) tests for 4th and 8th grade 245 reading and mathematics to provide a 240 national comparison of student academic 239 239 progress. 240 238 237 236 235 The National Center for Education Sta- 234 234 235 tistics administers NAEP to elementary 230 and secondary students in various sub- 230 NAEP Scores ject areas. Four of the nine total subject 224 areas are reported at the state level in- 225 cluding mathematics. Both private and 219 public school children are assessed, alt- 220 hough, only public school data are avail- able for state comparisons. 215 Georgia’s 4th grade students have been 210 steadily closing the gap with the national average math scores. In 2011, Georgia 205 4th grade students scored 19 points high- 2000 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 er in mathematics than in 2000. United States Georgia Note: NAEP scores range from 0 to 500.Source: National Center on Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Nation’s Report Card NAEP measures 4th grade student Fourth Grade NAEP Reading Scores: United reading performance. Students respond States and Georgia, 2000-2011 to questions that assess comprehension of literary and informational text. 222 221 In 2011, Georgia exceeded the national 220 220 220 average in 4th grade reading for the first 220 time since testing began in 1992. 219 218 Since 2002, reading scores for 4th 218 graders have increased 3%, from 215 to 217 217 NAEP Scores 221. 216 216 In 2011, 1 out of 3 (34%) of Georgia’s 215 4th grade students were reading below 214 214 basic level, and 2 out of 3 (66%) were 214 reading at or above basic level. 212 210 2002 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 United States GeorgiaSource: National Center on Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Nation’s Report CardAN EDUCATED GEORGIA54 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 54. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)Similar to the 4th grade NAEP scores,8th grade mathematics scores have con- Eighth Grade NAEP Mathematics Scores:tinuously improved over the past dec-ade. United States and Georgia, 2000-2011 285 283In 2011, 8th grade students scored 13 282points higher in mathematics compared 280to the 2000 NAEP scores. 280 278 278 278However, 8th grade mathematics stu- 276 275dents lag behind the national average by 275 NAEP Scores5 points, with a score of 278. 272 272 270 270 265 265 260 255 2000 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 United States Georgia Source: National Center on Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Nation’s Report CardIn 2011, 8th grade students scored 4points higher in mathematics compared Eighth Grade NAEP Reading Scores: Unitedto 2002. States and Georgia, 2000-2011The lag between Georgia’s student 266reading scores has narrowed, from 5points in 2002 to 2 points in 2009 and 2642011. 264 2638th grade reading score trends in Geor- 262 262 262 261 261gia are similar to the national trend of a NAEP Scoresslight decline in scores between 2003 260 260and 2005, followed by improvements 260 259each year, beginning in 2007. 258 258 258 257 256 254 252 2002 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 United States Georgia Source: National Center on Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Nation’s Report Card AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 55
  • 55. High School Graduation and Dropout Rates In 2012, the U.S. Department of Edu- Public School Graduation Rate: Southeast cation published graduation rates based States, 2011 on the 2008 formula meeting federal education regulations that permits uni- 90.0% formity across states. The new formula 86% tracks the percentage of 9th grade stu- dents who graduate within 4 years. 85.0% Nationally, Georgia ranks 44th in high 80.0% 78% school graduation among all states. 74% Among the southeastern states, gradu- Graduation Rate 75.0% 72% ation rates in 2011 ranged from a low of 71% 67% in Georgia to a high of 86% in Ten- 70.0% nessee. 67% 65.0% Asian/Pacific Islander and white stu- dents have the highest graduation rates, at 79% and 76% respectively. The grad- 60.0% uation rate for Blacks was 60% and 58% among Hispanics. 55.0% 50.0% Alabama Florida Georgia North South Tennessee Carolina CarolinaSource: Georgia Department of Education The dropout rate calculation is the Total Dropout Rate in Grades 9-12: number of students with a withdrawal code corresponding to a dropout divided Georgia, FY 2001-FY 2011 by the number of students that attended the school. 8% 7.2% Georgia’s dropout rate declined 47% 7% 6.5% between the 2000-2001 and the 2010- 2011 school years, from 7.2% to 3.7%. 6% 5.5% Georgia has the 19th highest dropout rate 5.1% 5.0% among the states. Dropout Rate 5% 4.7% Research indicates that chronic school 4.1% 3.8% truancy is an indicator of whether a stu- 4% 3.6% 3.6% 3.7% dent will dropout before graduating from high school. 3% The National Dropout Prevention Cen- 2% ter has identified best practices for reduc- ing the number of students dropping out 1% of school. These best practices include use of incentives and sanctions, family 0% involvement, and creating a supportive 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 environment for students.Source: Georgia Governors Office of Student AchievementAN EDUCATED GEORGIA56 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 56. SAT and ACT ScoresThe SAT Reasoning Test is a stand-ardized test used by most colleges to Combined SAT Scores in Mathematics, Criticaldetermine admittance, along with other Reading and Writing: United States anddeciding factors including coursework,grades, letters of recommendations, and Georgia, FY 2006-FY 2012other criteria. 1540Students taking the SAT are tested in 1518 1520mathematics, critical reading and writing, 1508 1507 1505 1506 1500 1498for a composite score of 2,400 (each 1500section is worth a total of 800 points). Combined ScoreIn 2012, 73,187 of Georgia’s high 1480 1472 1472 1466school seniors took the SAT Test. 1460 1460 1453 1452The combined average score for Geor- 1445gia’s students was 1,452 in 2012, up 1440seven points from the previous year(1,445). 1420 1400 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 United States Georgia Source: The College BoardThe ACT is a standardized test thatcolleges use comparably to the SAT to Composite ACT Scores: United States anddetermine admittance. The ACT assess- Georgia, FY 2002-FY 2012es student’s general educational devel-opment and ability to complete college- 22level work. 21.1 21.1 21.1 21.0The ACT tests four subjects-English, 21 20.9 20.8reading, mathematics and science. Each 20.7 20.7section is worth a maximum of 36 points 20.6and the total score, or composite score, 21is the average of all four sections. Score 20.2 20.047,169 of Georgia’s graduating seniors 20 19.8took the ACT in 2012, 52% of all gradu-ates. 20The average composite ACT score forGeorgia increased slightly from 19.8 in2002 to 20.7 in 2012. Average ACT 19scores among Georgia’s students were 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012slightly below the national average of21.1 in 2012. United States Georgia Source: Governor’s Office of Student Achievement and ACT, Inc. AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 57
  • 57. Special Education Percentage of Students in Special Education: Georgia School Districts, FY 2012Source: Georgia Department of EducationThe Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) assures access to quality education for children with disabilities. In Geor-gia, 1 in 10 of public school children received special education services.Nationally, during the 2009-2010 school year 6.4 million children and youth (13% of public school students) received specialeducation services, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.Three state schools serve blind and deaf students: the Georgia Academy for the Blind in Macon, the Georgia School for theDeaf in Cave Spring in Floyd County, and the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf in Clarkston.Among Georgia’s school systems, the percentage of students served in special education ranges from 6% (Chickamauga Cityand Worth County) to 16% (Screven, Baker, Madison, Putnam, Meriwether, and Banks counties).AN EDUCATED GEORGIA58 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 58. Educator SalariesThe average public school teacher sal-ary in Georgia was $52,815 during the Average Public School Teacher Salaries: United States2009-2010 school year, compared to the and Southeastern States, FY 2010national average $55,623. $60 ,00 0 $55,623Georgia is competitive among the six $55 ,00 0 $52,815southeast states with respect to public $47,803 Average Salaryschool teacher salaries. Georgia’s aver- $50 ,00 0 $47,050 $46,605 $45,891 $45,732age teacher salary is more than $5,000 $45 ,00 0higher compared to Alabama, which rec- $40 ,00 0orded the second highest salary in theregion. $35 ,00 0 $30 ,00 0 $25 ,00 0 United Georgia Alabama South North Tennessee Florida States Carolina Carolina Source: National Education AssociationAverage salaries for full-time faculty atpublic two-year colleges among the Average Salaries of Full-Time Faculty at Public Two-Yearsoutheastern states ranges from a high Colleges: Southeastern States, FY 2011of $54,244 in Florida to $46,503 in Ten-nessee. $56,000 $54,244The average salary for faculty at Geor- $54,000 $53,019gia’s two-year colleges ranked 3rd during $52,000 Average Salarythe 2010-2011 school year among thesoutheastern states. $50,000 $47,972Georgia’s public two year-college facul- $48,000 $47,284 $46,504 $46,503ty members were paid $6,000 less thantheir peers in Florida and $1,400 more $46,000than faculty in Tennessee. $44,000 $42,000 Florida Alabama Georgia North South Tennessee Carolina Carolina Source: Southern Regional Education BoardAverage salaries for full-time faculty atpublic four-year colleges in the southeast Average Salaries of Full-Time Faculty at Public Four-range from a high of $79,333 in North Year Colleges and Universities:Carolina to a low of $67,160 in Tennes- Southeastern States, FY 2011see. $85,000In Georgia in 2010-2011, the average $79,333 $80,000 $78,037faculty salary at four-year public colleges Average Salaryand universities was $72,774. $75,000 $72,774 $72,752The average salary for faculty at public $70,294four-year colleges in Georgia ranked 3rd $70,000among the 6 southeastern states in $67,1602011. $65,000Four-year college faculty salaries inGeorgia increased 4.9% between 2005 $60,000and 2010. North Florida Georgia Alabama South Tennessee Carolina Carolina Source: Southern Regional Education Board AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 59
