TRANSFER OF LEARNING• It implies a carrying over and application of the knowledge, skills, habits, ideals, attitudes or values acquired in one situation to another.
THEORIES OF TRANSFER OF LEARNING• The Theory of Mental Disciplines Based on the old faculty psychologywhich maintains that the various faculties ofthe mind can be developed through trainingand can become capable of effectiveperformance in all areas in which they areinvolved. Thus the training of the faculty ofmemory for names, meaningful materialand, in fact, for anything which calls formemory.
• THE THEORY OF IDENTICAL ELEMENTS This theory was formulated by Thorndike which maintains that the amount of transferdepends upon the identical elements orelements that are common in both situations.The identical elements, such as content,method, aim, or attitude present in bothsituations facilitate learning.
• Example: A study of Latin helps in interpreting many English words. Since many English words are derived from Latin, then the transfer is due to Identity of content.• THE THEORY OF GENERALIZATION The Theory formulated by Charles H.Judd, which maintains that transfer is a formof generalization which can be encouragedby training. It means that experiencesobtained in one situation are applicable toother situations.
• It puts emphasis upon the value to understand, organize, and generalize specific experiences. There is a need for the learner to interpret relationships and to be able to recognize and apply to other situations the previously acquired facts or principles.
• THE THEORY OF CONFIGURATION This theory is based on the Gestalttheory of learning. It holds that the transferof training from one situation to another isthe result of the application of certainprinciples of configuration. It means that thetransfer of acquired patterns of response toa new situation depends upon the insight ofthe learner into the total situation to enablehim to use those patterns.
• Motivation is a process in which the individual’s attention and interest are aroused and directed toward definite goals. An individual’s attention and interest can be aroused to the extent that his needs, whether basic or acquired, are involved.• It is the job of the teacher to create an atmosphere which provides desirable outlets for needs in the direction of worthwhile incentives – an atmosphere in which interests will as a consequence flourish.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION IN LEARNING• 1. Intrinsic Motivation This type of motivation is an internalstimulus to learning. It is based on motivesthat every individual strives to satisfy.Motives are intrinsic, or within the person.They have their roots in needs and drives.Motive is a though, feeling, or condition thatcauses one to act. The most common formsof intrinsic motivation are the desire forknowledge, the desire to explore, and thedesire to construct.
2. Extrinsic Motivation This type of motivation is an externalstimulus to learning activity. Praise andblame, rivalry, rewards and punishments aresome of the more common types of extrinsicmotivation. It is based on incentives.Incentive is the means employed to evokeattitude conducive to learning. In Extrinsic Motivation the pupil isencouraged to do good school work by suchdrives as marks, honors, prizes,scholarships, and privileges.