Acute Diarrhea in      children         PRESENTED BY:A.PRIYADHARSHINI M.Sc(N),LECTURER,DEPT. OF PAEDIATRIC NURSING,GWALIOR
Is just a little case ofdiarrhea…   Second leading causes of all death    worldwide   Most common cause of morbidity and...
Definition   Stool weight in excess of 200 gm/day   3 or more loose or watery stools/day   Alteration in normal bowel m...
Epidemiology   1.2-1.9 episodes per person annually    in the general population   2.4 episodes per child <3 years old  ...
Etiology   Viral: 70-80% of infectious diarrhea in    developed countries   Bacterial: 10-20% of infectious    diarrhea ...
Viral Diarrhea   Rotavirus   Norovirus (Norwalk-like)   Enteric Adenovirus   Astrovirus
Rotavirus   Leading cause of hospitalization for    diarrhea in children   Most prevalent during winter season   Fecal-...
Norovirus   Most common cause of diarrheal    outbreaks/epidemics   Multiple modes of fecal-oral    transmission   Acut...
Enteric Adenovirus   Primarily affects children < 4 years old   Fecal-oral transmission   Clinical picture similar to r...
Astrovirus   Primarily affects children < 4 years old    and immunocompromised   Seasonal peak in the winter   Fecal-or...
Summary of ViralDiarrhea   Most likely cause of infectious diarrhea   Rotavirus and Norovirus are most    common   Symp...
Bacterial Diarrhea   Campylobacter   Salmonella   Shigella   Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Campylobacter   Most common bacterial pathogen   Transmitted through ingestion of    contaminated food or by direct cont...
Salmonella   Most common in children <4 years old    and a peak in the first few months of life   Transmitted via ingest...
Shigella   Fecal-oral transmission   Symptoms include fever, abdominal    cramps, tenesmus, and mucoid stools    with or...
E. Coli O157:H7   Transmission via contaminated food and    water   Symptoms include bloody diarrhea,    severe abdomina...
Summary of BacterialDiarrhea   Can affect all age groups   Fecal-oral transmission, often through    contaminated food ...
Physical Exam   Vitals, vitals, vitals!   Abdominal exam   Presence of occult blood   Signs of dehydration
Laboratory Evaluation   Unnecessary for patients who present    within 1 day from onset of diarrhea   Warning signs/symp...
Treatment   Fluid replacement    – Fluids or Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS)    – Parenteral rehydration   Early refeed...
Fluid Replacement   ORS: Infalyte, Pedialyte, Naturalyte    and Rehydralyte   Must be used or thrown out 24 hours    aft...
AAP Guidelines   Diarrhea with no dehydration – normal    diet and supplemental ORS with each    diarrheal episode.   Di...
Early Refeeding   Luminal contents help promote growth    of new enterocytes and facilitate    mucosal repair   Can shor...
Symptomatic Treatment   Only in patients who are afebrile and    have nonbloody diarrhea   Loperamide – inhibits perista...
Antibiotics   antibiotic therapy generally not    beneficial and can be harmful   Those with more than eight stools/day,...
Specific AntibioticTherapy   Viral – of course not!   Campylobacter – only if severe   Salmonella – can prolong fecal  ...
   Zinc Supplementation in AD!    Responsible for > 200 enzymes in body.!    Improves the immune function &     absorptio...
Home Available FluidsRecommended Salt sugar solution Lemon water(Sikanjabi) Rice water / Kanjee Soups Dal water Lass...
Not recommended Simple sugar solution Glucose solution Carbonated soft drinks Fruit juices-tinned or fresh Fluids for...
Nursing management:   Restoring fluid and electrolyte balance    by ORS and IV therapy.   Prevention of spread of infect...
   Preventing skin breakdown by    frequent change of diaper, keeping the    perineal area dry and clean   Providing ade...
   Giving health education for prevention    of diarrhea, home management of    diarrheal diseases, importance of    ORS,...
References   Dennehy P.H., Acute Diarrheal Disease in Children:    Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Infect Dis   ...
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Acute diarrhea in children

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  • Diarrhea is the second most frequent illness encountered by American families.
  • Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Virtually every child develops rotavirus gastroenteritis by three years of age. Reinfections are common, but symptoms are typically less severe or asymptomatic. The virus is transmitted principally be the fecal-oral route. Individuals handling diapers of infected chilrden can easily spread the infection if they do not wash their hands carefully. The virus can also survive on hard surfaces like toys and countertops for a limited amount of time. A very small inoculum is considered contagious.
  • Norovirus is the major cause of epidemic viral gastroenteritis. Norovirus outbreaks affect all ages. More than 90% of young adults are seropositive, however, immunity is not long lasting and reinfections are common. Outbreaks are most common at restaurants or catered meals, in hospitals and nursing homes, in schools, daycares, and camps, and on cruise ships. Transmission is fecal-oral through consumption of contaminated food, person to person contact, and contact with contaminated objects. Norovirus is highly contagious. It can even be transmitted through the aerosolization of vomit.
  • Adenoviruses are responsible for only a small amount of viral gastroenteritis. It predominantly affects very young children. Transmission is fecal-oral through person to person contact but much less contagious than rotavirus or noroviruses
  • Astrovirus is a common cause of diarrhea in daycare centers and a common cause of nosocomial disease. It can also cause illness in the immunocomromised, especially AIDS patients and elderly institutionalized patients. Transmission is person to person via the fecal-oral route. There are no commercially available diagnostic tests for astrovirus in the U.S.
  • Campylobacter is the most common bacteria isolated in foodborne diarrheal illness. Improperly cooked poultry, untreated water, and unpasteurized milk are the most common culprits. Transmission occurs by ingestion of contaminated food or by direct contact with fecal material from infected animals or people. Many farm animals and pets (esp. kittens and puppies) harbor the bacteria. Most patients recover in less than 1 week but 20% relapse or have a prolonged illness. Treatment usually shortens the duration of bacterial shedding in the stool.
  • The major vehicles of transmission are foods of animal origin, including poultry, beef, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Salmonella attack rates are highest among people younger than 4 years old with a peak during the first months of life. Antimicrobial treatment can prolong viral shedding but is recommended for those at increased risk of invasive disease or complications, including infants &lt;3m/o, those with chronic GI disease, or who are immunosuppressed. Complications include bacteremia, osteomyletis, and meningitis.
  • Shigella affects people of all ages. Predominant modes of transmission include person-person contact, contact with contaminated objects, ingestion of contaminated food and water, and sexual contact. Most infections are self-limited and do not require antibiotics, however, antimicrobial therapy is effective in shortening the duration of diarrhea and eradicating the organism from feces. Rare complications include bacteremia, toxic megacolon and perforation, and toxic encephalopathy.
  • There are at least 5 types of diarrhea-producing E. Coli, but the only kind that commonly causes diarrhea in the U.S is enterohemmorhagic E. Coli o157:H7. Transmission is from ingestion of contaminated food, especially undercooked ground beef, dirty water and produce, and unpasteurized milk. The most common complication of EH E. Coli infection is HUS, defined as the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acte real dysfunction.. HUS occurs in ~8% of children with EH E. Coli and usually presents about 2 weeks after the onset of diarrhea. TTP occurs in adults and is the same disease as postdiarrheal HUS in children. Patients with bloody stools suggestive of hemorrhagic colits should have a CBC and chem. 7 checked to evaluate for HUS or TTP. If there is no laboratory abnormality 3 days after resolution of the diarrhea, the risk of developing HUS is low.