  • 59. Technical College Enrollment and Employment The Technical College System of Technical College System of Georgia: Total Georgia (TCSG) provides student- Credit Enrollment, Fall 2001-2012 centered, high quality, and affordable technical, academic, adult education and 250,000 training. This system contributes to building literate and economically strong communities and businesses in Georgia. 200,000 Georgia’s Technical College System students may enroll in programs that lead to an associate degree, a diploma, Number of Students or a technical certificate. 118,496 170,860 150,000 Overall, during the past decade, Tech- nical College System enrollment in- creased 44%. 100,000 There was steady growth in TCSG enrollment during the early portion of the past decade, followed by a stabilization 50,000 during mid-decade. Following the eco- nomic changes that occurred starting in 2007, enrollment increased each year until 2011. 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Technical College System of Georgia The number of Technical College Employment of Technical College Award awards more than doubled in Georgia Recipients: Georgia, 2000-2011 between 2000 and 2011, from 15,304 to 37,771. 35,000 More than 1 out of 3 Technical College 29,581 System students continue their educa- 30,000 tion following completion of a course of study. Number of Students 25,000 In 2011, more than half of Technical 20,000 16,581 College System award recipients were employed in the field or a related field 11,435 15,000 (60%). 8,182 1 out of 6 Technical College System 10,000 award recipients were employed out of 1,677 their field (17%) in 2011. 5,000 1,057 * Note: There is some duplication of gradu- 0 ates who are both employed and continuing 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 their education concurrently. Employed In Field or Related Field Employed Out of Field Continuing EducationSource: Technical College System of GeorgiaAN EDUCATED GEORGIA60 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 60. Adult Basic Education Graduates and Passage RatesThe Technical College System of Geor-gia oversees the state’s adult education Number of Adult Basic Education Programefforts. Graduates: Georgia, 2005-2011Adult education provides adult learners 45,000with the opportunity to study for and earn 41,141a General Educational Development 40,000(GED) diploma. Students completing a 35,854GED are able to attend college or enter 35,000 33,123the labor force. The curriculum for adult 30,808basic education focuses on reading, writ- Number of Graduatesing, and math skills. 30,000 24,721The Adult Basic Education program is 25,000 23,704 22,661designed to provide special attention toadults returning to school to resume edu- 20,000cational programs which were interruptedin earlier years. The goal of the program 15,000is a fully literate Georgia. 10,000The number of Adult Basic Educationgraduates has fluctuated over the pastseveral years from a high of 41,141 in 5,0002005 to a low of 22,661 in 2011. 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Technical College System of GeorgiaThe Technical College System of Geor-gia has awarded between 18,000 and Percent of Adult Education Students Who19,000 (GED) diplomas annually since Met Intended Goal to Obtain a GED: Georgia,2005. 2005-2011The passage rate for Adult Basic Edu- 75.3% 76%cation students intending to obtain aGED declined between 2005 and 2011, 73.9%from 75.3% to 66.4%. 74% 73.1% 72.0%According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 72% Percentage of StudentsGeorgia ranks 13th among the 50 states,for the highest percentage of adults lack- 70% 69.5%ing a high school diploma. However, theproportion of adult Georgians without a 68%high school education declined from 66.6% 66.4%21.4% in 2000 to 15.6% in 2011. 66% 64% 62% 60% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Technical College System of Georgia AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 61
  • 61. Strategic Industries and University System of Georgia Enrollment The Technical College System of Earnings of Technical College Strategic Georgia has developed educational pro- Industry Graduates Before and After grams to ensure Georgia businesses have a trained workforce in strategic Graduation: Georgia, FY 2010 Graduates industries. The customized training as- sists companies starting up or are utiliz- ing new technologies or business pro- $31,685 Energy and Environment cesses. $31,225 More than 56,000 students are en- $34,675 rolled in programs that prepare gradu- Aerospace $29,383 ates to work in strategic industries. $28,379 Students in Technical College pro- Agribusiness grams increase their earnings following $26,530 graduation. Students training for life sci- $30,333 ence and health/elder care industries Healthcare and Eldercare increase their earnings by 30% after $23,259 completing their studies. Students com- $30,908 pleting training for the aerospace indus- Life Sciences try earn the highest incomes following $23,160 graduation ($34,675). $0 $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 After Graduating Before GraduatingSource: Technical College System of Georgia Georgia’s public colleges and universi- Enrollment in the University System of ties operate under the University System Georgia: Fall 2002-2012 of Georgia (USG) umbrella. The system consists of research universities, region- al universities, state universities, state 340,000 colleges and two-year colleges. USG is responsible for providing higher 320,000 314,365 education to Georgia residents to create a more educated Georgia through in- struction, research and public service. Number of Students 300,000 In Fall 2012, approximately 314,000 280,000 students were enrolled at a USG college or university, a decrease of 3,662 from the previous fall. 260,000 233,098 Enrollment in the University System of Georgia increased 34.9%, more than 240,000 81,000 students, between Fall 2002 and Fall 2012. 220,000 200,000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: University System of Georgia Board of RegentsAN EDUCATED GEORGIA62 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 62. USG Minority and International Student EnrollmentThe number of minority students at-tending University System of Georgia University System of Georgia Minoritycolleges and universities increased by84.7% between 2002 and 2012. Enrollment: Fall 2002-2012The Black student population enrolled 2002at USG institutions increased by 63.5%between 2002 and 2012, from 22.7% to 200327.5% of total students. 2004 Number of StudentsThe percentage of Asian American 2005students enrolled in the USG systemincreased from 5.6% in 2002 to 7.1% in 20062012. 2007Hispanics now represent 5.7% of stu- 2008dent enrollment in the USG system. The 2009number of Hispanics students enrolledincreased between 2002 and 2012 by 2010245.9%. 2011Females comprised more than half 2012(57%) of the student population enrolledin USG in Fall 2012. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Black Hispanic Asian American Native American Multi-Racial Source: University System of Georgia Board of RegentsThe University System of Georgia at-tracts students from around the globe. University System of Georgia InternationalIn Fall 2012, international students Student Enrollment: Fall 2012comprised 7.4%, 23,162 of more than314,000 students within the USG system. Africa 15.1%1 out of 4 of international students South Asia 19.0%(25%) are from the East Asian and Pacif-ic region.One-fifth of international students arefrom South/Latin America and the Carib- Middle East & North Africa East Asia & thebean, and an additional one-fifth are from 6.1% PacificSouth Asia. 26.3%The number of non-citizen studentsenrolled in the University System ofGeorgia increased by 405 students or2% between Fall 2011 and Fall 2012. Latin America & Caribbean 19.7% Europe & Canada 13.8% Source: University System of Georgia Board of Regents AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 63
  • 63. USG Retention Rates and Six-Year Graduation Rates Three-quarters of students entering a First-Year Retention Rates for University University System of Georgia college or university return to school the following System of Georgia Full-Time Freshman: fall. FY 2001-FY 2011 First-year retention rates for university students in Georgia have fluctuated over 78% the past decade within a fairly narrow 74.9% range. 76% Percentage of Students 74.0% 74% Among degree seeking, full-time fresh- men who entered a University System of 72% Georgia institution in Fall 2011, 69.8% 69.1% 69.8% returned to the same institution the fol- 70% lowing year, slightly below the highest retention rate recorded, which was in FY 68% 2004 (72.0%). 66% The retention rate for incoming fresh- men returning to any USG institution 64% was slightly higher in FY 2011 at 74.0%. 62% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Institute-Specific Rate System-Wide RateSource: University System of Georgia Board of Regents Key indicators of post-secondary per- Six-Year Graduation Rates of Freshman formance: six-year graduation rate for first-time, full-time freshman at four-year Attending Four-Year Institutions: colleges and three-year graduation rate Georgia, FY 2005-FY 2011 for first-time, full-time freshmen at two- year colleges 70% 59.0% 59.2% 59.5% The proportion of Georgia’s university 57.8% 56.7% 60% 55.0% 56.1% students completing their degree has 50.8% 51.7% 51.6% 51.8% increased significantly since the mid- 47.9% 49.1% 49.3% 1990s. Percentage of Students 50% Among first-time, full-time bachelor’s 40% degree seeking undergraduates at four- year colleges who entered a University 30% System of Georgia college or university in Fall 2005, 52% graduated within six 20% years from the same institution and 60% graduated from an institution within the 10% system. 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Percent Graduated from Initial Institution Percent Graduated from USG SystemSource: University System of Georgia Board of RegentsAN EDUCATED GEORGIA64 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 64. USG Research AwardsThere are four research universitieswithin the University System of Georgia Research University External Funding:(USG): University of Georgia, Georgia FY 2003-FY 2012Health Sciences University, GeorgiaState University, and Georgia Institute of $1,000 $946.6Technology. $900Between FY 2003 and FY 2012, Geor-gia’s research universities were awarded $800more than $7.3 billion in research funds. $700 $562.8 Millions of DollarsOverall, external research funding in-creased by 68% between FY 2003 and $600FY 2012. $500In FY 2012, research funding increasedby $68 million compared to the previous $400year. $300The research awards received by USGresearch universities encompass a wide $200range of topics, from national security to $100advances in medicine. $- 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: USG research universitiesResearch within the University Systemof Georgia spans many subject areas University System of Georgia Research Fundand is primarily concentrated in the four Resources, Fiscal Year 2012research universities. Foundation/More than two-thirds of USG research Otherfunding is provided by the federal 14%government (70%).State and local government provide 3% Industryof USG external research funding. 11%Industry provides 11% of USGresearch funds. State & Local 3%Nonprofits also contribute 14% of USG Federalresearch funds. 70% International 2% Source: University System of Georgia Board of Regents AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 65
