• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Autism
 

Autism

on

  • 619 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
619
Views on SlideShare
619
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Differs from mental retardation in that IQ is VARIED AND SOME FIELDS OF DEVELOPMENT ARE SUPERIOR
  • Taare zameen par
  • Infants are social beings they gaze at people, turn toward voices, grasp a finger, and even smile In contrast, most children with ASD seem to have tremendous difficulty learning to engage in the give-and-take of everyday human interaction Even in the first few months of life, many do not interact and they avoid eye contact. They seem indifferent to other people, and often seem to prefer being alone. They may resist attention or passively accept hugs and cuddling. Later, they seldom seek comfort or respond to parents' displays of anger or affection in a typical way.
  • It's important to remember that there are many possible explanations for most of the symptoms listed above. A child's attachment to a particular toy or difficulty with language skills is not, in itself, a sign of autism.

Autism Autism Presentation Transcript

  • PRESENTED BY:A.PRIYADHARSHINI M.Sc(N)LECTURER,JAI INSTITUTE OF NURSING AND RESEARCH,GWALIOR.
  • How do they present?Parents worried about: ◦ Speech and language delay ◦ Abnormal behaviour ◦ Lack of understanding
  • DEFINITIONA disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction impaired communication skills impaired imagination with restricted interests and repetitive stereotypical behavior
  • Contd..Itis a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life.Autism is also called as kanner syndrome.
  • AETIOLOGYUNKNOWN AETIOLOGY (problems in neural maturation)STRONG GENETIC BASISONSET BEFORE 36 MONTHS OF AGEAutism is 4 times more prevalent in boys and girls.Classic autism occurs in 10-30 per 10,000
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATIONThe symptoms occur first during the infancy period.The symptoms of autism vary greatly but follow a general pattern.Not all symptoms are present in all autistic children.
  • Contd… VARIED SPECTRUMNO EYE CONTACT<------------->INTERMITTENT EYE CONTACT, SMILE AND HUGMENTAL RETARD.<------------->SUPERIOR IQ IN SELECT AREASNO SPEECH<--------------------->ADVANCED SPEECHIMITATE SONGS;
  • Impaired social interactionAvoid eye contactAvoids cuddling by parents (resists or becomes stiff)Reduced recognition of others happiness, distress or anger (respond same to anger and love)Lack of interest in other childrenPrefers solitary play
  • EYE CONTACT
  • NORMAL RESPONSE –ATTEMPT TO LIFT RESPONSE TO CUDDLING
  • Contd...Unable to join in with others (GROUP PLAY)Resists invasion of personal space or being hurriedLack of awareness of classroom norms e.g. criticises teacher, unwilling to cooperate, doesn’t fit in.May not smile in recognition of their parents faces.
  • Contd..Speech and facial expressions deveop peculiarly.Resistance to change. E.g. moving the chair.
  • Impaired communication skillsDelayed language development especially understanding.Poor response to name (apparently deaf).Lack of pointing or pointing only for what they need; and not to share interestLack of empathy; Failure to respond to others’ smiles/ anger
  • Contd..Echolaliabeyond expected ageReversing pronouns using ‘he’ for self beyond 3yrsUnusual or advanced vocabularyUnusual use of language or tendency to talk only on specific (often factual) topics.
  • ECHOLALIA REPEATING WORDS OR PHRASES LIKE A PARROT (beyond 3 years)
  • Impaired imagination• Limited variety of imaginative play• Repetitive play e.g. lining up toys, spinning, flicking, switching on and off• Liking for sameness and/or resists change more than expected for age• More interested in how things work than playing with them.
  • UNUSUAL TENDENCY TO LINE UPTOYS
  • OTHER BEHAVIOURS• UNDER OR OVERSENSITIVITY TO SOUND, TOUCH, PAIN OR OTHER SENSES• UNUSUAL PROFILE OF SKILLS WITH SOCIAL AND MOTOR SKILLS BELOW EXPECTED• GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, READING OR VOCABULARY IS ABOVE EXPECTED(THOUGH MAY NOT UNDERSTAND WHAT IS READ)• UNUSUAL MOVEMENTS (CLAPPING, HEAD BANGING, ROCKING MOVEMENTS, EXCESSIVE MOUTHING..)
  • NOT RESPONDING APPROPRIATELYTO PAIN
  • Possible Indicators of AutismSpectrum Disorders• Poor eye contact• Doesnt smile• Does not respond to name• Does not babble, point, or make meaningful gestures by 1 year of age• Does not speak one word by 16 months• Does not combine two words by 2 years• Loses language or social skills• Doesnt seem to know how to play with toys• Is attached to one particular toy or object
  • Diagnosis• Based on history, assessment and investigation.• Audiometry.• Rating scales and formal interviews may help in certain cases (CHAT, M-CHAT)• Assessment must be multiprofessional and in more than one setting. (SCHOOL, HOME, PEERS)
  • PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY:Medications for seizures, hyperactivity, extreme mood changes.FENFLURAMINE- it is a drug that decreases blood serotonin concentrations. Some autistics have abnormally high blood serotonin concentrations.PIRACETAM- it helps autistic child to become more talkative, sociable, less aggressive and increases the attention span.
  • SUPPORTIVE TREATMENT:Earlyintervention is essential.Encourage and support the parents.Special education class.Clear instructions to the child prompting to perform specific behaviours.Immediate praise the child and rewards for performing those behaviors.Behavior therapySpeech therapy
  • Contd..Music therapyPlay therapySensory integration therapyAuditory integration training- for different sound frequencies.Eliminating dietary gluten and milk and dairy products.
  • PROGNOSIS:The outlook for each child depends on the intelligence and language ability.Some people with autism become independent adults.
  • THANK YOU