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  • 1. QUIT CHAPTER Early River Valley 2 Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. Chapter Overview Time Line MAP SECTION 1 City-States in Mesopotamia SECTION 2 Pyramids on the Nile SECTION 3 Planned Cities on the Indus SECTION 4 River Dynasties in China Visual Summary
  • 2. HOME CHAPTER Early River Valley 2 Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. Chapter Overview The river valley civilizations develop from small farming villages. The civilizations create laws, centralized governments, writing systems, and advanced technologies. The process of trade spreads new ideas to and from these civilizations.
  • 3. HOME CHAPTER Early River Valley 2 Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. Time Line 3000 B.C. City-states form in 1792 B.C. Hammurabi 1027 B.C. Zhou Sumer, Mesopotamia. develops code of laws for dynasty forms in Babylonian Empire. China. 3500 B.C. 450 B.C. 2660 B.C. Egypt’s Old 1550 B.C. Indus Kingdom develops. Valley civilization declines.
  • 4. HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP Key Idea Working together to overcome environmental challenges leads to the development of centralized government and cities in Mesopotamia. The Sumerian civilization influences later civilizations. Overview Assessment
  • 5. HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP TERMS & NAMES Overview • Fertile Crescent • silt MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW • irrigation The earliest The development of this • city-state civilization in Asia civilization reflects a arose in • dynasty pattern that has Mesopotamia and occurred repeatedly • cultural diffusion organized into city- throughout history. states. • polytheism • empire • Hammurabi Assessment
  • 6. HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP Section 1 Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List three environmental challenges the Sumerians faced and their solutions to these challenges. Challenges Solution unpredictable flooding irrigation defenselessness walled cities limited resources trade continued . . .
  • 7. HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP Section 1 Assessment 2. What advantages did living in cities offer the people of ancient Mesopotamia? Do modern cities offer any of the same advantages? THINK ABOUT • characteristics of Sumer’s city-states • characteristics of Sumer’s economy and society • development of organized government ANSWER Possible Opportunity for wealth; diversity of work available; Responses: government that promotes laws, manages economy, and provides assistance; better housing; city walls and armies for protection; proximity to temple; more social contact. Cities today offer many continued . . . of these advantages.
  • 8. HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP Section 1 Assessment 3. Do you think that living in a river valley with little rainfall helped or hurt the development of civilization in Mesopotamia? Explain your response. ANSWER Possible It helped, because the Sumerians had to Response: develop the technology and organization to get water to the fields. This led to the development of organized government. End of Section 1
  • 9. HOME 2 Pyramids on the Nile Key Idea Egyptian civilization develops along the Nile River. Upper and lower Egypt are united into a kingdom and ruled by pharaohs, who are believed to be gods. Egyptian customs for preparing and burying the bodies of the dead include mummification and burying pharaohs in pyramids. Overview Assessment
  • 10. HOME 2 Pyramids on the Nile TERMS & NAMES Overview • cataract • delta MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW • Menes Along the Nile River, Many of the monuments built • pharaoh civilization emerged by the Egyptians stand as a in Egypt and became • theocracy testament to their ancient united into a kingdom civilization. • pyramid ruled by pharaohs. • mummification • hieroglyphics • papyrus Assessment
  • 11. HOME 2 Pyramids on the Nile Section 2 Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Give four examples of Egyptian achievements. Mummification Pyramids Hieroglyphics Egyptian Achievements Advances in Written medicine Calendar numbers continued . . .
  • 12. HOME 2 Pyramids on the Nile Section 2 Assessment 2. Three natural features determined the boundaries of ancient Egyptian civilization: the Nile River, the First Cataract, and the surrounding desert. In your judgment, which of these features was most important to Egypt’s history? ANSWER Possible • The Nile River—it provided fertile soil, a Responses: predictable growing season, and easy transportation within Egypt. • The First Cataract—it presented an obstacle to trade and communication with peoples on the upper Nile. End of Section 2
  • 13. HOME 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Key Idea The Indus Valley people build planned cities with sophisticated sewage and plumbing systems. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus civilization is stable and prosperous. Indus Valley culture ends mysteriously. Overview Assessment
  • 14. HOME 3 Planned Cities on the Indus TERMS & NAMES Overview • subcontinent • monsoon MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The first Indian The culture of India civilization built well- today has its roots in the planned cities on the civilization of the early banks of the Indus Indus cities. River. Assessment
  • 15. HOME 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Section 3 Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the environmental conditions faced by the people of the Indus Valley. For each one, explain whether the condition was a benefit or a drawback. Environmental Condition Benefit or Drawback (-) too little rain monsoons (-) too much rain (+) spread deposits of rich soil over wide area floods (-) unpredictable high mountains (+) natural barrier helped protect against invasion large desert (+) natural barrier helped protect against invasion continued . . .
  • 16. HOME 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Section 3 Assessment 2. What evidence has led historians to the following beliefs about Indus civilization? (a) The cities were run by a strong central government. (b) Indus people carried on trade with Sumer. (c) Society was generally peaceful and stable. ANSWER (a) Planned cities, uniform buildings, sanitation systems (b) Indus seals found in Mesopotamia (c) Uniform housing, children’s toys, few weapons End of Section 3
  • 17. HOME 4 River Dynasties in China Key Idea Ancient Chinese civilization is ruled by powerful family dynasties. Just rulers are believed to have divine approval. In Chinese culture, family is central to society and religion. Improvements are made in technology and trade. Feudalism is established. Overview Assessment
  • 18. HOME 4 River Dynasties in China TERMS & NAMES Overview • loess • oracle bone MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW • Mandate of Heaven The early rulers The culture that took • dynastic cycle introduced ideas root during ancient times about government and still affects Chinese • feudalism society that shaped ways of life today. Chinese civilization. Assessment
  • 19. HOME 4 River Dynasties in China Section 4 Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major developments in the early Chinese dynasties. Event One Event Three Event Five Xia is the first Shang Zhou are first Chinese develop to control by dynasty. writing. feudalism. Event Two Event Four Shang Zhou claim develop first Mandate of cities. Heaven. continued . . .
  • 20. HOME 4 River Dynasties in China Section 4 Assessment 2. The group was often more important than the individual in Chinese culture. In your judgment, what are the benefits and drawbacks of this belief? THINK ABOUT • family roles • the characteristics of a ruler • role of spirit gods ANSWER Possible • Benefits—family cares for elderly, less government Responses: money spent on social programs, respect for deceased family members/gods • Drawbacks—less time for individuals to pursue interests, difficult to break away when family or ruler continued . . . is unjust
  • 21. HOME 4 River Dynasties in China Section 4 Assessment 3. Do you think that the Zhou Dynasty’s downfall resulted because of their method of control? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • feudalism • the large division of rich and poor • the vast controlled lands • the noble-king relationship ANSWER Possible • Yes—great distance between ruler and ruled, lords were Responses: greedy, chaotic warfare • No—the Zhou ruled successfully for 300 years. Their downfall wasn’t because of feudalism but because invaders killed the backbone of the dynasty, the Zhouof Section 4 End monarchy.