  • 65. HOPE Scholarship and Tuition Costs Median tuition and fees at Georgia’s Percentage of Family Income Required for Annual universities and colleges ($5,919) was Tuition: United States and Southeast States, FY more affordable than three other south- 2009 and FY 2011 east region states in FY 2011. Such Percentage of Median Income costs in Georgia are lower than South 25% 22% Carolina ($9,267), Alabama ($7,136), 20% and Tennessee ($6,190). 20% 17% 16% 13% 13% 13% Tuition in Georgia as a percentage of 15% 13% median household income (13%) was 12% 11% 11% 10% the same as the national average in FY 9% 8% 10% 2011. 5% The percentage of family income re- quired to pay college tuition and fees at 0% Georgia’s colleges and universities in- United South Alabama Tennessee Georgia Florida North States Carolina Carolina creased substantially between FY 2009 and FY 2011, from 9% to 13%. FY 2009 FY 2011Source: Southern Regional Education Board HOPE (Helping Outstanding Pupils Students Earning Georgias HOPE Scholarships Educationally), Georgia’s scholarship and Grants: FY 2002-2012 and grant program, provides financial assistance at public and private colleges 300,000 and universities and public technical 211,325 colleges. 250,000 195,859 Number of Students The HOPE scholarship is available to 200,000 Georgia residents meeting academic requirements. The amount of the award 150,000 is based upon a per hour rate at the institution the student attends. 100,000 The number of students receiving 50,000 HOPE scholarships and grants in- creased more than 30% from 195,859 to 0 256,502 between 2002 and 2011, but 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 declined to 211,325 in 2012.Source: Georgia Student Finance Commission Between 1993 and 2012, $6.6 billion Disbursements of Georgias HOPE were disbursed to Georgia colleges and Scholarships and Grants to Georgias universities through the HOPE scholar- Educational Institutions, 1993-2012 ships and grants program funded by the Georgia Lottery. Public Technical 2 out of 3 HOPE scholarships and Colleges grants have been disbursed to students 24.2% attending the state’s public colleges and universities. 1 out of 4 scholarships and grants Public Colleges were disbursed to public technical col- Private Colleges and Universities leges, and the approximately 11% and Universities 65.0% remaining scholarships went to private 10.8% colleges and universities.Source: Georgia Student Finance CommissionAN EDUCATED GEORGIA66 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 66. TCSG Institutions Technical College System of GeorgiaSource: Technical College System of Georgia AN EDUCATED GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 67
  • 68. SAFE GEORGIA 2013 Protecting Georgia’s public’s safety and security LEADING INDICATORS INDICATORS Child Protection 70 Child Protective Services and Foster Care 71 Georgia Bureau of Investigation 72 Reported Offenses and Violent Crime 73 Heading Property Crime and Prisoners by Crime Type 74 Time Served and Incarceration Rate 75 Reconviction Rates and Offender Populations 76 Jail Inmate Populations and Parolees 77 Parole Completion Rates and Correction Costs 78 Reform Plan 79 Juvenile Arrests and Admissions by Offense 80 Juvenile Placements 81 Place you r m essag e h ere. Fo r m axim um i mpact , use two or t hre e se ntenc es.GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 69. Child Protection In Georgia, people who work with Child Abuse and Neglect Reports: children and families are required to Georgia, 2002-2011 report suspected abuse to the Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS). 110,000 Mandated reporters include: physicians, hospital personnel, dentists, psycholo- gists, podiatrists, nurses, professional 100,000 counselors, school teachers, and child 85,564 welfare staff. The largest number of child abuse and Number of Reports 90,000 neglect reports are received from Georgia’s schools. 80,000 In the early part of the last decade, the number of reports of child abuse and 63,547 neglect received by DFCS climbed 70,000 steeply. Abuse and neglect reports peaked in 2004 at 101,563 but has declined steadily to 63,547 in 2011. 60,000 In 2011, 65 of Georgia’s children died as a result of child maltreatment, a rate of 2.61 per 100,000 children, higher than 50,000 the national rate of 2.10. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children Services More than half of the 21,148 reports of Child Protective Cases Investigated by suspected child abuse and neglect in Georgia investigated by DFCS in FY Determination: Georgia, 2011 2011 were substantiated (55%). Nearly 7,000 substantiated cases of abuse and neglect were serious enough Substantiated to warrant on-going services be provided Unsubstantiated Open Closed 31.7% to the family. 41.1% The maltreatment rate per 1,000 children in Georgia declined from 14.1 in 2007 to 7.4 in 2011. Neglect is the most frequent type of maltreatment identified in Georgia. In 2011, 64.3% of Georgia’s substantiated cases involved this type of maltreatment. More than one out of three of Geor- gia’s maltreatment victims (34.5%) are under the age of four years. Unsubstantiated Substantiated In 2011, nearly 3 out of 4 (72.3%) Open Closed perpetrators of substantiated abuse and 3.5% 23.7% neglect are parents, followed by other relatives (10.2%), and non-biological parents (5.8%).Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children ServicesA SAFER GEORGIA70 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 70. Child Protective Services and Foster CareActive Child Protective ServicesCases (CPS) includes the number ofCPS investigations and Family Preser- Number of Montly Active Child Protectivevation cases being handled by DFCS. Service Cases: Georgia, 2004-2011Substantiated cases of abuse and 35,000neglect are opened by DFCS for on- 28,815going CPS action when the level of risk 30,000for recurring maltreatment is high ormoderate. 25,000 Number of CasesThe monthly number of CPS cases inGeorgia fluctuates considerably.Overall, the number of active cases 20,000declined 71.7% between 2004 and2011, from 28,815 to 8,163. 15,000 8,163Active CPS cases have declinedlargely in response to the utilization of 10,000diversion. “Diversion” is an option DFCSuses to assist families when the safety 5,000of children is not in question, emphasiz-ing a strength-based, prevention-driven,community response to vulnerable 0children and families. DFCS refers 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011diverted families to resources availablein their communities. Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children ServicesThe monthly number of children thatwere in out of home care by DFCS in Monthly Number of Children InGeorgia decreased 72.3% between July Out of Home Placement, Georgia:2004 and September 2012, from 28,815to 7,979. July 2004 - September 2012 35,000During FY 2012, there were a total of 28,81513,921 children in DFCS legal custody. 30,000 Number of Children per MonthMore than one-quarter of children in 25,000DFCS custody (29.9%) in September2012 were under the age of 4 years. 20,000In September 2012, nearly half (47%)of children in out of home placement 15,000were placed with their siblings, and only4.3% of these children were placed ininstitutions. 10,000 7,979In 2011, the majority of children 5,000(63.1%) leaving out of home placementreturned home, and 74.8% of thechildren reunified with their families, 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012returned home in less than 12 months. Source: Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Family and Children Services A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 71
  • 71. Georgia Bureau of Investigation Georgia Bureau of Investigation: The Georgia Bureau of Investigation (GBI) employees work in Regional Number of Cases Initiated, Offices, Regional Drug Enforcement FY 2000-FY 2011 Offices and other special units, respond- 5000 ing to requests for assistance from local enforcement agencies. 4000 Since 2000, there has been a 28.6% decline in the number of cases investi- Number of Cases gated by the GBI, mostly due to resource 3000 issues and workforce reductions. The number of cases initiated by the agency declined from 10,900 in 2000 to 7,779 in 2000 2011. The number of narcotics cases initiated 1000 by the GBI declined 65.4% between 2000 and 2011, while crimes against 0 persons cases declined 25.7% during the 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 same period. Crimes Against Persons Property Crimes Polygraph and background cases, Narcotics Polygraph and Background Exams bomb disposal services and property Other Investigations Bomb Disposal Services crime cases declined 53.3%, 38.3%, 32.3%,respectively. Intelligence Examinations Crime Scene SpecialistsSource: Georgia Bureau of Investigation GBI Investigative Division staff GBI Investigative Hours Expended: expended more than 60,000 hours investigating crimes in August 2012. August 2012 Crime Scene Intelligence Specialists Nearly one out of three GBI investiga- Examinations 9.7% tive hours expended in August 2012 0.1% were spent on crimes against persons, Bomb Disposal followed by drug investigations (27.1% Services of investigative hours). 3.2% Crimes Against Crime scenes, property crimes, and Persons bomb disposal accounted for nearly 1 Other 31.7% out of 4 (22.9%) of GBI total investiga- Investigations tive hours during that time period. 14.4% A small portion of GBI’s investigative hours in August (4%) were spent on polygraphs and background examina- tions. Polygraph and Background Note: Other Investigations include preliminary Exams investigations, public corruption, et cetera. 4.0% Property Crimes 9.8% Narcotics 27.1%Source: Georgia Bureau of InvestigationA SAFER GEORGIA72 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 72. Reported Offenses and Violent CrimeGeorgia’s violent crime rate (373.2 per100,000 residents) is slightly lower than Reported Offenses in the United States andthe national rate (386.3). Selected Southeastern States, 2011Among the southeastern states,Georgia ranks second lowest in overall 5,000violent crime rate. The state with the 4,500lowest rate in the region is NorthCarolina with a rate of 349.8 while 4,000 Rate Per 100,000 Residents 3,904Tennessee ranks highest at 608.2. 3,500 3,606 3,596 3,522 3,627Georgia ranks third lowest among the 3,000 3,527southeastern states with respect to the 2,909murder and non-negligent manslaughter 2,500rate. The state’s rate is 5.6 per 100,000 2,000residents, compared to 5.3 in NorthCarolina and 5.2 in Florida. 1,500 1,000Georgia has the second highestproperty crime rate among the south- 500 515 608 572eastern states at 3,626.5 per 100,000 386 350 420 373 0residents. Florida ranks lowest in the United North Alab ama Florida Geo rgia Tennessee Southregion at 3,522.0 per 100,000 and South States Carolin a CarolinaCarolina ranks highest at 3,904.2 per100,000. Violent Crime Property Crime Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Uniform Crime ReportsGeorgia’s rate of reported violent crimeincreased between 2005 and 2007, fol-lowed by steep declines beginning in Violent Crime Rate:2009. United States and Georgia, 2000-2011Georgia’s violent crime rate was higher 530than the national average for 3 years 506.5 510during the last decade. Rate Per 100,000 ResidentsIn 2011, aggravated assault was the 490 504.7most frequently reported violent crime in 470Georgia, with a rate of 222.9 per100,000 residents. Robbery is the se- 450cond most frequently reported violentcrime in the state with a rate of 123.8 per 430100,000 residents. 410According to the U.S. Department of 386.3Justice, violent offenders have a greater 390probability of being arrested comparedto property offenders. In 2011, an of- 370fender was charged in 64.8% of reported 373.2murder and non-negligent manslaughter 350cases, compared to 21.5% for larceny- 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011theft, or 12.7% for burglary cases report-ed. United States Georgia Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Uniform Crime Reports A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 73