  • Treatment with oral rehydration solution is simple and enables the management of uncomplicated cases of diarrhea at home, regardless of etiologic agent
  • Minimal Dehydration – 10ml of fluids should be administered per kg of body weight for each episode of diarrhea OR children less than 10kg should be administered 2-4 oz for each episode of diarrhea and those weighing &gt;10kg should be administered 4-8 oz. Mild-Moderate Dehydration – administer 50-100 of ORS per kg of body weight to replace fluid deficit with additional ORS to replace ongoing losses. Start 1 tsp at a time and gradually increase the amount as tolerated. Severe Dehydration – administer intravenous fluids
  • Regardless of the fluid used, an age-appropriate diet should also be given. Infants should be offered more frequent breast or bottle feedings. Luminal contents are a known growth factor for enterocytes and help facilitate mucosal repair after injury. Introducing a regular diet withing a few hours of rehydration has been shown to shorten the duration of the disease and has not been associated with increased morbidy
  • Nearly 400 over-the-counter products are promoted in the U.S. for their antidiarrheal properties but only a few have been proven to be effective in RCTs. The two most common are loperamide (Imodium) and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismal). Loperamide (Imodium) inhibits intestinal peristalsis and has anitsecretory properties. It does not penetrate the CNS and has no substantial potential for addiction. It should be avoided in those with bloody or suspected inflammatory diarrhea because it can prolong fever in those with shigella, cause toxic megacolon in those with C. diff, and HUS in those with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismal) – can alleviate nausea and vomiting as well as decrease the duration of illness of viral diarrhea
  • Because most diarrheal illnesses are self-limited or viral, and nearly half last less than 1-2 days, microbiologic investigation is usually unnecessary for patients who present within 24 hours after the onset of diarrhea, unless such patients are dehydrated or febrile or have blood or pus in their stool.
  • Acute diarrhea in children

    1. 1. Acute Diarrhea in children PRESENTED BY:A.PRIYADHARSHINI M.Sc(N),LECTURER,DEPT. OF PAEDIATRIC NURSING,GWALIOR
    2. 2. Is just a little case ofdiarrhea… Second leading causes of all death worldwide Most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide
    3. 3. Definition Stool weight in excess of 200 gm/day 3 or more loose or watery stools/day Alteration in normal bowel movement characterized by decreased consistency and increased frequency Less than 14 days in duration
    4. 4. Epidemiology 1.2-1.9 episodes per person annually in the general population 2.4 episodes per child <3 years old annually 5 episodes per year for children <3 years old and in daycare Seasonal peak in the winter
    5. 5. Etiology Viral: 70-80% of infectious diarrhea in developed countries Bacterial: 10-20% of infectious diarrhea but responsible for most cases of severe diarrhea Protozoan: less than 10%
    6. 6. Viral Diarrhea Rotavirus Norovirus (Norwalk-like) Enteric Adenovirus Astrovirus
    7. 7. Rotavirus Leading cause of hospitalization for diarrhea in children Most prevalent during winter season Fecal-oral transmission: viral shedding can persist for 21 days Acute onset of fever followed by watery diarrhea (10-20 BM/day) and can persist for up to a week
    8. 8. Norovirus Most common cause of diarrheal outbreaks/epidemics Multiple modes of fecal-oral transmission Acute onset of nausea and vomiting, watery diarrhea with abdominal cramps and can persist for 1-3 days
    9. 9. Enteric Adenovirus Primarily affects children < 4 years old Fecal-oral transmission Clinical picture similar to rotavirus (fever and watery diarrhea)
    10. 10. Astrovirus Primarily affects children < 4 years old and immunocompromised Seasonal peak in the winter Fecal-oral transmission: viral shedding can occur for several weeks Fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea lasting up to a week
    11. 11. Summary of ViralDiarrhea Most likely cause of infectious diarrhea Rotavirus and Norovirus are most common Symptoms usually include low grade fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, and watery diarrhea lasting up to 1 week Viral shedding can occur for weeks after symptoms resolve
    12. 12. Bacterial Diarrhea Campylobacter Salmonella Shigella Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    13. 13. Campylobacter Most common bacterial pathogen Transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food or by direct contact with fecal material Symptoms include diarrhea (+/- blood), abdominal cramps (can be severe), malaise, fever Usually self-limited and does not require antibiotics
