A new era
Accelerating toward 2020 —
An automotive industry transformed
The transformations to come 1
The restructuring imperative 2
Changing customers, changing demands 8
Technology to reﬂect new sets of demands 15
Getting the right skills 22
The next chapter in industry history 26
At least now, the picture is clear each will rely on higher volume global platforms
For the past few years, automotive leaders and supported by networked design centers in key
observers have witnessed an industry in peril. A emerging markets.
slowing global economy, coupled with declining
consumer conﬁdence, has translated into dismal An era of “conscious consumption” will emerge.
new car sales in most markets. Customers around the world will be more cost
conscious, especially in the developing world where
But the slump has masked many outstanding millions of drivers will make their ﬁrst ever car purchase.
industry advancements. Standards of quality and
productivity, for example, have been raised without Environmental considerations will also weigh heavily
a corresponding increase in price. Cars today are on the industry towards 2020. The ﬁerce race to
safer, more fuel efﬁcient, and more technically develop and produce electric vehicles, spurred by
advanced than ever. And, the automotive workplace both customer demand and government incentives,
has evolved from an image of “dark, dirty and will mean that up to a third of all cars purchased in
dangerous” to an environment of high skills, developed countries in 2020 will not be propelled by
advanced technologies, and dynamic change. an internal combustion engine.
Despite this, competitive and ﬁnancial pressures This technological imperative will escalate an already
have led to a number of high-proﬁle bankruptcies. intense war for talent by 2020. The workforce of the
Production utilization in North America, Western future will not only need more complex skill sets but
Europe, and Japan has dropped dramatically leading to will also need to be ﬂexible so that companies can
widespread job losses. Even with discounts and other employ them most productively. At every level, a more
purchase incentives, consumers, wary of an uncertain proactive approach to training will be implemented,
economic future, have yet to return to the showroom as part of a more progressive and comprehensive
without extraordinary government incentives. approach to talent management. The challenge to
attract highly skilled workers will be especially acute
So, what will be the shape of the automotive in developed markets. Emerging markets, with their
industry as the world emerges from the economic younger demographics and plentiful engineering talent,
downturn? In this report, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu’s will pick up the slack left by the talent shortage.
senior automotive leaders offer a perspective on the
structural changes and major customer, technology, What must not be lost in any of this is the increasing
and people trends expected to transform the role of government. Governments in all major
industry over the next decade. markets have become active industry players. Their
investments through emergency loans and incentive
A massive shift in the competitive landscape will packages will have a lasting impact on the industry’s
see China and India emerge as major players in the direction. The nature of their continued support
industry. These markets will join Western Europe, to domestic companies, as well as energy and
Japan, Korea, and the United States as the centers environmental policies, will do much to mold the
of design and manufacturing for original equipment automotive sector over the next ten years.
manufacturers (OEMs) and their suppliers.
To be sure, there will be no resumption of the status
By 2020, as few as ten volume OEMs groups quo. Automakers and their suppliers will need to
based in these six major markets will account for reinvent themselves to meet the challenges of a
90 percent of global sales. To remain competitive, dramatically new global automotive landscape.
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 1
The current economic crisis has accelerated deep structural change in the automotive industry,
setting the stage for sustainable growth. High-cost exporting countries will see domestic
capacity closed as vehicle production continues to migrate to the “new Detroits”: Lower-cost
centers dotted across India and China and other locations in the regional trade zones of North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union. High-volume global platform
architectures will become the norm. And, convergence will drive the emergence of new business
models characterized by alliances with players from other industries to support new technologies.
Figure 1: NAFTA light vehicle assembly capacity utilization (Feb 2008 vs. Feb 2009)2 A recalibration of the automotive industry value
chain is in motion. The marked decline in sales
over the past three years led to excess capacity in
80% plants around the world, including North America
71% and the European Union (see Figures 1 and 2).
Some of the numbers are startling: Like most of its
48% competitors, for example, Honda went from full
38% 37% capacity in February 2008 to utilizing less than half
capacity (48 percent) a year later.1 Proﬁtability for
OEMs has been hurt and margins for suppliers have
sunk below the break-even point, triggering reduced
capacity, resourcing to stronger suppliers, a rash
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
F b Feb
’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 ’08 ‘09 of bankruptcies, and in some cases, the need for
Chrysler Ford GM Honda Nissan Toyota Other government bailouts.
Source: Ward’s Auto, Data Reference Center
Of course, the crisis will not last forever and short-
term sales projections foresee over 70 million units
Figure 2: European Union light vehicle assembly capacity utilization (2007 vs. 2009)3
sold worldwide by 2015 (see Figure 3). While
92% 90% 89% 89% opinions differ about the timing of the turnaround,
79% 80% there is no doubt that the structure of the
automotive industry will be deeply transformed.
The decline of Detroit
Once the core of the global automotive industry,
Detroit’s inﬂuence has declined steadily over the
past few decades. Sales of signature models have
been slowed by the waning popularity of large cars
and Detroit’s struggle to compete in the small car
2007 2009 2007 2009 2007 2009 2007 2009 2007 2009 2007 2009 2007 2009 segment. What’s more, Detroit has already lost its
leadership in engineering. Most cars manufactured
Germany France Spain UK Italy Czech EU27
in 2007, for example, had their primary development
Source: Ward’s Auto, Data Reference Center in Asia and Europe and this trend is expected to
continue into 2015 (see Figure 4).
The rise of manufacturing in lower cost Figure 3: Light vehicle production forecast (millions of units)6
The move to lower cost regions will be driven by 70
two forces: Cost and demand. The cost of labor South America
S th A i
in emerging markets continues to be a fraction of Number of vehicles
that in the developed world (see Figure 5). To take millions) 50
advantage of the expanding population in emerging
40 South Asia
markets, OEMs will continue to shift more of their Greater China
production to be closer to their biggest source of
Middle East/ Africa
new customers. For example, Greater China and 20
South America will represent more than 50 percent 10
of growth in global light vehicle production from
2008 to 20154. 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Source: CSM Worldwide
“As the volume of cars sold in these emerging
Figure 4: Falling primary development in North America7
markets rises, it will be increasingly necessary for
OEMs to move closer to the demand centers,” says
RC Bhargava, Chairman, Maruti Suzuki India. “This 40
will be for competitive reasons, which are stronger
than the lower cost reasons. Engineering for the 30
by region (m
local customer is also critical, making it another
major driver.”5 20
The expected growth of trading blocks (e.g., NAFTA,
European Union, ASEAN, and Mercosur) will drive 1 1
continued development of regional production Asia Europe Norh America Others
systems, with a migration to lower-cost locations 2007 2015
within each region. High exchange rate volatility Source: CSM Worldwide and Automotive News
and rising transportation costs have led OEMs and
Figure 5: Labor cost comparisons ($/Hour)8
suppliers to focus more on low-cost sourcing within Today’s high cost of production
a region. OEMs will increasingly look to balance 12.0 $40.0
production and sales footprints to reduce exposure 10.0
Cost of labor ($/Hr)
Numb of vehicles
to adverse exchange rate shifts. The overall effect $30.0
of this shift is that by 2020, there will be fewer cars $25.0
sold as imports from outside a trade zone (e.g., 6.0 $20.0
Korea to the United States or Japan to the European 4.0
Union). Even those cars with foreign labels will be $10.0
produced regionally. For that reason, OEMs welcome $5.0
the emergence of broader trade agreements that 0.0 $0.0
US / Mexico Western Eastern Japan South India China Brazil
support greater ﬂexibility. Canada Europe Europe Korea
High cost Low cost
The new pockets of low cost areas within the region developed markets Production (2008)
Cost of Labor
will become hubs for OEMs at the expense of higher Source: Cost of Labor – Economic Intelligence Unit, Data Dictionary, Total Production 2008 – Ward’s
cost exporters such as Spain and Germany (in the Automotive Data Reference Center
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 3
Figure 6: Share of production among top global OEMs producing 50,000 units European Union) and the U.S. and Canada (within
in 200714 NAFTA). This strategy is already unfolding. Suzuki,
35.0 16 for example, established plants in Hungary to supply
30.0 the European Union, while Volkswagen and Nissan
Cumulative global market share
manufacture in Mexico to supply the members of
NAFTA.9 Renault is building a full-scale assembly plant
Number of OEMs
20.0 in Morocco that will produce Logan-based cars for
global export, mainly to Europe, starting in 2010.10
4 China on the move
5.0 Before a Chinese company establishes itself as a
leading global producer, the industry will undergo
Japan Western US China South
a period of deep consolidation. This will reverse
Europe Korea the relatively weak global market share position
Market share Number of players of Chinese OEMs today (see Figure 6). In the near
Source: Automotive News, Data Center term, the Chinese government plans to consolidate
the top 14 local automotive players into 10 with
Figure 7: Joint venture sales represent nearly half of all Chinese automotive sales15 a domestic market share in excess of 90 percent.