  • 73. Property Crime and Prisoners by Crime Type Overall, property crime rates declined Property Crime Rate: both nationally and in Georgia over the Georgia and United States, 2000-2011 past decade. Although the property crime rate fluctu- 4,500 4,246.4 ated over the past decade in Georgia, 4,300 the rate per 100,000 residents declined 14.6%, from 4,246.4 in 2000 to 3,626.5 4,100 in 2011. Rate Per 100,000 Residents 3,900 Nationally, the property crime rate per 3,626.5 100,000 residents declined at a slightly 3,700 faster pace (19.6%), from 3,618.3 in 3,500 2000 to 2,908.7 in 2011. 3,300 3,618.3 Georgia’s property crime rate contin- ues to exceed the national average, 3,100 despite an overall decline since 2000. 2,900 In 2011, larceny-theft was the most 2,908.7 frequently reported non-violent crime in 2,700 Georgia, with a rate of 2,351.7 per 2,500 100,000 residents, followed by burglary 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 at 974.6 per 100,000, and motor vehicle theft at 300.3 per 100,000 residents. United States GeorgiaSource: U.S. Department of Justice, Uniform Crime Reports  In 2012, there were 57,570 inmates in Adult Prisoners by Crime Type: Georgias state prisons. Nearly half Georgia, Fiscal Year 2012 (46.0%) of these prisoners were convicted of violent offenses, and 1 out Others of 5 (21.5%) was convicted of property Habitual Traffic 4.1% offenses. More than half (58.9%) of Violations/DUI prisoners have had no prior 0.2% incarcerations. Three out of four (75%) of Georgia’s Drug prisoners have substance abuse 13.9% Violent problems, and 53% of the inmates 46.0% receive mental health treatment. Although the average age of Georgia’s prisoners is 37.2 years, only 1 out of 3 (32.3%) inmates have earned a General Property Education Diploma (GED) or its 21.5% equivalent compared to 84.3% of the total adult population. Average daily costs for physical health care for Georgia’s prisoners was $8 in FY 2012, as was the average cost per Sexual day for mental health care. 14.3%Source: Georgia Department of CorrectionsA SAFER GEORGIA74 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 74. Time Served and Incarceration RateThe percentage of time served byGeorgia’s inmates varies considerably Total Percentage of Time Served by Type ofby type of crime committed. Crime: Georgia, FY 2000- FY 2012Sex offenders in Georgia serve the 100%greatest proportion of their sentence;approximately 87%. 90%Violent offenders in Georgia, serve the Percentage of Sentences 80%2nd greatest proportion of their sentenc-es. Over the past decade the percent- 70%age of time served by violent offendershas increased from 67% in 2000 to 78% 60%in 2012.Georgia’s property offenders are 50%serving an increasing percentage of their 40%sentences, increasing from 48% in 2000to 66% in 2012. 30%Drug offenders serve the smallestpercentage of their sentences. In 2012, 20% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012drug possession offenders served 55%and drug sales offenders served 43%. Violent Sex Offender Property Drug Sales Drug Possession Source: Georgia Department of Corrections, Office of Planning and AnalysisGeorgia’s incarceration rate hasremained above the national average for Incarceration Rate:the past three decades. In 2010, the United States and Georgia, 2000-2010state’s incarceration rate (550 prisonersper 100,000 residents) ranked 8th 600highest in the nation. 550 550 Prisoners per 100,000 ResidentsIn 2011, the Department of Corrections 550and State Board of Pardons and Paroleinstituted the Performance IncentiveCredit (PIC). PIC provides incentives to 500offenders to complete educational 500programs and work productively duringincarceration for consideration of up to 450 47812 months early consideration for parole.Criminal justice reform established an 400accountability court committee toimplement new drug and mental healthaccountability courts. 350Similar to other states, Georgia hasexperienced an increase in inmates that 300are elderly or have chronic conditions. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Inmates with chronic conditions are United States Georgiaenrolled in in-house chronic care clinics. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 75
  • 75. Reconviction Rates and Offender Populations The three-year return to prison rate is Three-Year Return to Prison and Felony defined as the percentage of offenders Reconviction Rates: Georgia, 2000-2009 who return to prison for either new 34% offenses or for technical violations of their release. The three-year felony 33% reconviction rate is the percentage of offenders who are convicted of a new felony resulting in either prison or Three-Year Reconviction Rate 32% 31.0% probation within 3 years of release from 31% prison. The three-year return to prison rate in 30% Georgia increased slightly in the early 29% part of the past decade, from 31% to 33%, but has since declined to 26.7% 28% 27.0% Georgia’s three-year felony 28.0% reconviction rate has remained fairly 27% stable over the past decade, from a high 26.7% of 29% in 2001 to a low of 27% in four of 26% the years since 2000. 25% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Return to Prison Rate 3-Year Felony Reconviction RateSource: Georgia Department of Corrections At the end of FY 2012, there were Inmate, Probation and Parolee Populations: 163,265 probationers, 57,570 inmates, Georgia, FY 2000-FY 2012 and 24,426 parolees in Georgia. 180,000 163,265 Over the past decade, Georgia’s 160,000 inmate population increased by 32.9%, from 43,324 in 2000 to 57,570 in 2012. 140,000 132,997 The probation and parolee populations 120,000 increased more slowly between 2000Number of People and 2012. The number of probationers 100,000 increased by 22.8%, from 132,997 to 163,265 and the number of parolees 80,000 increased 10.0%, from 22,211 to 24,426. 57,570 60,000 Discretionary parole decisions can 43,324 enhance public safety by ensuring that 40,000 dangerous offenders remain incarcer- 24,426 ated and by providing the necessary 22,211 20,000 structure and assistance to select offenders who seek to become law- 0 abiding citizens. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Inmate Population Parole Population Probation PopulationSource: Georgia Department of Corrections and Georgia State Board of Pardons and ParolesA SAFER GEORGIA76 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 76. Jail Inmate Populations and ParoleesThere are 146 counties with jails in Georgia County Jail, Inmate Population,Georgia, which housed 38,699 inmates September 2012in September 2012. Other Inmates InmatesIn 2012, the majority (62%) of county 13% Sentenced tojail inmates were awaiting trial, 16% of State Institutionsinmates were sentenced to county jails, 9%and 9% were state sentenced inmateshoused at county facilities.Between 2007 and 2012, the county jailpopulation decreased by 1%. CountyThe number of county jail inmates Sentencedsentenced to state institutions decreased Inmatesby 20.3% from 4,416 in September 2007 16%to 3,520 in September 2012.The number of county jails overcapacity decreased from 40 inSeptember 2007 to 32 in September2012. Inmates Awaiting Trial in Jail 62% Source: Georgia Department of Community AffairsParoled offenders are released prior toserving their entire sentence based on Georgia Parolees by Crime Type, 2012their likelihood of re-offending. Other Crimes DUI/Habitual 8.5%In 2012, 1 out of 4 (26.4%) parolees Traffic Violationswere initially convicted of violent crimes 0.4% Violent Crimesand another quarter were convicted of 26.4%property crimes (26.1%). Additionally, 1out of 5 (20.3%) parolees were Drugconvicted of drug sales/trafficking, and Possessionsmore than 1 of out of 7 were convicted of 15.4%drug possession.Georgia has the 13th highest parolepopulation in the United States with 341parolees per 100,000 adult residents. Sex Crimes 2.9%During FY 2011, 69% of parolees wereemployed and 67% of parolees whoentered drug treatment successfullycompleted their treatment. Drug Sales/Trafficking 20.3% Property 26.1% Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and State Board of Pardons and Paroles A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 77
  • 77. Parole Completion Rates and Correction Costs Parole supervision begins when an Parole Supervision Completion Rate: offender is released from prison into the United States and Georgia, 2006-2012 community prior to serving their entire sentence. Successful completion of 75% 72% parole supervision* requires an offender to show success in re-integrating into the 70% community via employment, stable residence, program completion, etc. 65% 60% The successful parole completion rate Percentage of Parolees 60% in Georgia increased between 2006 to 2012, from 60% to 72%. 55% 52% Georgia’s parolees are considerably 50% more likely to successfully complete 45% parole compared to parolees nationwide. 45% Nationally, the average parole comple- 40% tion rate** has also increased, from 45% in 2006 to 52% in 2012. 