    14. 14. Salmonella Most common in children <4 years old and a peak in the first few months of life Transmitted via ingestion of contaminated food and contact with infected animals Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping Antimicrobial therapy can prolong fecal shedding
    15. 15. Shigella Fecal-oral transmission Symptoms include fever, abdominal cramps, tenesmus, and mucoid stools with or without blood Can lead to serious complications Antimicrobial treatment shortens duration of illness and limits fecal shedding
    16. 16. E. Coli O157:H7 Transmission via contaminated food and water Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and sometimes fever Can lead to serious complications Antibiotics have no proven benefit and may increase the risk of complications
    17. 17. Summary of BacterialDiarrhea Can affect all age groups Fecal-oral transmission, often through contaminated food Typical symptoms include bloody diarrhea, severe cramping, and malaise Antibiotic treatment not always necessary
    18. 18. Physical Exam Vitals, vitals, vitals! Abdominal exam Presence of occult blood Signs of dehydration
    19. 19. Laboratory Evaluation Unnecessary for patients who present within 1 day from onset of diarrhea Warning signs/symptoms: bloody diarrhea, high fever, severe abd pain, dehydration. Fecal leukocytes followed by bacterial culture, ova & parasites, viral antigens CBC, chemistries
    20. 20. Treatment Fluid replacement – Fluids or Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS) – Parenteral rehydration Early refeeding Symptomatic Treatment – Oral bismuth – Loperamide Antibiotics
    21. 21. Fluid Replacement ORS: Infalyte, Pedialyte, Naturalyte and Rehydralyte Must be used or thrown out 24 hours after opening/mixing
    22. 22. AAP Guidelines Diarrhea with no dehydration – normal diet and supplemental ORS with each diarrheal episode. Diarrhea with some dehydration – seek medical care, give ORS in the doctors office, and cont. ORS and normal diet at home. Moderate - severe dehydration – consider intravenous hydration, especially if patient is also vomiting
    23. 23. Early Refeeding Luminal contents help promote growth of new enterocytes and facilitate mucosal repair Can shorten duration of the disease Lactose restriction is not necessary except in severe disease
    24. 24. Symptomatic Treatment Only in patients who are afebrile and have nonbloody diarrhea Loperamide – inhibits peristalsis and has antisecretory properties Bismuth subsalicylate – may help with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, as well as shorten duration of illness
    25. 25. Antibiotics antibiotic therapy generally not beneficial and can be harmful Those with more than eight stools/day, diarrhea >1 wk, volume depletion, immunosuppresion, or warning signs Fluoroquinolone or Azithromyzin
    26. 26. Specific AntibioticTherapy Viral – of course not! Campylobacter – only if severe Salmonella – can prolong fecal shedding, only prescribe if severe Shigella – proven beneficial E. Coli O157:H7 – can be harmful
    27. 27.  Zinc Supplementation in AD! Responsible for > 200 enzymes in body.! Improves the immune function & absorption.! Supplementation in AD and PD helpful in 20-30% reduction in diarrhea.! 42% lower rate of treatment failure or death. – Dosages – o Infants 10mg daily x 2 weeks. – o Older children 20mg daily x 2 weeks. – o Persistent diarrhea x 4 weeks
    28. 28. Home Available FluidsRecommended Salt sugar solution Lemon water(Sikanjabi) Rice water / Kanjee Soups Dal water Lassi Coconut water Plain water
    29. 29. Not recommended Simple sugar solution Glucose solution Carbonated soft drinks Fruit juices-tinned or fresh Fluids for athletes Gelatin desserts Tea/Coffee
    30. 30. Nursing management: Restoring fluid and electrolyte balance by ORS and IV therapy. Prevention of spread of infection by good hand washing practices, hygienic disposal of stools, care of diapers, general cleanliness and universal precautions.
    31. 31.  Preventing skin breakdown by frequent change of diaper, keeping the perineal area dry and clean Providing adequate nutritional intake by appropriate dietary management Reducing fear and anxiety by explanation, reassurance, answering questions and providing necessary informations.
    32. 32.  Giving health education for prevention of diarrhea, home management of diarrheal diseases, importance of ORS, dietary management etc..
    33. 33. References Dennehy P.H., Acute Diarrheal Disease in Children: Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Infect Dis Clin North A 2005;(19) 3: Wanke C.A., Approach to the patient with acute diarrhea. Up To Date (updated Jan. 4, 2005) www.uptodate.com/ Blacklow N.R., Epidemiology of viral gastroennteritis in adults. Up To Date (updated March 3, 2005) www.uptodate.com/ Thielman N.M., (2004) Acute Infectious Diarrhea. N Engl J Med 2004;350:38-47. Burkhart D.M., Management of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Dec;60(9):2555-63

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