Dongfeng Nissan, Within the top 10, the government directive is for
Cherry Auto, 6.8% two or three to attain annual output of two million
units and four or ﬁve to produce one million units
FAW-VW, 9.7% annually.11 In most segments, the supply base is
expected to consolidate 30 to 50 percent.12
The government mandate also encourages
automakers to develop their own brands, with a
Others, 40.2% target of boosting the share of Chinese domestic
brands to at least 40 percent of the national market.
Shanghai GM, 9.1%
Meanwhile, domestic Chinese manufacturers have
been charged with exporting up to 10 percent of
Shanghai VW, 9.4%
Chinese OEMs will ﬁnd themselves in a ﬁerce battle for
Geely, 4.6% Toyota JV, 9.3% Joint venture sales supremacy in their own market. Management is highly
Chinese company sales
motivated to stake their position and prove to Beijing
that they deserve to be among the chosen few to lead
Source: Ward’s Automotive Data Reference Center, China Sales by Company
China’s foray into the global automotive market.
Currently, the Chinese industry is also characterized
by a high number of joint ventures with established
players. The arrangement has provided Chinese
companies with auto-making expertise, while also
providing the only way into the Chinese market for
their partners (see Figure 7). However, most of the
intellectual property remains in the hands of the Figure 8: 77 percent of global production is concentrated among 10 companies16
foreign joint venture partners.
Rank OEM group HQ location market market
Important questions remain about the future of joint production
ventures in China. All eyes are on Beijing as they
decide whether to allow greater foreign ownership 1 Toyota Japan 9,237,780 13.3% 13.3%
or tighten restrictions to protect the ﬂedgling
domestic producers. 2 GM United States 8,282,803 11.9% 25.2%
3 Volkswagen European Union 6,437,414 9.3% 34.4%
Consolidation and a new global balance
Consolidation is well underway and today 10 4 Nissan-Renault Japan/ European Union 5,812,416 8.4% 42.8%
global OEMs account for over 77 percent of
5 Ford United States 5,407,000 7.8% 50.6%
global production (see Figure 8). Fiat has taken
over Chrysler and Volkswagen has swallowed 6 Fiat-Chrysler European Union 4,417,393 6.4% 56.9%
Porsche. Deals like these increase scale, streamline
distribution, boost asset efﬁciency, and provide 7 Hyundai-Kia Korea 4,126,411 5.9% 62.9%
access to previously limited markets.
8 Honda Japan 3,912,700 5.6% 68.5%
In some cases, companies will make targeted 9 PSA European Union 3,325,407 4.8% 73.3%
acquisitions to gain access to new markets,
channels, or technologies. In others, companies 10 Suzuki Japan 2,623,567 3.8% 77.0%
may adopt ‘roll up’ strategies and make multiple Source: International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers
acquisitions to rationalize capacity in a market niche
and develop a dominant position. Figure 9: The dominant groups (>1 million units) will be headquartered in six
A new breed of players will emerge, as well as
HQ location OEM and current HQ Potential 2020 HQ
a new global balance — with more competitors
headquartered in emerging manufacturing hubs, VW, Renault-Nissan (0.5),
European Union 5.5 3.5–4
particularly in India and China (see Figure 9). When Fiat-Chrysler, PSA, Daimler, BMW
the dealing is done, the landscape will be dominated
United States GM, Ford 2 1.5–2
by global OEMs and suppliers based in six major
markets: Western Europe, Japan, the United States, Toyota, Nissan-Renault (0.5),
Japan 5.5 2.5–3
Korea, China, and India. The Renault-Nissan alliance Honda, Suzuki, Mazda, Mitsubishi
is likely to be a model for others seeking platform China 0 1.5–2
and procurement scale but unwilling to risk the
challenges of full integration. India 0 0.5–1
Korea Hyundai-Kia 1 0.5–1
Source: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu analysis. August 2009
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 5
Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director, Business Innovation,
and Dr. Frank Spennemann, Senior Manager,
“China is closer to having product for Business Innovation at Daimler AG suggest that,
mature markets than most think.” “the emergence of new major global suppliers
in traditional commodities is doubtful due to the
— Matt O’Leary strong technological foundations of existing players,
Director, Corporate Strategy, Ford Motor Company as well as the degree of investment required to
become established in developed markets – at the
same time, there will certainly also be chances for
Supplier networks in low-cost centers smaller, highly innovative pioneers who are able
As OEMs and suppliers move to regional models to respond rapidly to emerging demands in new
for both low-cost production and design, they will technologies.”19 Ford’s Matt O’Leary, Director,
need to examine production quality and maturity Corporate Strategy, also says that “technology will
in the low cost regions and then choose from the come from non-traditional places. Alliances will be
following supplier strategies: broader than what the auto industry has had in the
1. Move existing suppliers, along with the OEM, to past.”20 OEMs will need to adopt a mix of supplier
set up regional low-cost facilities. strategies to ensure the availability of the necessary
2. Identify companies in the local marketplace to components, quality, and technologies as they
replace existing suppliers (but only when local expand their operations in emerging markets.
markets display sufﬁcient maturity).
3. Encourage established suppliers to partner with Higher volume global architecture will
local companies (through joint ventures or other become the norm
mechanisms) to combine technology know-how A common challenge for automakers is the
with local, low-cost manufacturing. inefﬁciently low volume of units produced per
platform. To remain cost competitive, OEMs have
Developing these supplier networks will be one of started to reduce the number of platforms they
the greatest challenges OEMs will face over the next produce and are achieving much greater diversity of
ten years. Existing suppliers are strained and often models produced from each platform (see Figure 10).
lack the ﬁnancial muscle to add new manufacturing Honda, with its ﬂexible common platform, developed
capacity in new markets. Suppliers are also sensitive three dimensionally-distinct versions of the Accord,
to technology transfer to local third parties, rightly allowing for market-unique designs where 60 percent
fearing the creation of new, lower-cost competitors. of the components are common. And Ford CFO
Lewis Booth reports that the company aims to build
Because of this, and the need to move quickly to 680,000 vehicles per core global platform within ﬁve
capture growing markets, Ravi Sud, CFO of Hero years, up from current levels of 345,000 units.21
Group, believes that increased collaboration among
suppliers is inevitable. “Manufacturers need to be To remain competitive and maintain centralized
able to cater to ever-changing customer demands in quality controls in rapidly-growing emerging markets,
the shortest possible time. They need to gain access regional design centers will have to be globally
to technology faster and ensure the technology is networked. Examples of this emerging trend include
launched faster.”18 Renault, which established a design studio in Mumbai
to create vehicles for India; PSA Peugeot Citroen
which maintains a technical and styling center in
Shanghai; and Daimler with one center in Pune, India
and plans for a Benz design center in Beijing.22
Figure 10: The importance of global platform architectures has increased signiﬁcantly23
2003 Top ﬁve global platform volumes 2007 Top ﬁve global platform volumes
(Million units produced) (Million units produced)
GM T800 (Silverado, Tahoe, Escalade, etc.) 1.67 VW A5 (Golf, Passat, A3, TT, etc.) 2.58
VW PQ35 (Golf, Bora, Beetle, A3, etc.) 1.42 Toyota MC (Camry, Avalon, ES) 1.87
Toyota NCV (Corolla) 1.31 Renault/Nissan X85/B (Clio, Micra, Logan) 1.86
Honda CYR (Accord,Odyssey) 1.18 Ford C1/P1 (Focus, 3 & 5, S40, V50, C70) 1.66
Toyota TMP (Camry) 1.08 Toyota NBC (Vitz/Yaris, Ayao, etc.) 1.53
Total 2003 top ﬁve 6.66 Total 2007 top ﬁve 9.50
Source: Automotive news, Data center
Figure 11 – Increase in global platform volumes24
(<50,000 units per year)
<50,000 units per year)
Number of pla
1997 2003 2009 2015E
Average volume/platform Number of platforms
Source: CSM Worldwide
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 7
Over the next ten years, the automotive industry will likely see the most dramatic changes in
customer buying preferences in its 100-year history. Profound in their nature and implications,
these changes will play out differently according to the dichotomy between mature and
emerging markets. Customers will fragment into distinctly different segments by 2020.
Attitudes altered by the recession will continue to evolve in mature markets, while a shift from
economy cars to luxury segments will occur in emerging markets. Advancements in alternative
technologies will also transform consumer mobility. OEMs will struggle to make required
investments and develop the capabilities to deal with these trends. The winners will be the ones
that proﬁtably and ﬂexibly meet regional customer requirements.