35% Note*: Successful parole completion excludes 30% offenders who are revoked, abscond or in jail 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 at the time of discharge from parole. Note**: National completion rates for 2011 United States Georgia and 2012 are estimated.Source: State Board of Pardons and Paroles In FY 2012, the Georgia Department of State Daily Cost by Offender Placement: 2012 Corrections operated: 113 Probation circuit offices $1.27 Regular Probation Supervision 1 Probation Residential Substance Abuse Treatment centers 14 Day reporting centers $4.30 Intensive Probation Supervision 14 Transitional centers 32 State prisons $4.94 Parole Supervision 4 Private prisons by contract 23 County correctional institutes $16.33 Day Reporting Centers 9 Probation Detention Centers 1 Inmate boot camp $33.09 Pre-release Centers The average cost per Georgia offender in state prison is $16,246 per year compared to $463.55 for regular proba- $36.76 Transition Centers tion supervision and $1,569.50 for intensive probation supervision. $42.43 Detention Centers Incarceration costs vary based on security level needed to maintain the prisoner; $22,079 per year for close $44.51 State Prisons security prisons versus. $15,115 per year for medium security facilities. Source: Georgia Department of Corrections and Georgia State Board of Pardons and ParolesA SAFER GEORGIA78 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 78. Reform Plan Georgia Prison Population: Historical, Baseline, and HB 1176 Projections: 2000-2017 65,000 Baseline 60,000 Sept. 2012Number of Prisoners 55,000 HB 1176 50,000 Historical Forecasts 45,000 40,000 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Historic Projected Source: Applied Research Services In 2012, the Georgia State Legislature passed House Bill 1176 to implement recommendations from the Criminal Justice Reform Council. The bill amended state law to focus prison bed utilization for serious offenders. Additionally, the legislation created a grant program for accountability courts that will provide treatment for drug offenders and other offenders with a mental health diagnosis as an underlying factor for their crime as opposed to incarceration. HB 1176 created different classes of offense types for burglary, theft, forgery, and drug crimes. The classes with lower- risk offense types have a new shorter maximum sentence under the statute. This allows for prison space to be afforded to the most serious and/or violent offenders in the future. The above chart, prepared by the state’s contactor for prison population projections, Applied Research Services, indicates the projected prison population growth prior to the passage of House Bill 1176 in the “Baseline”. The new “HB 1176” blue trend line indicates how the new statutory policies will reduce prison growth as the sentencing impact occurs on the offenders eventually being sentenced to shorter sentences for the lower level crime classifications. The true impact of the reform is not seen in the prison population until the start of 2015 because that is the approximate time the new offenders convicted under the new statutes will begin to complete their prison sentences. The Criminal Justice Reform Council expanded its role and reviewed Georgia’s Juvenile Justice system in FY 2013. This resulted in the formation of two workgroups. One workgroup reviewed Community-Based Options, while the second one focused on Juvenile Dispositions and Out-of-Home Placements. Additionally, the Council continued to examine the adult corrections system. Final recommendations by the Council will be presented to the General Assembly for consideration of appropriate statutory changes. A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 79
  • 79. Juvenile Arrests and Admissions by Offense In 2011, 42,480 of Georgia’s juveniles Number of Juvenile Arrests: were arrested. While the number of Georgia, 2000-2011 juvenile arrests has fluctuated over the past decade, there was an overall 70,000 decline of 6.3% in arrests between 2000 and 2011. 60,000 The greatest number of juvenile arrests occurred in 2008 (57,797), followed by a decline to 42,480 in 2011. 50,000 45,323 Number of Juveniles 42,480 Juveniles were most frequently arrested in 2011 for larceny (19%), other 40,000 assaults (14%), and disorderly conduct (10%). 30,000 Drug offenses were the reason for 7.8% of juvenile arrests in 2011; 547 20,000 arrests involved sales or manufacture of drugs and 2,753 were possession charges. 10,000 A large increase in arrests (72%) was registered for offenses against family and 0 children between 2007 and 2011. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Georgia Bureau of Investigation Juvenile offenders under Department of Department of Juvenile Justice Admissions Juvenile Justice (DJJ) supervision most by Offense: Georgia, FY 2011 frequently enter the system due to the following offenses: property (22%), status 25% (19.7%), violence (16.6%), or public order (16.0%). 20% In FY 2011, there were 14,268 admis- sions to secure detention at Regional Percentage of Admissions Youth Detention Centers (RYDC) a 15% 14.7% decrease from FY 2009. The average length of stay in secure deten- tion at a RYDC was 15 days in FY 2011. 10% In 2011, nearly one out of nine Georgia high school students (11.7%) reported 5% being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous year, higher than the national 0% average of 7.4%. Note: Status offenses are crimes defined as criminal due to the offender’s age, such as truancy and curfew violations. VOP is a violation of parole, VOAC is a violation of aftercare, VOAP is a violation of alternative plan.Source: Georgia Department of Juvenile JusticeA SAFER GEORGIA80 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 80. Juvenile PlacementsA RYDC provides temporary, securecare and supervision to youth charged Juvenile Justice Placements:with offenses and awaiting placement or Georgia, FY 2011treatment in a community program orlong-term facility. A Youth Development Non-Secure YouthCampus (YDC) provides secure care, Development Residentialsupervision and treatment services to Campus Settingyouth committed for long-term programs. 4.6% 5.1%The average daily population servedby DJJ declined by 21.3% between FY Regional Youth2004 and FY 2011, from 20,323 to Development15,991. Centers 8.2%The majority of Georgia’s youthoffenders entering the juvenile justicesystem are placed in community pro-grams (82%). The remainder of juvenileoffenders are distributed among non-secure residential settings (5.1%), YDC(4.6%), and RYDC (8.2%). CommunityThe average length of stay for youth Programcommitted to a DJJ facility increased 82.0%from 621 days in FY 2009 to 705 days inFY 2011. Source: Georgia Department of Juvenile JusticeMore than 2 out of 5 youth (44.4%)admitted to a YDC in FY 2011 were Youth Development Campus Placements bycommitted to the department due to a Offense: Georgia, FY 2011violent offense. An additional 1 out of 10(10.5%) youth offenders were admitted to 50%a YDC because they committed a violent 44.4%sexual offense. Percentage of Placements 40%1 out of 3 youth admitted to a YDC in 32.9%FY 2011 committed a property offense. 30%Drug offenses represent a very smallproportion of offenses for which youth areplaced in a YDC (1.7%). 20% stDJJ operates the state’s 181 school 9.7%district which serves 52,000 youth each 10% 7.8%year; providing an opportunity for youthin custody to earn a high school diploma. 0.6% 1.1% 0.8% 1.1% 1.6% 0%Note: VOP is violation of parole, VOAC isviolation of aftercare, VOAP is violation ofalternative plan. Source: Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice A SAFER GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 81
  • 82. RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT 2013 Georgia has maintained its status as one of the top five LEADING INDICATORS “Prudent Government” states in the nation since 2007. Camelot Index, Federal Funds Information for States , State Policy Reports INDICATORS Economic Freedom and Fiscal Policy Rankings 84 State Revenues 85 State Expenditures 86 Bond Ratings and Debt Plan Ratios 87 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report 89 Audit Findings and Actuarial Liabilities 90 State Personnel 91 Employee Turnover and Risk Management 92 State Vehicles 94 Facilities and Construction 95 Technology Investments 96 Technology Effectiveness 97 Broadband Speeds in Georgia 98 E-Government 99GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET
  • 83. Economic Freedom and Fiscal Policy Rankings Freedom in the 50 United States is an 2011 Freedom in the United States Report Rankings annual index of personal and economic ECONOMIC FREEDOM RANKING REGULATORY POLICY RANKING freedom published by the Mercatus Cen- ter at George Mason University. State Score State Score 1. South Dakota 0.385 1. Indiana 0.28 The Freedom in the 50 States report ranks states in four main areas: Fiscal 2. New Hampshire 0.345 2. Iowa 0.26 Policy, Regulatory Policy, Economic 3. North Dakota 0.337 3. Utah 0.25 Freedom, and Personal Freedom. 4. Idaho 0.315 4. Virginia 0.22 In 2011, Georgia ranked 12th in Eco- 5. Virginia 0.257 5. North Dakota 0.21 nomic Freedom, lower than the state’s 6. Tennessee 0.253 6. Nebraska 0.19 ranking of 10th in 2009. However, the state saw improvement in the Regulato- 7. Oklahoma 0.225 7. South Dakota 0.15 ry Policies area. Georgia ranked 10th in 8. Iowa 0.225 8. Georgia 0.113 2009 and moved up to 8th in 2011. 9. Alabama 0.210 9. Kansas 0.111 Georgia is the highest ranking south- 10. Colorado 0.200 10. Alabama 0.105 eastern state in the Mercatus Center’s 11. Missouri 0.211 11. Michigan 0.097 Regulatory Policy rankings and the 3rd highest ranking southeastern state in the 12. Georgia 0.209 12. South Carolina 0.093 Economic Freedom ranking. 13. Indiana 0.176 13. Idaho 0.087 14. Florida 0.157 14. Arizona 0.084 15. Texas 0.143 15. Wisconsin 0.079Source: Mercatus Center, George Mason University The Camelot Index is a composite Camelot Index, Prudent State Government: measure of states in the areas of eco- Georgia and Top 1st and 5th State Rank nomic vitality, health, education, crime and government. Comparison, 2007-2012 Four criteria are used to determine the 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 Camelot “Prudent Government” 6 scores: 7 NC ND 1.State and local taxes as a percent- 8 age of personal income, DE ND DE DE 2.State solvency, 9 Camelot Score 10 3.Pension funding levels, and 4.Bond ratings, which reflect the as- 11 11.8 12 12 sessed fiscal soundness of state gov- 12.3 12.3 12.3 12 ernments. GA 13 GA SD Georgia has made significant strides SD 14 on the Prudent Government ranking. In 2003 the state ranked 19th. Since 2007 15 Georgia has maintained its status as one FL SD of the top 5 “Prudent Government” 16 states. Rank 1 States Rank 5 States GeorgiaSource: Federal Funds Information for States (FFIS), State Policy Reports; Camelot IndexA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA84 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 84. State RevenuesGeorgia has a diversified tax base withmore than one-quarter of revenues Estimated State Revenue by Source:(27.1%) coming from sales tax revenuesand nearly half (47.6%) from individual Tobacco Georgia, FY 2013and corporate income taxes. Settlement Miscellaneous Lottery 0.8% 1.8%The motor fuel tax is projected to rep- 4.5%resent 5.1% of total state revenue in FY Fees and Sales2013. The motor fuel tax rate is 7.5 6.0%cents per gallon plus a 4% sales tax.The state constitution stipulates thatmotor fuel funds can only be used forthe construction and maintenance of Other Taxes 7.2%roads and bridges.The Georgia State Lottery is also an- Individualticipated to represent 4.5% of state reve- Income Tax Motor Fuel Tax 43.9%nue in FY 2013. On average, for everydollar spent on a lottery ticket, 25 cents 5.1%funds the Pre-K and HOPE programs.Additional sources of revenue includefees and sales (6.0%), other taxes Sales Tax -(6.0%), and Tobacco Settlement funds General Corporate(0.8%). 27.1% Income Tax 3.7% Source: Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, Governor’s Budget ReportOver the decade Georgia experienced2 periods of flat or declining revenues: Total State Fund Revenues: Georgia, FY 2000-FY 20132002-2004 and 2008-2010. $25Since FY 2000, total state revenueshave fluctuated, with declines during theearly part of the last decade and in FY 19.32008 in response to dips in the econo- $20my. Overall during this period, revenues 15.0increased 29% from $15.0 billion to$19.3 billion. $15 $ In BillionsThe state aggressively funded therevenue short fall reserve in FY 2006and FY 2007, which helped cushion the $10impact of the latest revenue decline.Note: The data from fiscal years 2000-2011are historical numbers. Revenue numbers for $5Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013 are estimated. $0 Source: Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, Governor’s Budget Report A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 85
