General guidelines for discrete trial teachingDocument Transcript
General Guidelines for Discrete-Trial TrainingBefore Beginning the Session:• Before entering the booth, gather the materials needed to conduct your sessions (i.e., pencil, reinforcer bin, procedure book, PECS book, etc.).• Each time you enter the booth, read the procedures carefully. Be familiar with the procedures to be implemented. Ask for help if you are unsure what to do.• Check your childs schedule in the front of his/her procedure book. Follow the schedule as closely as possible.• Before you start any procedures, check the data from previous sessions (It is important! Always check phase changes, red dots, and maintenance status before you do a procedure!) o Phase changes: If the child’s performance is at or above 80% or greater for 3 consecutive sessions OR at or above 90% for 2 consecutive sessions, inform your TA that you need a phase change. Coded sessions do not affect phase change criteria, act as if they do not exist. o Blowing the whistle/Red Dot: If your child has had five consecutive sessions at or below 50% on a procedure OR if there has been no phase change for 20 consecutive sessions, inform your TA by placing a check mark and the date in the appropriate columns on the chart outside your booth. This is called “blowing the whistle” and is very important for your childs continuous progress. After you mark the book and folder, the TA will modify the procedure for you.During the session:A trial is: The occasion for a response, the response and the outcome of thatresponse.Presenting the SD (discriminative stimulus):• Deliver SD in a neutral tone and make sure the child is attending.• Only give the SD once.Recording data:• Use a pencil only.• Write as neatly as possible.• Always put the date and your initials, and record your percentages.• Record each response immediately after each trial. Do not wait for the end of the session.Coding Data:• If a scheduled procedure is not implemented for any reason, enter a code into the data sheet (e.g., SA for “student/child absent”, etc.). For instance, if a procedure is scheduled twice per day and you only completed it once, you must record a code for the missed procedure.• If you are not able to complete all 10 trials of a procedure, mark a code indicating the reason you did not complete the procedure. Have your TA initial after coded sessions on the data sheet. If you do not get codes signed, you will lose
professionalism points.• Please ask your TA or his/her assistants for signing codes and phase changes. The classroom teacher and the classroom coordinators are not responsible for doing it.• Do not use the margins for keeping data; ask for a new data sheet from your TA.• We have specific codes for various reasons for not completing a procedure. Talk to your TA if you need something coded.Delivering the Reinforcer:• If the child responds correctly, immediately deliver the reinforcer as written in the procedure. For instance, the reinforcer should be in your hand or easily accessible, so you can immediately give it to the child.• Be enthusiastic when delivering the reinforcer!• Vary the reinforcers within a session (i.e. socials, toys, etc.).• Be mindful of what reinforcers are working well and which ones are not. This can change daily or even in the course of a procedure.• If using a toy, play with your child in some unique fashion; just don’t give the toy to the child. For example if using a car for a reinforcer, make car sounds and run it across his or her arm.• Remember to have fun with your child!Delivering the Correction:• Anything other than the correct response is incorrect, even if it is not specifically listed in the “incorrect” column for that phase. If the child responds incorrectly, immediately implement the correction procedure as written.• Use the hierarchy of prompts, from the least to the most intrusive. That is, you should use a gestural prompt (i.e., point to the correct stimulus), then if necessary use a partial and then a full physical prompt.• Use a neutral tone of voice. There must be a large difference in your tone when reinforcing a correct response and correcting an incorrect response.• Only consider the child’s first response. For example, you say, “Touch your nose,” and the child touches his/her mouth and then his/her nose. This response is still recorded as incorrect. If you reinforce the second response you are reinforcing the whole chain of behaviors (touching mouth, then nose).• It is never acceptable to “grab on” to your student’s hands, arms, or legs and move them through every motion. This is not prompting and the child is not learning.Preference Assessments:• Before every procedure you should conduct a “preference assessment”. This involves showing two reinforcers to the child and asking “Which one?” When the child reaches for one of the reinforcers, say “Let’s play/work for it” and put it out of the child’s reach.• Sometimes it may be necessary to conduct preference assessments during procedures if your child is no longer motivated to work for the reinforcer chosen at the beginning of the procedure.
Reinforcement between trials and outside of the booth:• You must reinforce your child’s other appropriate behavior in between trials and outside of the booth during transition, snack, music, etc.• You are required to reinforce all appropriate behavior both inside and outside of the booth.Always remember:• Speak in a clear and concise way when you instruct or praise the children. Unnecessary talking and long sentences will confuse them.At the end of your shift:• If you are done early you can do Extra Learning Opportunities (see Extra Learning Opportunities section). If you have some incomplete procedures you should complete them before doing any Extra Learning Opportunities.• Initial and date any mastered or whistle blown (red dotted) procedures on the booth chart• Remember to have all codes and phase changes signed before leaving WoodsEdge each day.