Figure 12: Projected customer segment shifts by 202025
Developed/mature markets Emerging markets
Small portion Relative size of customer segment Signiﬁcant Small portion Relative size of customer segment Signiﬁcant
of market portion of market of market portion of market
Current OEM Current OEM
Capability p y
Conscious Consumption Conscious Consumption
Safer, Smarter Safer, Smarter
Shades of Green Shades of Green
Moving up Moving up
Caught in a Web Caught in a Web
Older, Wiser Older, Wiser
and Cooped-up and Cooped-up
Net-worked 2009 2020 Net-worked 2009 2020
Source: 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (United States, European Union, Japan, China, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, and India).
Deloitte Consulting LLP
The customer dichotomy consumers will demand that their vehicles are
Segmentation of customers is nothing new to connected to their computers, mobile phones, work
marketers in the automotive space. However, by and homes.
2020, the fragmentation of customer needs across
the world means that automakers will have to pay These customer trends create tremendous economic
more attention to regional demand. challenges for OEMs. In 2009, customers show
little willingness to pay extra for entertainment
Global OEMs must grapple with the reality that features and green technologies. Meanwhile, the
customer demand in both mature and emerging cost to develop and manufacture these technologies
economies is changing, albeit vastly different ways remains stubbornly high. The winning OEMs will
(see Figure 12). By 2020, consumers in emerging be able to leverage their brands and marketing to
markets will move beyond basic vehicles to embrace stimulate consumer demand for these features while
luxury vehicles and green technologies. While in achieving manufacturing efﬁciencies that result in
mature markets, as the global recession fades, sustainable proﬁts.
Seven major global customer trends to watch That said, as in the developed world, cost will not
In both developed and emerging markets, OEMs and be the only consideration. The expectations of ﬁrst-
suppliers should be conscious of the following trends time buyers in developing markets will likely increase
in order to take advantage of the most important rapidly. Value-oriented models will need to offer
opportunities emerging towards 2020: safety and technology features commonly associated
with today’s premium brands.
1. Conscious consumption – a growing emphasis
on value A variation of this value-perception phenomenon
“Economic crises imbed themselves in the memories is being seen in China, says Ford’s Matt O’Leary.
of those who live through them”, says Matt “In the interior of the country, there has been
O’Leary of Ford. “The global recession will have a movement from motorcycles to small cars but price
lasting impression on consumer behavior.”26 Even remains the most important factor. But individuals
as prosperity returns, the value of money takes on in coastal areas are willing to spend money on the
new meaning. As such, the current economic crisis latest and greatest and on a global product. They
will leave more value-oriented car customers in its see themselves as part of the global market.”30
wake. In fact, a recent Deloitte Consulting LLP survey
indicated there will be a signiﬁcant shift of purchase 2. Moving up — the emergence of new wealth
priorities.27 Value and safety will become the most in emerging markets
important features. As a result, smaller car models The growth of the middle class (and subsequent
with enhanced safety features will enjoy stronger jump in the number of high-net-worth individuals)
sales leading up to 2020. Short-term trends support in the developing world has been staggering and
this thesis: most participants in the United States’ creates new opportunities for luxury brands whose
‘cash for clunkers’ program have exchanged SUVs demand in the developed world is in decline. A
and small trucks for smaller cars.28 recent Deloitte Consulting LLP survey indicated the
upper end of the customer base, those individuals
In emerging markets, car ownership is becoming
with high levels of disposable income, will seek luxury
more widespread, and yet the gap between car
brands with performance features as well as luxury
ownership in major markets such as Brazil, Russia,
add-ons, such as leather seats, sunroofs, and heated
China, India, and the developed world remains
signiﬁcant. In the United Kingdom, for example,
there are 511 cars on the road for every 1,000
citizens. But in high-growth China there are only 22
per 1,000, while in equally booming India, there are Figure 13: Number of cars per 1,000 people – 200832
only 11 per 1,000 (see Figure 13).
Numbe of cars per 1000 people
Car ownership in the developing world is set to 458
rise. The largest purchasing segment by 2020 will 400
be those customers buying a car for the ﬁrst time.29
They, too, are expected to be value conscious. 300
India provides a telling example. “India will have 200
a growing set of young people who will need 102
transportation solutions,” says RC Barghava,
Chairman of Maruki Suzuki India. “The needs of 0
these young people are the most critical and OEMs US UK Japan Germany Brazil Russia India China
will have to ﬁne-tune their portfolio accordingly”. Source: “Automotive Industry Brieﬁng”. Economist Intelligence Unit
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 9
3. Shades of green — cost vs. consciousness
Higher fuel prices and concerns over global warming
“In India the majority of people want have focused attention on cars that either rely less
vehicles to commute. They are customers on traditional fossil fuels or use renewable sources
of less expensive energy. But there is a notable
who look for utility.” discrepancy in the perception of the value of these
cars.33 While a majority of U.S. drivers (52 percent)
— Ravi Sud, CFO, Hero Group claim a preference for alternative fuel vehicles, only
28 percent would be willing to pay a premium. In
India, even fewer respondents (20 percent) were
The market for luxury cars in the developing world interested in paying an upfront premium for cheaper
might best be compared with the explosion in long-term fuel costs (see Figure 14).34
demand for high-end brands in the late 1990s and
early 2000s in North America and Europe. OEMs with Most customers, it seems, do not feel that the
strong luxury car portfolios can take advantage of this savings at the pump are sufﬁcient to offset the
growing segment by establishing a signiﬁcant global higher price of today’s alternatively fueled car. This
brand presence and catering to regional needs. will prove especially true among ﬁrst-time car buyers
But there is a challenge. The current practice of in emerging markets who will always be sensitive to
developing speciﬁc luxury models for speciﬁc purchase price and lifetime costs.
markets may no longer be economically feasible
and, as discussed above, the development and The challenge for OEMs is to achieve manufacturing
marketing of luxury models will need to use global efﬁciencies with alternative powertrain by bringing
platforms to reduce overall expenses and maximize down the cost of batteries. With considerable
platform volume. This may undermine the exclusivity government support, many companies are pouring
of certain brands and diminish their perceived value. resources into researching this issue. The OEM
that develops a battery that is either cheaper or
powerful enough to get the customer to pay a
premium will ﬁnd itself with a technology that may
become the standard and that OEM will enjoy all the
corresponding advantages of being the ﬁrst mover.
Figure 14: Alternate fuel – preferences vs. willingness to pay36
In emerging, high-growth markets, consumer
preference for green vehicles is shaped by local
environmental issues and government policy, as well
40 as relative costs of different fuel options. For example,
Brazil’s enthusiastic adoption of ﬂex fuel is a direct
24.8% result of a government initiative to relieve the country
20% of its reliance on petroleum imports. A BMW China
senior executive points to an acquisition tax cut on
10 vehicles with engines smaller than 1.6 liters that
spurred growth in sales of small-engine cars.35
US Japan India China
Percent of respondents prefer Percent of respondents willing to pay
Source: 2009 Deloitte Automotive Survey. Deloitte Consulting LLP
4. Safety ﬁrst – consumers to be attentive Consumers also professed interest in features that:
• Reduce distractions (via hands-free calling and
As technologies evolve, safety remains a primary
access to managed content41)
customer need across all markets. Indeed, a 2008
• Improve navigation (through GPS and trafﬁc
Consumer Reports survey on car brand perception
found that U.S. car buyers view safety and quality
• Enhance entertainment (with satellite radio, MP3
as the most important considerations to their
connections, and access to digital music)
ﬁnal purchase decision.37 In India, while price and
fuel economy are most important, safety falls Because of these tendencies, as the economy
right behind.38 It comes as no surprise, then, that improves over the next two to three years, an
consumers surveyed in both the U.S. and India increase in demand for safety-related connectivity
indicated a willingness to pay a premium for features will likely be seen across all global markets.
and options such as skid control, telematics, safety OEMs must realize that vehicles exist within an
devices, and blind spot mirrors. By comparison, evolving technology ecosystem, one that extends
the least-valued features are conveniences not beyond the traditional car. In a decade’s time, for
associated with safety, such as power lift gates, soft example, the cell phone may contain many of the
close, or cap-less fuel door systems (see Figure 15). same navigation, communication, and tracking
features currently being developed for automobile
Consumer interest in safety has prompted
use. iPod and MP3 player connectivity are already
government involvement. In the U.S., for example,
common features. The car will have to interface with
the National Highway Trafﬁc Safety Administration
other tools to keep pace with (and leverage) the fast
has introduced a proposal to mandate Electronic
moving consumer electronics industry.42
Stability Control on all passenger vehicles by the
2012 model year.39
The number of potential options is dizzying and
To meet increasing consumer demand for safety, OEMs will ﬁnd themselves in the difﬁcult position
OEMs will need to focus on developing and of having to bet on some at the expense of others.