  • 85. State Expenditures Georgia’s Revenue Shortfall Reserve Revenue Shortfall Reserve: Georgia, was created in 1976 to serve as a sav- FY 2000-FY 2012 ings account or "Rainy Day" fund. Ac- cording to the Center on Budget and 1,800 Policy Priorities, shortfall reserve funds enabled states to meet increased ser- 1,600 vice demand in the face of declining revenues during the recent recession. 1,400 In 2010, the Shortfall Reserve cap was 1,200 increased from 10% to 15% of previous Million of Dollars year net revenue collections in order to increase Georgia’s savings capacity. 1,000 Reserve sources include state net 800 revenues and agency surpluses. 4% of 551 the net revenue of the preceding fiscal 600 year must remain in the fund. The Gov- 378 ernor is authorized to release reserve 400 funds beyond that amount. 200 The revenue shortfall reserve peaked at $1.5 billion in 2007 and was $378 0 million in FY 2012. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, Governor’s Budget Report Education is Georgia’s highest priority. Appropriations by State Priority Policy Area: At 53.5%, more than half of the state budget is dedicated to Pre-K to college Georgia, FY 2013 education. Healthy Georgia, at 23.6% of expendi- tures, funds Medicaid and the State Health Benefit Plan, mental health ser- Healthy Georgia 23.6% vices, and child protective services. Safe Georgia represents 8.6% of ex- penditures, and funds adult and juvenile Educated corrections, probation, parole, and Geor- Georgia 53.5% gia Bureau of Investigation. Safe Georgia 8.6% Growing Georgia (1.2%) funds eco- nomic development. Responsible and Responsible and Efficient Government Efficient programs (3.6%) include administrative Government 3.6% functions such as building maintenance, contract management, and IT services. Growing Georgia Debt 1.2% Mobile Georgia, at 4.5% of expendi- Management Mobile Georgia 4.9% tures, funds transportation services. 4.5%Source: Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, Governor’s Budget ReportA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA86 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 86. Bond Ratings and Debt Plan RatiosRating agencies scrutinize states inseveral areas to judge a state’s fiscal Georgia’s Bond Ratings: 2012health. The better a state’s bond rating,the lower the interest it must pay on the Moody Investor Services Aaabonds it issues. Standard and Poor’s AAARating agency analysts use 10% debtservice level as standard warning level Fitch’s Investor’s Service AAAfor states approaching limited fiscal flexi-bility. Source: Rating AgenciesGeorgia has maintained its triple-Abond rating from all three rating agen- 2012-2016 Debt Management Plan Debt Ratio Targetscies every year for more than a decade.Currently, Georgia is 1 of 8 states with Withouta triple-A bond rating from all three ma- Planning Levels With GARVEEs* GARVEEs*jor bond rating agencies. The otherstates are Delaware, Iowa, Maryland, Debt per Capita $1,200 $1,500Missouri, North Carolina, Utah, and Vir-ginia. Debt Service to Prior Year Revenues 7.0% 8.0%Georgia has implemented a formal Debt to Personal Income 3.5% 4.0%debt management plan (DMP) to help *Note: GARVEE bonds are tax-exempt debt instrument financing mechanisms backed bythe State fund ongoing spending priori- annual federal appropriations for federal-aid transportation projects.ties. Georgia’s DMP sets target levels inthree areas: Debt Per Capita, Debt Ser-vice to Revenues, and Debt to Personal Source: Georgia State Finance and Investment Commission, Debt Management PlanIncome.To restrict over-borrowing, Georgia’sconstitution sets a debt limit at 10% ofthe prior years total treasury receipts, Historic and Projected Annual Debt Service asand the state’s DMP sets 7% as the Percentage of Prior Year Receipts, FY 2007-FY 2016planning level for debt. 9% Percentage of Debt Service to RevenueDebt service to prior year revenuesmeasures the percentage of revenue 8% 7.0%dedicated to debt service. Steadily in-creasing revenue and moderate borrow- 7%ing at low interest rates keep this meas- 6%ure within target levels. 6.5% 6.2% 5%The 2007 to 2009 recession reduced 4%state treasury receipts. As a result, debtservice to prior year revenues exceeded 3%the 7% planning level. The debt service 2%to revenues ratio were 7.2% in 2010 and7.8% in 2011. 1% 0% To bring the debt service ratio to with- 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Proj Proj Proj Proj Projin planning levels, the state’s DMP pre- 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016scribes a $800 million general obligationbond borrowing ceiling annually. The Highest Annual Debt Service as % of Prior Year Reciepts Planning Levelplan anticipates that the ceiling, com-bined with increased treasury receipts,will return the debt service ratio belowtarget planning levels by FY 2013. Source: Georgia State Finance and Investment Commission, Debt Management Plan A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 87
  • 87. Debt Plan Ratios Debt per capita measures the state Historic and Projected Debt Per Capita: debt burden per state resident. Net tax- Georgia, FY 2007-FY 2016 supported debt per capita is calculated as the total tax-supported debt divided $1,450 by the population of the state. Figures for the years 2007 through $1,350 2011 represent the actual debt per $1,200 capita. Figures for 2012-2016 reflect $1,250 projected debt per capita. Georgia has Debt Per Capita $1,150 kept the debt per capita below the target mark. $1,050 The debt per capita planning level was raised in 2007 from $1000 to $1200 due $950 to rising infrastructure costs. $850 $911 Net tax-supported debt items are debt $867 items supported by the state’s tax $750 revenues and are guaranteed by the state. Items which are paid by tax $650 revenues pledged to that payment, such 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Proj Proj Proj Proj Proj as motor fuel tax pledged to certain 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 State Road and Tollway Authority bonds, are considered tax-supported debt. Debt per Capita Planning Level 2012Source: Georgia State Finance and Investment Commission, Debt Management Plan Debt as a percent of personal income Historic and Projected Debt As Percent of measures the debt burden to Georgians’ Personal Income, FY 2007-FY 2016 personal incomes. It is calculated as the amount of tax-supported debt divided by 4.0% the total personal income of the state’s 3.5% population. Debt as Percentage of Personal Income 3.5% Between FY 2007 and FY 2011, the 3.0% debt as a percentage of personal In- come decreased slightly, despite an 2.5% 8.8% increase in debt. Debt to personal income most likely remained stable due 2.0% 2.5% to overall growth in personal income 2.1% among Georgia’s residents. 1.5% The state’s planning level for debt as percentage of personal income has re- 1.0% mained at 3.5%. From 2007-2011, the state debt ratio has ranged from 2.5% to 0.5% 2.7%. 0.0% In years FY 2012 to FY 2016, the 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Proj Proj Proj Proj Proj Georgia State Financing and Investment 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Commission anticipates the debt as a percentage of personal income will de- Debt As % of Personal Income Planning Level 2012 crease due to rising personal incomes in the state.Source: Georgia State Finance and Investment Commission, Debt Management PlanA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA88 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 88. Comprehensive Annual Financial ReportThe Comprehensive Annual FinancialReport (CAFR) is a standard annual Time Frame to Complete the CAFR,financial report prepared by most gov- FY 2001-FY2012ernments. The CAFR includes basicinformation about the state, the auditor’s 20report, financial statements and a statis- 18.0tical section. 18 While the state budget presents the 16projected expectations and plan of usefor state funds over a year, the state 14 Number of MonthsCAFR reports the historical use and fi- 12.0nancial condition of state government. 12 11.0Georgia created a State Accounting 10Office on July 1, 2005 to establish 8.5statewide standards and practices and 8 7.0 6.5 6.5 6.1align responsibility for the state’s finan- 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0cial reports and the accounting system. 6The time taken to complete the CAFR 4has decreased from a high of 18 monthsin 2003 to an approximate completion 2time of six months for the past 8 years. 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: State Accounting Office and Department of Audits and AccountsIn the CAFR, the state auditorpresents an unqualified or qualified Number of Audit Qualifications in the CAFR,opinion of the report. An unqualifiedopinion indicates that: FY 2001-FY2012 - Generally Accepted Accounting 7 Principles (GAAP) have been applied. 6 - If reporting methods differ from 6 GAAP, methods have been applied appropriately and disclosed. 5 Number of Qualifactions 5 - The report adheres to statutory requirements and regulations. 4 4 - Material and relevant information is disclosed. 3Qualifications indicate instanceswhere scope is limited or GAAP has not 2been applied appropriately. 2The goal of the State is to achieve an 1 1unqualified opinion on the CAFR. 1The number of qualifications to the 0 0 0 0 0 0CAFR have ranged from a high of 10 in 01998 to 0 in recent years. 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Department of Audits and Accounts A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 89
  • 89. Audit Findings and Actuarial Liabilities The Georgia Department of Audits Number of Significant Audit Findings provides accountability over operations Reported and Resolved: Georgia, funded through state appropriations, FY 2000-FY 2011 through financial and performance au- 140 dits. The department’s goal is to have 80% of its recommendations implement- 120 ed within 24 months of the release of the report. 100 92 The number of significant financial Audit Findings audit findings for Georgia state govern- 80 ment agencies has fluctuated significant- ly over the past decade. The number of 60 findings peaked in 2006 at 125. Since 40 that time, the number of findings has 84 36 40 decreased sharply, with 40 findings is- sued in 2011. 20 31 The vast majority of audit findings re- 0 quiring corrective action have been act- 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 ed upon. In 2000, 9 out of 10, 91%, of findings were acted upon and in 2010 Number of Findings Requiring Corrective Action 86% of such findings were acted upon. Number of Findings Acted Upon, if Corrective Action is NeededSource: Georgia Department of Audits and Accounts Benefits paid to Employees’ Retire- Funding Ratio of Actuarial Liabilities for ment System (ERS) retirees and benefi- Retirement Systems: Georgia, ciaries increased 66.4% between 2004 and 2011 from $702 million to $1.17 FY 2004-FY 2011 billion. This increase was the result of increases in the number of retirees and 116% beneficiaries receiving benefits. Legislative Employees 127% The funding ratio of actuarial liabilities Public School Employees 81% for Georgia’s state retirement systems 112% decreased across all but one system (Military Pension) between 2004 and Teacher Retirement System 84% 2011. 101% The actuarial value of ERS decreased Judicial Employees 113% by 1.0% from $12.8 billion in 2004 to 127% $12.7 billion in 2011. GA Military Pension Fund 33% 5% There were more than 40,000 retired members and beneficiaries in the Em- Employees Retirement System 76% ployee’s Retirement System in 2011, a 98% 34.7% increase since 2004. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% Note: Funds over 100% mean actuarial assets are greater than actuarial liabilities. 2011 2004Source: Employee Retirement System and Teachers Retirement SystemA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA90 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 90. State PersonnelGeorgia state government is an “at-will” employer meaning that either party State of Georgia Employees by Age andmay end the employment relationship at Tenure, FY 2012any time for any reason except an un- 25,000lawful reason without incurring a penalty.The state eliminated its civil service sys-tem in1996. 20,000The average tenure of state employ- Number of Employeesees is approximately 10 years. In FY2012, more than 1 out of 3 (38.0%) of 15,000Georgia’s state employees have beenemployed with the state 5 years or less.An additional one 1 of 4 (22.8%) em- 10,000ployees has been with the state between6 and 10 years.In FY 2012, only 5.4% of the Georgia 5,000state employees were age 25 years orunder. In contrast, nearly half (47.9%)of state employees are age 46 years or 0older. Tenure 5 Tenure 6 Tenure 11 Tenure 16 Tenure 21 Tenure 26 Tenure or Less to 10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to 30 Over 30 Age Over 65 Age 56 to 65 Age 46 to 55 Age 36 to 45 Age 26 to 35 Age 25 or Less Source: Department of Administrative Services Pay Grade Minimum* Maximum* Georgia Employees by Pay Grade Group, 5 to 10 $15,100 $38,700 FY 2012 Pay Grades 11 to 13 $24,300 $51,400 19-27 No Pay Grade 0.05% 3.75% 14 to 18 $32,400 $83,000 19 to 27 $52,200 $195,600 Pay Grades 5-10 Pay Grades 24.01% 14-18Nearly half (45.4%) of Georgia’s state 26.75%workforce is employed in pay grades 11-13, with a minimum salary of $24,300and maximum at $51,400.Nearly 1 out of 4 (24.0%) state em-ployees are in the lowest pay grades,with maximum earnings of $38,700 peryear.Fewer than 1 in 20 state workers in Pay GradesGeorgia are in the highest pay grades 11-13whose salaries start at $52,200. 45.44%Note: *Rounded Values Source: Department of Administrative Services A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 91
  • 91. Employee Turnover and Risk Management In 2012, there were 12,686 total sepa- Employee Turnover, FY 2012 rations among state employees. More Death than half (56%) of these separations were voluntary, citing departure for pro- Involuntary 1.0 Retirement fessional and personal reasons. One in 19.5 15.9 six separations was due to retirement. Involuntary turnover includes reasons such as failure to meet terms of employ- ment, dismissal, and release, and reduc- Transfer tions in workforce. There were 2,469 such terminations in FY 2012, or 20% of 7.2 total separations. Between FY 2010 and FY 2012, resig- nations increased from 43% to 46% while retirements decreased slightly from 18% to 16%. The overall turnover rate among state employees was 16.4% in FY 2012, which is the highest it has been since FY 2008. Voluntary 56.5Source: Department of Administrative Services The DOAS’ Risk Management Ser- Risk Management: Workers Compensation vices (RMS) manages claims such as Claims, FY 2005-FY 2012 workers compensation, property and auto liability claims. The Workers’ Com- pensation (WC) program provides bene- 10,000 9,492 $90 fits to employees for compensable work $82.5 injury or illness. Cost of Claims (In Millions) 9,000 $80 In 2009, RMS introduced the Compre- hensive Loss Control Program (CLCP) Number of Claims 8,000 $70 to help state agencies address risk caus- es and prevent claims. 7,000 6,334 $57.0 $60 Since FY 2005, the number of WC 6,000 claims declined an average of 450 fewer claims per year. $50 5,000  The cost of claims have risen about $40 $4.4 million a year, ranging from $54 4,000 million in 2006 to $87 million in 2011. Costs have risen due to increases in 3,000 $30 medical costs, utilization of medical 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 treatments, severity of injuries, and reha- bilitation services and costs. Number of Workers Compensation Claims Recently, four agencies saw claim Cost of Workers Compensation Claims increases: University System of Georgia, Department of Human Services, Depart-Source: Department of Administrative Services ment of Transportation and Department of Corrections.A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA92 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 92. Risk ManagementThe Property Program protects state-owned assets from damage from varioushazards. The Automobile Property Risk Management: Property Claims,Damage Program protects state-owned FY 2005-FY 2012or leased vehicles. 1,200 $40 $37.7 1,043FY 2008 saw the largest increase of $35claim costs from $7 million to nearly $33 1,000 Cost of Claims (In Millions)million due to the tornado in March and $30May of 2008. Number of Claims 800 $25The number of Property Claims in-creased from FY 2009 to FY 2012, while 600 $20the cost of claims decreased to $2.9 645million in 2011 and $4.7 million in 2012. $15 400With the growth in use of the optional $10Auto-Property Damage insurance cover- $4.7 200age, part of the Property Trust Fund, the $5following agencies have seen the largestportion of recent claim increases: 0 $0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 -Department of Public Safety, -University System of Georgia, and Number of Property Claims Cost of Property Claims -Department of Corrections. Source: Department of Administrative ServicesSince FY 2005, the cost of auto liabilityclaims have fluctuated as the cases and Risk Management: Auto Liability Claims*,situations vary substantively. Costsrange from $3 million a year to $8.6 mil- FY 2005-FY 2012lion a year, the highest level of claims 1,200 $10costs in FY 2007. $8.4 $9 Cost of Claims (In Millions)Between FY 2005 and 2011, the num- 1,000 $8ber of claims decreased steadily at anaverage rate of 77 less claims a year, $7 Number of Claims 800 $5.8while FY 2012 saw a 133 claim increase 972 $6from FY 2011. FY 2011 saw the lowestnumber of claims reported at 509 claims. 600 $5 642The agencies with the most auto liabil- $4ity claims are: 400 $3 -University System of Georgia, $2 200 -Department of Transportation, $1 -Department of Human Services, and 0 $0 -Department of Public Safety. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Auto Liability Claims Cost of Auto Liability Claims *Note: Excludes General Liability Claims Source: Department of Administrative Services A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 93
  • 93. State Vehicles The state operates one of the largest Average Age of State Vehicle Fleet, state government fleets in the nation with FY 2005-FY 2012 over 19,000 on-road passenger vehicles. 12 For fiscal years 2005-2010 and 2012, the average age of a vehicle in the state 10.1 fleet was 8.9 years. 10 9.4 9.6 9 Note: FY 2011 data is unavailable. 8.4 8.1 7.8 Average Age in Years 8 The Top 5 Agencies That Use Fleet Vehicles Number of 6 Agency Vehicles Transportation 4,128 4 Corrections 2,029 2 Public Safety 1,606 University of 1,582 Georgia 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 Natural Resources 1,498Source: Department of Administrative Services Automotive Resources International Percentage of Georgia Fleet Vehicles With (ARI) is a contractor service, which the state uses to manage and track its fleet More Than 135,000 Miles, maintenance activities. FY 2008-FY 2012 In December 2012, 5,992 vehicles, 33% 31% of the fleet, participated in the ARI 32% 32% motor vehicle maintenance program. 32% As of December 2012, the average 31% mileage of the state fleet vehicles was 31% Percentage of Vehicles 107,104 miles. 30% 30% The percentage of the state fleet with over 135,000 miles has fluctuated over the past five years, with the lowest per- 29% centage (28%) reported in FY 2010 and 28% highest percentage (32%) reported in FY 28% 2008 and FY 2012. The higher percent- ages were due in part to limited funding for replacement vehicles. 27% The number of vehicles with over 26% 200,000 miles also fluctuated, with the 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 highest number (2,236 vehicles) reported in FY 2012.Source: Department of Administrative ServicesA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA94 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 94. Facilities and ConstructionThe state property officer (SPO) over-sees the state’s management of real GBA Electricity Consumption and Cost:estate and facilities. The SPO is respon- Georgia, FY 2006-FY 2012sible for the State Properties Commis-sion (SPC), Georgia Building Authority 120 $8(GBA), and the Construction Division of 97.16 $6.90the Georgia State Finance and Invest- $6.42 $6.43 $7 Consumption in Millions of kWh 100 $6.09 $5.99ment Commission (GSFIC) . $5.75 98.05 $6 94.67 Cost in Millions ($)GBA manages nearly 8 million square 80 $5.94feet of space, including 36 buildings and $5 81.2130 other properties. GBA provides physi-cal property management and access 72.36 60 68.10 $4control for state facilities. 63.53GBA has launched several significant $3 40energy conservation measures. As aresult, electricity consumption at all GBA $2operated facilities has decreased 33.6 20million kilowatt hours or nearly 35% from $1FY 2006 to FY 2012. The annual electri-cal cost has fluctuated, but the state 0 $0spent nearly a million dollars less in FY 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 20122012 than in FY 2008. Electricity Consumption Electricity Cost Source: Office of the State Property Officer GSFICs Construction Division man-aged 115 total projects in FY 2012 with a GSFIC Managed Projects, FY 2012budget of $945,766,810.70% of GSFIC managed projects areattributed to 3 educational agencies:Board of Regents (30%), Technical Col- Otherlege System of Georgia (28%), and the 25% Board of RegentsDepartment of Education (11%). The of the Universityremaining projects support the Depart- of Georgiament of Public Health (5%) and other 30%agencies (25%).GSFIC has begun working with the Department ofBoard of Regents to improve contracting Public Healthprocesses by developing standard form 5%contracts to be used by both agencies. State Board of Education Technical College 11% System of Georgia 28% Source: Office of the State Property Officer A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 95