providing safety-related features. This will present Unfortunately, their ability to bet right will be
several challenges to engineers as they try to compromised by the fact that these components
improve crash safety standards while meeting the increasingly belong to the high-tech industry and
need for cheaper, more efﬁcient cars (e.g., smaller
and lighter) among value-conscious drivers. These
consumers will reward car makers who make best Figure 15: Customer willingness to pay for technology43
use of advanced materials and innovative design. 362
5. Staying connected — the need to
Avg. willingnes to Pay ($)
be networked 250
Safety is also an important consideration when it
comes to choosing electronic options that enable
the driver to keep in touch. Features like automatic 150
crash notiﬁcation, emergency assistance, and remote 100 81
vehicle diagnostics spurred strong interest among 50 25
customers surveyed.40 Of course, being connected 0
offers several other beneﬁts in addition to safety. Vehicle skid Telematics Blind spot Power lift gate Soft close Cap-less fuel
control safety services mirror door system
Source: 2009 Deloitte Automotive Survey. Deloitte Consulting LLP
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 11
While the need to test drive is the major barrier to
growing online sales, customers are also hampered by:
“To be successful, car marketers must use • An inability to access accurate and complete
the internet to develop virtual showrooms product and pricing information online
• Unsuitable interface to negotiate on pricing
that can be easily navigated by customers.” with dealers
• Concerns about delivery
— RC Bhargava,
• Lack of integration with related services, such as
Chairman, Maruti Suzuki India
ﬁnancing and insurance
• Low connectivity rates and internet access in
not among the core competencies of automakers. emerging markets
To lessen the chance of getting it wrong, it will be
Additionally, in many markets dealers wield
essential for OEMs to work with players in high tech
considerable economic and political clout. In the
to combine their expertise and develop the features
United States, for example, state franchise laws
customers are willing to pay for.
restrict direct OEM sales.
6. The web – mixed reviews for internet as a
sales channel These factors will hamper OEM efforts to increase
More and more customers are turning to the internet online sales, and as a result, large-scale adoption
to purchase cars. The past ﬁve years have seen a of the internet as a sales channel is unlikely, and
steady increase in sales volume, with a compound companies will continue to rely on dealerships as
annual growth rate of 14.6 percent in the United their primary sales channels.
States and 20.1 percent in Western Europe.44 As a
But OEMs are clearly still attracted to growing the
percentage of total sales, however, more individuals
internet sales channel. General Motors and eBay
still prefer to see, touch, and test drive their car before
recently launched a test program in California that
buying. Only 4 percent of total car sales in the United
will allow consumers to negotiate with dealers to
States take place online (see Figure 16).45
buy vehicles online.46
Figure 16: Online buying as a percent of total sales in the United States48 Another source of hope for online sales resides in
$35 60% emerging markets such as India and Brazil, where
the commoditization of vehicles at the entry-level will
reduce the need to compare and contrast or negotiate
commerce sale ($ Billion)
$25 24% with a dealer over options and price. But companies
Percent of total category sales
should not neglect the web as a sales tool. “Parts and
30% after sale service purchases are already strong online
$15 18% and will continue to grow,” says Daimler’s Jerome
20% Guillen, Director, Business Innovation.47
$5 10% 7. Changing preferences — older, more
Autos and auto Computer Computer Consumer As the median age of the populations of Japan,
parts hardware and peripherals electronics
software Western Europe, the United States, and Russia
2011 E Online percent of total category sales in 2011 creeps upward, car makers will need to address
Source: Forrester, Forecast: U.S. and U.K. online retail sales by category, 2006 to 2011 the changing priorities of older drivers in order to
gain and retain their business. A recent Deloitte poor enough that people who currently own cars are
Consulting LLP survey showed that the mature unlikely to abandon them. In these markets, 70 to 80
demographic segment in the United States value percent of vehicles on the road are small and this is
quality, price, and safety above fuel economy, not expected to change over the next decade.52
styling, brand, and even the warranty (see Figure OEMs will need to evaluate alternate models of
17).49 In Japan and Russia, ergonomic features have mobility and rethink typical vehicle packaging,
been cited as a selling point for the same segment.50 proportions, and use options for their urban
To reach the mature driver, OEMs will need to customers. Different markets will need alternatives to
focus on the development of user-friendly, intuitive, the traditional single-owner model. Smart, ﬂexible,
low-cost vehicles. Vehicles targeted for the older user-friendly rental options, such as Daimler’s Car2Go
driver will need to be designed with human factors in Germany (launched in 2008)53 and Zipcar in North
in mind: Easier vehicle entrance and exit, larger America,54 will have to be considered.
displays, improved lighting, and augmented night
driving. With features designed to augment safety
and reliability, these cars will improve the ownership
experience compared with current low-cost options.
“Parts and after sale service purchases are
The other important demographic trend is
urbanization. Around the world, cities are already strong online and will continue to
experiencing strong population growth. In
developed countries, the proportion of the
population living in urban centers is currently 75 — Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director,
percent, while in the developing world urban Business Innovation, Daimler
dwellers represent 45 percent of the population.
However, by 2020, those numbers are expected
to rise to 78 percent and 55 percent, respectively.
By that same year, there will be 24 megacities with
Figure 17: Attribute preference for the “mature” customer55
populations of at least 10 million.51
18% Customer segment average age: 53 yrs.
Since improvements in infrastructure usually lag
population growth, increasing urbanization will 16%
make city streets more congested, noisy, and 19%
polluted. Commute times will lengthen. Those who
continue to drive in cities will look for smaller, more 15%
fuel-efﬁcient vehicles. But as congestion increases,
many customers will abandon car ownership (or
leasing) in favor of public transit. Even in these cities, 15%
however, consumers will need periodic access to
vehicles for trips to outlying areas and other special 7%
occasions. Quality Price Safety Fuel Economy Styling Warranty Brand
Importance 19% 19% 19% 15% 11% 9% 8%
Where public transit is inadequate, a car will still Survey-Avg.
be the preferred day-to-day option. In many Latin Source: 2009 Deloitte Automotive Survey. Deloitte Consulting LLP
American cities, for example, public transportation is
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 13
Technology to reflect new
sets of demands
Consumer demands and new regulations will heavily inﬂuence the development and
marketability of innovations in the auto industry. First among these demands is fuel efﬁciency,
which will lead to new (or improved) powertrain technology. But safety and infotainment
are also important consumer considerations. The approach to technology will differ between
developed and emerging markets. Advanced combustion engines will extend the reign of
combustion engines over alternative technologies.
The approach to technology content in cars will be 1. Powertrain technology and the move
divided on regional lines. Green alternatives, such as to electric
electric cars will likely ﬁnd more consumer interest in Currently, hybrids and electric vehicles (EVs)
wealthier countries while ﬂex-fuels, such as ethanol represent a tiny fraction of total cars on the road. In
and natural gas will ﬁnd wider adoption in emerging Germany, of the 49.6 million cars56 in operation, a
markets where the local climate or resource base mere 1,500 are electric while 22,300 run on hybrid
favors these fuels over petroleum. technology.57 Yet growing environmental concerns
among consumers58, environmental regulation,
The outcome will be a variety of powertrain volatility of gas prices, and depletion of oil reserves59
technologies in the market by 2020. Government will translate into a moderate increase in demand for
policies will heavily dictate the portfolio mix in each EVs by 2020, epecially for use in short commutes.
country. These policies will be driven by a number
of factors from stricter carbon emission standards to With large-scale production of EVs set to begin in
independence from foreign energy. Europe in 201160, the growth potential in Europe
should not be ignored. Although the number of EVs
Deloitte member ﬁrms estimate that by 2020, on the road will remain low at ﬁrst, surveys suggest
electric vehicles and other “green” cars will represent that Europeans are willing to switch to EVs.61
up to a third of total global sales in developed
markets and up to 20 percent in urban areas of Barriers to widespread adoption of EVs
emerging markets. Between now and 2020, there are several potential
barriers to the wider adoption of EVs:
Industry players need to be aware of the following
trends in order to take advantage of the most • Elevated costs of electrically propelled vehicles
important opportunities emerging among car buyers • Limited range of EVs
around the world. These trends include: • Lack of infrastructure
1. Powertrain technology and the move to electric • Lack of government incentives or subsidies
2. The shift from mechanics to electronics
3. Low tech mobility
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 15
Currently, electric vehicles are signiﬁcantly more Government incentives to spur EV adoption are also
expensive compared to traditionally propelled lagging. Although governments in the United States
vehicles. This is due mainly to the costs of the and Western Europe support the development of
lithium-ion battery, which adds €10-€15,000 to the EV technology68, only France, England, and China
price of a traditional internal combustion vehicle.62 offer subsidies (up to €5,000 or US$7,100) on
Also, specialized microprocessor controls for the EVs.69 In Germany, the government offers a car tax
electric motor and the need to adapt systems such exemption70 to EV buyers rather than a cash subsidy,
as air conditioning (which usually draw power from although with the yearly tax burden for owning a
the combustion engine) increase development cost Volkswagen Golf set at €124, the incentives are
of EVs as well as the end customer price.63 Better hardly overwhelming. That said, whether through
Place tries to answer this problem with a lease tax measures, subsidies, or regulatory reform,
model for an EV’s battery pack: The battery pack will government can still play an enormous role in the
remain the property of the company and customers spread of EVs, according to Daimler's Dr. Jerome
are charged a monthly fee. However, the future for Guillen, Director, Business Innovation, and
this model is highly uncertain.64 Dr. Frank Spennermann, Senior Manager, Business
Another signiﬁcant barrier to the adoption of EVs
lies in the very limited reach of EVs compared with Some municipalities are taking steps to build
traditionally propelled vehicles. The electric vehicles infrastructure. In Stockholm and Amsterdam, for
of the ﬁrst generation, which will be launched over example, recharging stations are already in operation.
the next two years, come with a range of less than In Germany, larger utilities (RWE and EON) are
200km. That means that consumers would need building infrastructure while in Canada, the City of
to alter their usage behavior dramatically. Instead Vancouver recently voted to expand electrical vehicle
of refueling their ICE propelled vehicle as needed usability by requiring developers to put electric-car
in 5-10 minutes, drivers of EVs would likely plug-in plug-ins in a percentage of new condominiums
their vehicle every night to top off the charge.65 and apartments.72 Companies are also preparing. In
October 2009, Daimler will loan the City of Berlin a
The limited range of lithium batteries creates ﬂeet of 200 EVs for testing purposes.73
the need for thousands of recharging stations
placed along highways, throughout cities, and in Finally, the ascent of EVs in developed markets is likely
parking garages. Better Place is currently building to be threatened by the emergence of alternative
infrastructure,66 but much more needs to be done fuel technologies, as discussed below. If research and
before drivers will trust driving their EVs over longer development (R&D) efforts are able to reduce the
distances. Moreover, initiatives to standardize “well-to-wheel” efﬁciency of advanced technology
batteries and connector plugs have yet to emerge. and biofuel combustion engines signiﬁcantly below
120g CO2/km74, mass market adoption of electric
Because of this, as well as increased urbanization vehicles may be delayed due to increased customer
and higher maintenance costs, a senior executive acceptance of the existing technology.
at FAW-Volkswagen in China believes that “small
electric vehicles will develop only for short distance
driving. These cars will be used in conjunction with
city buses and railways.”67
Internal combustion engines to dominate in world.79 And, similar to those barriers cited for
emerging markets the developed world, emerging markets also lack
In emerging markets, new car sales will likely be infrastructure and regulatory support for the wide-
overwhelmingly dominated by traditional, internal spread adoption of EVs.
combustion engines. One reason is the price of fuel.
Fuel taxes make for signiﬁcantly more expensive Developments in the EV space are widely discussed
gasoline in Japan and Europe, in some cases more with several new models recently introduced or
than double the price of fuel in developing markets.75 planned to be launched in the next few years (see
Figure 18). Lower-cost EVs like BYD in China and
However, there is considerable interest in reducing E-Nano by Tata in India are capturing attention and
pollution in the megacities of China and India and may be encouraged by governments as a means to
where price is not the only factor, demand will vary counter congestion in larger cities.
based on largely political and geographical factors,
says a senior executive at Hyundai China. “Driven by The hybrid stepping stone
pressures on energy saving and emission reduction, While consumers await a more EV-friendly world,
developed countries will proceed with the adoption hybrid vehicles will serve as transition technology in
at a relatively high pace”.76 developed and developing markets, according to a
senior executive at BMW China.80 Hybrids feature
The impetus to go electric as a means to reduce lower carbon emissions, greater fuel efﬁciency, and
carbon emissions is less acutely felt in China and are less infrastructure intensive than EVs. They also
India, where aggregate carbon emissions from aid in the switch from full-combustion engines to
automobiles are miniscule when compared with electric motors.
emissions from coal-ﬁred power plants.77 But,
the Chinese governments’ push to be one of the Sales of hybrid cars bear careful scrutiny as they
leading producers of hybrid and all-electric vehicles will reveal customer preferences to carmakers. It is
within three years may see them leapfrog current expected that by 2020, hybrids will still outnumber EVs
technology and strengthen its competitive position.78 but trends point to a fully electric long-term future.
Other cost barriers include the price of a battery,
which is prohibitive for many in the developing
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 17
Figure 18: The most talked about electric vehicles81
Automaker Model power cons. Charging time Range Price Comment
Think Global AS Think City 13hrs 180km €20-25 k 2007
Tesla Roadster 14 3.5hrs 350km €75 k 2008
Quick-charge: 80 percent in €35 k (will be skimmed
Mitsubishi i-Miev 30 minutes; household charger 160km along production volume; 2009
(200V): 100 percent in ca. 7hrs target price: €15k)
€24 k (including a
Quick-charge: 80 percent in
Plug-In subsidy of €10 k by
Subaru 15 mins; household charger 80km 2009
Stella Next Generation Vehicle
Quick-charge: 50 percent in Pre-sale: 200.000yuan
BYD Auto E6 18 > 400km half of
10 minutes (€20.000)
* Battery not
Comparable to a included in
Nissan Leaf Quick-charge: 30 minutes 160km traditionally propelled 2010 end-customer
vehicle* price; must be
GM Volt 10hrs (120V) 64km €30 k 2010 Range Extender
Quick-charge (400V, 64A): 100
Renault percent in 30 minutes; household 160km €21 k 2011
Ford Focus 2011
Toyota urban 2012
Tesla Model S Quick-charge: 45 mins 255-480 km €50 - 60 k 2012
Daimler Smart EV 2012
Alternative fuels remain an important option Figure 19: Natural gas vehicle ﬂeet84
Of course, while companies rush to produce the 2,500,000 3000
most marketable electric vehicles, they will have
to keep an eye on developments in the alternative 2,000,000
fuel space. In emerging markets in Asia and
Numb of refueling stations
Latin America, the availability and easy access to
natural gas sources is expected to drive adoption
Number of veh
of natural gas-powered vehicles (see Figure 19). 1,000,000
Further government investments in the necessary 1000
infrastructure will be required for natural gas to truly
take hold as an alternative. In addition, if the U.S.
moves decisively on energy independence, natural 0 0
gas could become an important part of the domestic Pakistan Argentina Brazil Iran India Italy China
fuel portfolio, especially for ﬂeets. Natural gas vehicles Refueling stations
Source: International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. 2009 data
Other means to fuel efﬁciency
The convincing shift to ﬂex-fuel in Brazil (used by over
Figure 20: Flex-fuel vehicle sales in Brazil85
70 percent of the cars on the road)82 (see Figure 20).
has been spurred by a government initiative to reduce 2,500,000 90%
the country’s dependency on oil imports. The role of 80%
government everywhere is a signiﬁcant consideration 2,000,000 70%
Percent of to passenger car sales
in the development of alternative powertrain 60%
technologies. While more efﬁcient technologies are 1,500,000
Number of veh
one way, another is to make the cars more efﬁcient
by using lighter materials. Matt O’Leary of Ford 1,000,000
suggests that “we might be on the tipping point to
meet fuel economy constraints” and that “cars may 500,000
use more aluminum to reduce weight and energy
requirements”.83 0 0%
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Total FFV sales Percent of total passenger car sales
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 19
2. The shift from mechanics to electronics More than ever, technology matters
The move to greater electronic content in cars has Increasingly, what a car has to offer comes in the
been underway for several years and has been form of superior technology. As the number of
responsible for such major innovations as security applications for technology increases, OEMs and
systems, anti lock brakes, engine control units, and suppliers will need to be selective. The criteria for
infotainment. These features proved so enormously choosing what to include and what to leave out will
popular that they are now widely available, depend entirely on what customers are willing to pay
demonstrating that consumers are willing to pay for for. This segmentation is nothing new to car makers,
technology that enhances their driving experience but as the developing world becomes the source of
– and also the potential to dramatically reduce strongest sales growth, the technological features in
costs as volume ramps up. As a result, OEMs have each car cannot come at the expense of price.
been steadily inserting more electronic components
into each vehicle. The German market provides an The role of government in directing the industry
illustrative example: In 2007, electronic content in towards the enduring technologies will be key. In
passenger cars was estimated at 20 to 30 percent fact, some companies are looking for such direction.
of production costs. By 2010, the proportion is “What would help is to have some kind of a
expected to rise to 40 percent86 and by 2020, the policy on national energy security that gets people
number will likely reach 50 percent.87 energized about moving this mountain,” says Ford’s
O’Leary. “Anything done around energy security
3. Low-tech mobility could ﬂow over to the automotive industry and
In emerging markets, while personal income levels could spur innovation if done right. It could spur us
are rising, discretionary income remains low. Large all to a solution mentality.”88
segments of the population will not be able to afford
full size or even standard compact passenger cars
currently offered by European and Japanese OEMs.