  • 95. Technology Investments The state spent more than $700 mil- Georgia Information Technology Investments lion on technology in FY 2012 compared to over $1 billion in 2010 and 2011. FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 The Georgia Technology Authority (GTA) manages the delivery of IT infra- structure services to 85 Executive Branch agencies and managed network services to 1,400 state and local govern- Infrastructure ment entities. $198,436,294 $187,122,666 $214,586,602 Operations GTA’s Georgia Enterprise Technology Services (GETS) program provides IT services through an outsourced model to consolidate, virtualize, and migrate the state IT environment. Application $896,695,742 $860,543,420 $519,027,892 Through GETS, the state is investing Support $184 million in infrastructure and $99 million in network services. GTA anticipates that the GETS pro- gram will improve connectivity and secu- Total IT rity, while saving the state a projected $1,095,132,036 $1,047,666,086 $733,614,494 $181 million over the life of the con- Investment tracts.Source: State of Georgia State IT Annual Report, Georgia Technology Authority The FY 2012 application portfolio Technology Project Budget by Agency: tracked over 30 projects totaling about Georgia, FY 2012 $321 million that span multiple years and 14 agencies. Included in the portfo- $180 lio are projects in the planning phase totaling $124 million. $160 The FY 2012 project portfolio is a 37% $140 increase over FY 2011, primarily due to new projects in the health-care sector. Budget In Millions $120 The States Critical Project Review $100 Panel oversees high-impact, high-cost technology investments to help ensure $80 successful outcomes. Independent verification and validation $60 services are used to perform project assurance for the largest and most criti- $40 cal technology projects. $20 Over the past 4 years, Critical Projects Review Panel and project assurance $- saved taxpayers an estimated $280 mil- lion that would have been lost to failed or challenged technology projects.Source: State of Georgia State IT Annual Report, Georgia Technology AuthorityA RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA96 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 96. Technology EffectivenessThe Georgia Technology Authority(GTA) produces monthly enterprise Project Delivery Effectiveness: Georgiaportfolio scorecard reports. versus Benchmarks, FY 2008-FY 2012Continually tracking the health of the 120% Benchmarks State of Georgiastate’s major IT projects helps identifypotential problems and immediately Percentage of IT Projects 100%take corrective actions to mitigate therisk of a failed project. 80%Georgias project delivery effective-ness compares favorably with other 60%governmental entities and the privatesector. 40%In FY 2012, Georgia completed 20%three-fourths of state IT projects ontime and on budget. According to theStandish Group’s 2010 CHAOS Re- 0%port, approximately 1 in 5 (18%)government IT projects and more than1 in 3 (37%) of all industry IT projectsare completed on time and on budget. Succeeded Challenged Failed Source: The Georgia Technology Authority and *The Standish Group 2010 CHAOS ReportThe Center for Digital Government’s Digital States Survey Performance Grade:Digital States Performance Institute(DSPI) identifies and promotes best and Southeastern States, 2010 and 2012emerging practices in the public sectorIT community. The Digital States Sur-vey assesses state use of information State 2010 2012and communications technology.The 2012 Digital States survey focus- Alabama C Ces on outcomes and assesses howtechnology is aligned with and being Florida B- Dused to achieve the stated policy objec-tives of the Governor.Georgia ranked high among other Georgia B- BSoutheastern states, with Tennesseebeing the only state in the region to re-ceive a higher ranking. North Carolina C+ B-States graded as a "B" are trendingup, measure results, and prepare forsustainable operations. South Carolina C- CThe Digital States Survey uses thefollowing criteria: approach consistentwith state priorities; return on invest- Tennessee B+ A-ment; improvement; innovative solu-tions; effective collaboration. Source: The Government Technology, Solutions for State and Local Government, Digital States Survey A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 97
  • 97. Broadband Speeds in Georgia Broadband Technology Represented: - Asymmetric xDSL - Symmetric xDSL - Other Copper Wireline - Cable Modem—DOCSIS 3.0 - Cable Modem—Other - Fiber to the End User - Terrestrial Fixed Wireless—Unlicensed - Terrestrial Fixed Wireless—Licensed - Terrestrial Mobile Wireless Note: Business only providers excluded. Source: GTA 2012 Georgia Broadband Guide to Regional Broadband Planning, Map prepared by BroadMap LLC.Broadband allows users to access the Internet and Internet-related services at significantly higher speeds than those availablethrough “dial-up” Internet access services. Broadband speeds vary significantly depending on the particular type and level of ser-vice available.Broadband is an enabling technology for state services. Education, telemedicine and public safety are all greatly enhanced bybroadband technology.The fastest advertised broadband internet speeds tend to be in urban areas.In 2009, GTA was awarded $5.2 million in American Reinvestment Recovery Act funds for broadband data and development. Akey component of this project is the creation of regional broadband plans.A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA98 GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 98. E-GovernmentThe number of citizens visiting Georgiastate websites to transact business or to Monthly Mobile Visitors to,find information continues to increase. 2010- Fall 2012In FY 2012, the web pag- 400,000 377,000es received 36,447,297 unique visitors,an increase of 17.4% from the prior year. 350,000Mobile visitors increased from an aver-age of less than 5,000 per month in 2010 300,000 Number of Monthly Unique Visitorsto 377,000 per month in Fall 2012. Mo-bile traffic increased from 12% of all traf- 250,000fic on in July 2012 to 20% inDecember 2012. 189,000 200,000Georgias IT Roadmap identifies work-force mobility and citizen access through 150,000multiple platforms among the top focusareas for the state. 100,000The newly redesigned Georgia.govreceived the 2012 Special Innovation 50,000 18,746Award from the Center for Digital Gov- 4,443ernment. The new design displays effec- 0tively on mobile devices and features January 2010 January 2011 FY 2012 Fall 2012smarter searches. Average Average Source: The Government Technology, Solutions for State and Local Government, Digital States Survey A RESPONSIBLE & EFFICIENT GEORGIA GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 99
  • 100. GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE 2013 SOURCESFor more information on the 2013 Georgia in Perspective data sources, please contact the Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget or GOVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING & BUDGET GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 101. SourcesA GROWING GEORGIA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Energy Information Administration, Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Family and Children’s Services Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division Travel Industry Association, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, US Department of Commerce, US Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey, US Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, pages/index.xhtml US Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Population Estimates, US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts, US Department of Commerce, Trade Statistics Express, US Department of Health and Human Services, US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, State and Local Unemployment, MOBILE GEORIGA Center of Innovation for Logistics Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Department of Transportation, Aviation Programs Georgia Department of Transportation, Transit Services, default.aspx Georgia Ports Authority, Georgia Regional Transportation Authority, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Department of Aviation, National Highway Safety Travel Administration National Center for Statistics and Analysis, HEALTHIER GEORGIA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Diabetes Data and Trends, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Survey, imz-coverage.htm#nis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, http:// Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, Georgia Board of Physicians Workforce Georgia Department of Community Health Georgia Department of Public Health, Oral Health Section, Georgia Department of Public Health, Online Analytical Statistical Information System (OASIS), http:// Georgia Trauma Care Network Commission Kaiser Family Foundation, State Health Facts, United Health Foundation, America’s Health Rankings, US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Service Administration, US Substance Abuse And Mental Health Services Administration, National Mental Health Information Center, IN PERSPECTIVE
  • 102. AN EDUCATED GEORGIA Department of Early Care and Learning, Department of Education, Georgia Board of Regents, Georgia Governor’s Office of Student Achievement, Georgia Student Finance Commission, National Center on Education Statistics, Southern Regional Education Board, Technical College System of Georgia; The College Board, U.S. Census Bureau, SAFER GEORGIA Applied Research Services Department of Human Services, Division of Family & Children Services Georgia Bureau of Investigation,,2615,67862954,00.html Georgia Department of Community Affairs, Georgia Department of Corrections, Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice, Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, AND EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT Federal Funds Information for States Georgia Department of Administrative Services Georgia Department of Audits and Accounts, Georgia Employee Retirement System Georgia State Accounting Office, Georgia State Finance and Investment Commission, State Debt Management Plan; Georgia Teachers Retirement System Georgia Technology Authority Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget; GTA Enterprise Information Security Report, Mercatus Center, George Mason University, Office of the State Property Officer GEORGIA IN PERSPECTIVE