The cars that will sell best to ﬁrst-time and lower
income buyers in these regions are simply those that
are priced most attractively. In some cases, this means
stripping a car of any superﬂuous features.
The launch of the Tata Nano in India is a leading
indicator of the rise of the low-content ultra low
cost car: It comes without power steering, a single
windshield wiper, and a single side-view mirror. The
upshot is that OEMs aiming to harvest the strong
economic growth forecasted for emerging markets
will need to develop low cost, low content vehicles.
“In India, GPS is basically calling
the person you are visiting for
— RC Bhargava,
Chairman, Maruti Suzuki India
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 21
Getting the right skills
Key to any lasting transformation in the automotive industry are the primary issues of skills and
workforce ﬂexibility. Both OEMs and suppliers will have to plan for a future that requires ever
more skilled workers from design to production. In the developed world, an aging population is
intensifying the competition for young, talented employees. Successful companies will embrace
new and comprehensive approaches to talent management.
Workforce ﬂexibility be more limited to regional markets. Sales and after
The current major transformations taking place in sales services, meanwhile, will remain completely
the automotive industry are occurring on a number focused on the places they operate.
of fronts, all of which require a ﬂexible workforce.
They include: Who will replace the retirees?
• Technology. The growing demand for greener Increasingly, skilled workers will leave the workplace
engine technologies, coupled with a shift towards due to retirement. Even in the current downturn,
increased integration of mechanical, electrical, and many companies are experiencing shortages in
software engineering. certain key areas. For instance, 31 percent of
• Production. To reduce risks and costs, OEMs and automotive companies in the United States today
suppliers are shifting towards the closest low-cost report moderate-to-severe shortages of skilled
production environments within trading zones. production workers, almost all of whom expect
• Research and development. To meet the the future shortages to be at least as challenging
needs of new customers in emerging markets, or worse. Similarly, 28 percent of automotive
companies’ R&D and design efforts are being companies report moderate-to-severe shortages
centered in the markets they expect to serve. of scientists and engineers and also expect future
shortages to be at least as challenging or worse.
Each of these factors will have an impact on talent At the same time, having a high-skilled, ﬂexible
management as OEMs struggle to ﬁnd the right workforce is seen as one of the top three drivers of
numbers of employees with the right skills in the future business success.89
right place at the right time.
Plant mangers report that while the role for unskilled
To build more technologically advanced cars, labor in the developed world is diminishing,
workers will need to be suitably trained and rarer skills in project management, computers,
cross-trained to handle these new technologies. communications, and team building are increasingly
As production is specialized by region, workforce essential to the success of any production facility.
capability will have to be developed accordingly. The worker of the future will be expected to handle
an enormous array of new vehicle technology and,
Global programs, regional focus moreover, keep current with new developments
As technologies evolve, OEMs will endeavor to in these technologies. Areas such as the seamless
distinguish and develop talent pools with traditional integration of code, engine control units, and the
and non-traditional workers by technology and integration of multiple systems are all skill-intensive.
region. Workforce requirements for each region
will be determined by function and scale. Certain Finding these talented employees in developed
functions — such as design, engineering, and parts markets is hampered by a number of factors.
production — will be carried out on an increasingly Education is one. Only 16 percent of students
diverse geographic basis, working together in a graduating from North American universities earn
virtual environment. Others, such as assembly, will science or engineering degrees.90 And despite the
Figure 21: Change in working population (aged 20–64) over 2005–202597
Japan Russia Germany France UK Canada China USA India Brazil
Source: Deloitte Research, based on population division of the Department of Economics Social Affairs of the
United Nations Secretariat (2006). World population prospects: The 2004 revision, New York: United Nations
fact that 82 percent of survey respondents consider tailor curriculum. They have set up alliances to create
manufacturing critical to America’s economic key centers for studying new technology in the auto
prosperity, a recent survey showed that nearly industries. Importantly, these alliances are worldwide
half (49 percent) of all respondents would not in scope.96
recommend a career in the manufacturing sector.91
Chinese universities, meanwhile, are more oriented Globalization presents another set of challenges
to these technical subjects, and 42 percent of related to human resources. A global workforce
all graduates receive their degrees in science or means different demographic proﬁles and
engineering.92 That said, while the top Indian and different sets of expectations across geographies.
Chinese engineering graduates are very strong, the Coordination of business will involve numerous
quality of second-tier graduates may be inconsistent. considerations, including location, language,
It is no surprise then, to hear Ajay Seth, CFO at technologies, regulations, and cultural differences.
Maruti Suzuki say of the situation in India, “A major Each location will have its own skill surpluses and
issue we are facing in the area of R&D is the lack shortages, and coordination of these resources will
of good engineering and design capabilities. These be a complicated procedure.
critical skill sets are scarce in our region.”93 At the same time, increasing cost pressures from
consumers are placing demands on companies to
A senior executive at Volkswagen Group China innovate, which in turn, places a greater imperative
echoes Seth’s comments that the three most critical on ﬁnding the right individuals who can contribute.
areas with skill shortages are R&D, marketing, and Yet the recent economic downturn, with its
management (especially investment management).94 bankruptcies and mass layoffs, has caused many
The executive also questions the Chinese education high-talent employees to consider a permanent
system’s ability to keep pace. “Industry is developing move out of the industry.
rapidly, but the education system is falling behind.”95
A new approach to labor
Ford has encountered similar problems ﬁnding the The demand for skills does not diminish with a
right talent and has partnered with universities to reduction in sales. Markets demand innovation and
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 23
creativity and customers demand faster responses Investing in long-term skill development
to their changing needs. Yet because so much of Modern plants need multiple skills to function and
the cost of producing a car is ﬁxed, the pressure currently neither job-related education nor the
to reduce expenses is frequently focused ﬁrst on vocational direction of current students are adequate
the labor force. The current downturn has forced to meet current or projected needs. In the long
companies to look at new ways to contain costs and run, a failure to ﬁnd adequately-trained resources
improve margins. However, many companies have and train the current workforce in emerging
reacted too severely, jeopardizing long-term success technologies will signiﬁcantly hamper manufacturers’
by not aligning their talent strategies to projected competitiveness.
needs. Laid off employees may have taken jobs in
other industries and may be unavailable by the time Training begins with pre employment skill
they are once again needed. development. “The education system will be critical for
the development of an employable workforce,” says RC
In this buyer-oriented market, OEMs and suppliers Bhargava, Chairman, Maruti Suzuki India. “The current
will attempt to institutionalize ﬂexibility in their education system in India, for example, is not geared
labor costs by using nontraditional employees and to meet the workforce requirements for an economy
innovative compensation and scheduling plans. growing at an annual rate of nine percent.”98
Two different spectrums exist for OEMs and Once employees are in the plant, progressive companies
suppliers to introduce this ﬂexibility: will provide training on a proactive and ongoing basis.
1. Core vs. noncore employee mix. This may There are calls for more group-based training as teams
include a mix of ad hoc temporary labor to ﬁll the become more responsible for improving products and
need for strategic capabilities or even outsourced processes, working business plans, and addressing
manufacturing. But reducing the number of performance gaps. In short, the employee of the future
traditional employees can put the company will have a broader set of skills, rather than narrow
into crisis when the need to ramp up occurs capabilities, that make him inﬂexible.
and there are no workers available. There are
cost implications: Severance, replacement, and Training programs will be adjusted based on generation
training among them. And ﬁnally, the company’s and job type, each of which has different learning
reputation may suffer, making it harder to attract styles. For example, Generation Y prefers interactive
top talent. learning from trusted sources, using short videos,
2. Innovative compensation. To optimize simulation, and practice to quickly master skills.
workforce contributions, companies may
consider developing customized rewards Improving the industry’s employment brand
and compensation programs, such as ﬂexible Generation Y will form the largest portion of the
scheduling, variable compensation, and phased future working population99 and will arrive on the
retirement. These solutions can improve cost job with a unique set of needs and expectations.
ﬂexibility, enhance employee satisfaction, and This is not great news for the automotive industry.
maintain quality and productivity levels without The auto sector is perceived negatively today among
interruption. Gen Y in western countries and Japan. Industry
jobs are seen as low paying, physically intensive,
Currently, most U.S. companies use ad hoc solutions, dirty, and unsafe. Gen Y also lacks conﬁdence in the
but future challenges, uncertainty, and volatility future of manufacturing.
will encourage organizations to institutionalize a
What’s more, growth in other industries where Align, analyze, and differentiate
similar skills are needed (e.g., software development, OEMs and suppliers will endeavor to create a more
business process outsourcing, and other service explicit connection between business and talent
sectors), is raising the competition for young, strategies based on a fact-based understanding of
talented people. talent supply and demand, not only in the external
market, but also within the company. Armed with
OEMs and suppliers will need to work on their brand this knowledge, a mix of talent and work solutions
image to break down negative perceptions. They will be crafted to drive competitive advantage.
may consider open houses, chamber of commerce
meetings, or ﬁeld trips that invite students and Workforce planning will emphasize workforce
parents to tour their plant where they can learn training to enable a ﬂexible, diverse, and global
more about the industry and the numerous workforce to ensure that engineers and managers
challenging and rewarding career opportunities. are equipped with emerging skills and to transition
They may further engage the community by production workers into skilled trades’ positions.
speaking with local leaders about the economic
value of job creation and the retention of skilled Increasingly, programs will be tailored to offer special
workers to the community. attention to critical workforce segments with explicit
metrics for design and evaluation. These metrics
OEMs will all need to consider the expectations will be reviewed at the board level and the onus
of this young new workforce. They want a sense will fall on the human resources function to include
of purpose and meaning to their work, a tech- organization, process, technology, and vendors in
savvy work environment, work/life ﬂexibility, and their spheres of activity.
long-term career development. To strengthen their
case, OEMs will need to experiment with recruiting
programs, internships, and cooperative employment
arrangements. Advertising or public relations
campaigns will also be employed to transform the
This is not only the case in North America. At Hyundai
China, executives have identiﬁed the need to “cultivate
a base for competition, innovation, and learning, to
press employees towards improving themselves.”100
One of the best sources of feedback on the
industry’s employment brand is the customer.
Research from customer surveys will be leveraged
by progressive companies to help direct programs
aimed at enhancing the brand among Gen Y.
The same intelligence will be used to launch a
wider advertising campaign to emphasize those
characteristics this demographic deems important.
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 25
The next chapter in
Over the next decade, the automotive industry as a efﬁciency, and connectivity, will also be important to
whole will experience dramatic transformation. The developed world customers.
economic crisis has acted as an accelerant, placing
pressure on many companies to change. To guide these transformations, automotive
companies will struggle to ﬁnd the right people,
Consolidations will leave the industry with fewer with the right mix of skills, at the right time, at
global players. Those that remain will look to shift the right cost. Their approach to talent must be
substantial engineering and production to lower cost proactive and progressive. A fundamental shift in
centers. This move will not only help contain costs people management practices will be undertaken
(principally, variable labor costs), but it also means to differentiate the automotive industry, and enable
that automakers will be able to access valuable companies to attract, retain, and motivate the talent
talent and respond more easily to the demands needed for future business success.
of the fastest growing segment of car buyers in
emerging markets. Understanding these four elements — structure,
customers, technology, and people — and how
In emerging markets, an entirely new class of car each will evolve over the next decade is key for both
buyers will seek low-cost, low-tech cars, while a OEMs and suppliers. The transformations implied will
signiﬁcant segment of newly wealthy customers touch on every step of the complex process involved
will want more luxurious brands. In the developed in taking a car from a designer’s imagination to a
world, the priorities of drivers will shift away customer’s driveway. The companies that thrive in
from fashionable add-ons to features designed to the new emerging competitive landscape will be
enhance the safety and efﬁciency of their vehicles. those that get each step right.
But the most important factor will remain price, and
carmakers developing greener engines will need
to ﬁnd ways to make these cars price compatible
with more traditional internal combustion engines.
Other new technologies, those that enhance safety,
Automotive industry contacts Acknowledgements
Martin Hoelz Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu wishes to acknowledge and
Global Automotive Group Leader thank the many partners and professionals from Deloitte
Deloitte Germany member ﬁrms worldwide who contributed insights and
email@example.com information to develop this report. Sincere thanks to
Tel: +49 711 16554 7305 Martin Hoelz (Deloitte Germany), Robert Hill (Deloitte
Consulting LLP, United States), Dick Kleinert (Deloitte
Michelle Collins Consulting LLP, United States), and Randy Miller (Deloitte
Consulting LLP, United States) for leading the development
Global Automotive Group Co-Leader
of this thought leadership report. In addition, special
Deloitte United States (Deloitte LLP)
thanks to the senior executives who participated in the
research representing Ford Motor Company, Daimler AG,
Tel: +1 313 396 3219
Maruti Suzuki, Hero Group, Hyundai (China), FAW-VW
(China), and BMW (China).
Global Managing Partner, Manufacturing Industries Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Global
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Manufacturing Industry Group
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A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 27
1. NAFTA light vehicle assembly capacity utilization (Feb 2008 vs. based on discussions with 24 people including executives at
Feb 2009). Ward’s Auto, Data Reference Center. major OEMs and Deloitte automotive partners from U.S., UK,
2. Ward’s Auto, Data Reference Centre. Brazil, Russia, China, India, Germany, Sweden, France, Italy,
3. ibid. Japan during July 15 to August 10, 2009.
4. “CSM Global Light Vehicle Production Summary”. CSM 28. “U.S. car buyers prefer smaller vehicles”. Financial Times.
Worldwide. July 2009. http://automotiveforecasting.com/gpo/ August 3, 2009.
global-summary.pdf. ”Structural Challenges for the Future. North 29. “Automotive Industry Brieﬁng”. Economist Intelligence Unit. July
American Outlook.” CSM Worldwide. March 26, 2009. 2009.
5. Deloitte interview with RC Bhargava, Chairman, Maruti Suzuki 30. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate
India July 8, 2009. Strategy, Ford Motor Company, August 4, 2009.
6. “CSM Global Light Vehicle Production Summary”. CSM 31. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India)
Worldwide. July 2009. conducted by Deloitte Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based
7. “Structural Challenges for the Future” presentation by Michael Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S.
Robinet, Vice President, Global Vehicle Forecasts. CSM employees. March 2009.
Worldwide. March 26, 2009. “Auto brain drain”. Crain's Detroit 32. “Automotive Industry Brieﬁng”. Economist Intelligence Unit. July
Business, May 7, 2007. Primary vehicle development includes 2009.
vehicle structure, chassis, engine box, build process, powertrain 33. Even among ‘green’ buyers. Toyota’s hybrid Prius, priced at a
/ steering production, safety, seating structure and electronics. premium to ICE cars in its class sold well. Its unique look also
8. Cost of Labor – Economist Intelligence Unit, Data Dictionary, set it apart from other cars on the road. However, customers
Total Production 2008 – Ward’s Automotive Data Reference showed less willingness to pay for other Toyota models with
Centre. hybrid engines, indicating that it is not only necessary to be
9. ”GM, Suzuki to build cars in Hungary”. Chicago-Sun Times. green, but to be seen as being green.
January 14, 1990. “Volkswagen to produce new compact sedan 34. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India).
in Mexico”. Reuters. July 20, 2009. “Nissan Will Shift Production Survey of 991 U.S.-based Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174
to Mexico to Counter Yen”. Bloomberg. February 20, 2009. India-based Deloitte U.S. employees. March 2009.
10. Renault in Morocco. Renault web site: www.renault.com. 35. Deloitte interview with a senior executive at BMW China.
11. Chinese Automotive Policy Guidelines, March 2009. August 2009.
12. Ibid. 36. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India)
13. Ibid. conducted by Deloitte Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based
14. Automotive News, Data Center. Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S.
15. Ward’s Automotive Data Reference Center, China Sales by employees. March 2009.
Company. 37. ”Top ﬁve in brand perception by category”. 2008 Car Brand
16. “2008 World motor vehicle production by manufacturer”. Perceptions Survey. Consumer Reports. January 2008.
International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers. 38. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (India) Survey of
http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/world-ranking-2008.pdf. 2,174 U.S.-based Deloitte India employees during March 2009.
Total volumes include cars, light commercial vehicles, heavy Respondents ranged in age from under 25 to over 64 years old,
commercial vehicles and buses. with the majority (87 percent) falling between 25 and 44 years
17. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu analysis. August 2009. old. Males represented 77% respondents and females 23%.
18. Deloitte interview with Ravi Sud, CFO, Hero Group, July 7, 2009. March 2009.
19. Deloitte interview with Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director, Business 39. “Electronic stability control to be standard by 2012. Government
Innovation, Daimler AG and Dr. Frank Spennemann, Senior would have safety feature on all light-passenger vehicles”.
Manager, Business Innovation, Daimler AG. July 24, 2009. Consumer Reports. August 2009.
20. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate 40. Deloitte customer survey carried out as part of a client project
Strategy, Ford Motor Company, August 4, 2009. for a leading Asian automotive OEM in the U.S. during 2009.
21. “Ford Speeds Up New Product Rollout”, AutoBeat Daily, Deloitte Consulting LLP.
August 7, 2009. 41. Managed content includes intelligent vehicle displays that ﬁlter
22. ”Renault to tie up with design schools in India”. The Times vehicle status to focus on key items and exceptions.
of India. February 6, 2008. “PSA opens Shanghai design 42. Deloitte interview with Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director, Business
studio”. Automotive News Europe. February 2, 2009. “Daimler Innovation, Daimler AG and Dr. Frank Spennermann, Senior
India Unit: Mercedes-Benz 2008 Car Sales Up 46% On Yr”. Manager, Business Innovation, Daimler AG. July 24, 2009.
Dow Jones. January 9, 2009. “China: Daimler considering an 43. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India)
Advanced Design Center in Beijing”. Automotive World.com. conducted by Deloitte Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based
April 6, 2009. Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S.
23. Automotive News, Data Center. employees. March 2009.
24. “Structural Challenges for the Future”, CSM Worldwide, March 44. Forrester: Forecast: U.S. and UK online retail sales by category,
2009. 2006 to 2011.
25. Customer preferences based on 2009 Deloitte Internal 45. Ibid.
Automotive Survey (U.S. and India) conducted by Deloitte 46. “General Motors, eBay test selling cars online”. Automotive
Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based Deloitte U.S. News. August 10, 2009.
employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S. employees. 47. Deloitte interview with Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director, Business
March 2009. Innovation, Daimler AG and Dr. Frank Spennermann, Senior
26. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate Manager, Business Innovation, Daimler AG. July 24, 2009.
Strategy, Ford Motor Company. August 4, 2009. 48. Forrester: Forecast: U.S. and UK online retail sales by category,
27. Customer preferences based on 2009 Deloitte Internal 2006 to 2011.
Automotive Survey (U.S. and India) conducted by Deloitte 49. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India)
Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based Deloitte U.S. conducted by Deloitte Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based
employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S. employees. Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S.
March 2009. OEM capabilities to meet the 7 customer trends employees. March 2009.
50. Interviews with Deloitte automotive partners in Japan and "Die Spielregeln ändern sich,” Mitsubishi; Handelsblatt,
Russia. July 2009. August 2, 2009. “GM shows Chevy plug-in concept”. CNN
51. United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. Money. January 8, 2007. “Wenn 10.000 Ingenieure an einem
52. Interview with Deloitte automotive partners in Latin America. Elektroauto basten”. Manager Magazin, July 10, 2009. “Die
July 2009. lange Leitung von BMW”. Handelsblatt, August 4, 2009. “FHI
53. www.car2go.com to Launch “Subaru Plug-in STELLA” EV in Japan”. Fuji Heavy
54. www.zipcar.com Industries Ltd, press release. June 4, 2009. http://www.think.no/
55. 2009 Deloitte Internal Automotive Survey (U.S. and India) think/TH!NK-city
conducted by Deloitte Consulting LLP. Survey of 991 U.S.-based 82. “Alternative Fuels - Lessons from Brazilia” NewCarBuyingGuide.
Deloitte U.S. employees and 2,174 India-based Deloitte U.S. Com
employees. March 2009. 83. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate
56. http://www.autokiste.de/psg/0903/7847.htm, Fahrzeugbestand Strategy, Ford Motor Company, August 4, 2009.
2009. 84. International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. 2009. http://
57. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, p. 13. June 22, 2009. www.iangv.org/tools-resources/statistics.html
58. Automobilwoche. June 30, 2009. 85. “Ethanol Flex Light Vehicles Manufacturing in Brazil. 2003 -
59. VCO, “Welche Potenziale Elektromobilität wirklich hat”. 2009. 2009”. Table from “Flexible-fuel vehicle”. Wikipedia. http://
60. SZ, “Elektroautos von Renault kommen 2011“. June 29, 2009. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flexible-fuel_vehicle
Stern, “Hoffnungsträger unter Hochspannung”. June 30, 2009. 86. “Elektronik im Automobil – Segen oder Fluch ?”. Prof. Dr.
61. “Zeit ist reif für E-Mobilität“. TÜV Süd. March 27, 2009. Reinhard Reimann, Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg
62. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. June 22, 2009. Mosbach March 21, 2007.
63. “How Volt’s cost rose and rose and rose ….”, Automotive News, 87. Mikroelektronik-Trendanalyse des Fachverbandes Electronic
August 3, 2009. Components & Systems im Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und
64. Die Welt, “Renault bringt den Kangoo mit Elektroantrieb“, Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), 2008.
July 1, 2009. 88. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate
65. Focus Elektroantrieb spielt erst 2020 eine Rolle“, June 16, 2009. Strategy, Ford Motor Company, August 4, 2009.
66. betterplace.com 89. 2009 People Management Practices Survey in the
67. Deloitte Interview with senior executive at FAW-VW, August Manufacturing Industry, conducted jointly by Deloitte Consulting
2009. (United States), the Manufacturing Institute, and Oracle.
68. “Obama schiebt Öko-Autos an”. FTD.de. June 24, 2009. 90. “Higher Education Bachelor's Degrees Conferred per 1,000
69. ”Elektroauto mit Subventionsantrieb”. FTD.de. July 1, 2009. Individuals 18–24 Years Old: 2005”. National Science Board.
70. German motor vehicle tax law §3d. January 2008. “Higher Education Bachelor's Degrees in Natural
71. Deloitte interview with Dr. Jerome Guillen, Director, Business Sciences and Engineering Conferred per 1,000 Individuals 18–24
Innovation, Daimler AG and Dr. Frank Spennermann, Senior Years Old: 2005”. National Science Board. January 2008.
Manager, Business Innovation, Daimler AG. July 24, 2009. 91. “Managing The Talent Crisis In Global Manufacturing”. Deloitte
72. “Vancouver gives boost to electric cars”. The Globe and Research. June 2007. The Manufacturing Institute;
Mail. July 12, 2009.http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/ June 9, 2009.
national/british-columbia/vancouver-gives-boost-toelectriccars/ 92. “Editorial: Rethinking science and math education”. Dallas
article1215643/ Morning News. December 14, 2008.
73. “Convergence in the Automotive Industry“ p. 11. Deloitte 93. Deloitte interview with Ajay Seth, CFO at Maruti Suzuki
(Germany). June 2009. July 13, 2009.
74. With the current U.S. electric grid, a plug-in hybrid would realize 94. Deloitte interview with a senior executive at VW China.
a carbon footprint of approximately 110 g CO2 / km; Well-To- August 2009.
Wheels Emissions Data For Plug-In Hybrids And Electric Vehicles, 95. Ibid.
Sherry Boschert, 2006. 96. Deloitte interview with Matt O’Leary, Director, Corporate
75. “Gasoline prices around the world in late June”. Reuters. Strategy, Ford Motor Company. August 4, 2009.
July 1, 2009. 97. “Managing the Talent Crisis in Global Manufacturing”. Deloitte
76. Deloitte interview with a senior executive at Hyundai China. Research. June 2007.
August 2009. 98. Deloitte interview with RC Bhargava, Chairman, Maruti Suzuki
77. “Electricity Generation by Fuel”. International Energy Agency. India July 8, 2009.
2006. 99. ”Managing The Talent Crisis In Global Manufacturing”. Deloitte
78. “China Vies to Be World’s Leader in Electric Cars”. New York Research. June 2007.
Times. April 1, 2009. 100. Deloitte interview with senior executive at Hyundai China,
79. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, p. 13, June 22, 2009. August 2009
80. Deloitte interview with a senior executive at BMW China.
81. Various sources: “Toyota to Sell Tiny U.S. ‘Urban Commuter’
Battery Car by 2012”. Bloomberg. January 1, 2009. “Electro-
Mobility: the powertrain of tomorrow? www.volkswagenag.
de. June 2009. www.teslamotors.com. “Tesla Chairman Says
His Company, Daimler to Launch Two Affordable EVs Soon; He
Also Says Next-Generation Roadster Will Have Four Seats and
Optional AWD”. The Green Car Advisor. Edmuns.com.
June 2, 2009. “Nissan unveils "leaf" - the world's ﬁrst electric car
designed for affordability and real-world requirements”. Nissan
web site. August 2, 2009. “Revealed: 2011 Nissan Leaf Electric
Car”. Edmunds.com. August 1, 2009. “Renault bringt den
Kangoo mit Elektroantrieb”. Welt Online. July 1, 2009.
“Ford's ready-made electric car”. CNN Money. March 20, 2009.
A new era Accelerating toward 2020 — an automotive industry transformed 29