Discrete trial workshow
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  • 1. So you’re about to start working with some of the most precious children you’ll ever come into contact with….. Click here to advance to the NEXT slide!!
  • 2. … .and you have a tremendous opportunity to use behavior analysis to improve a young person’s life…..
  • 3. … .with discrete trial procedures being the tool for this gratifying success…..
  • 4. … .so let’s learn how to properly administer discrete trials and really make a difference!!
  • 5. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence
  • 6. The Building Blocks Reinforcer: Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response.
  • 7. The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Note: All non-verbal behavior is controlled by direct-acting consequences.
  • 8. The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal, hence only controlled by direct-acting consequences!
  • 9. The Building Blocks Indirect-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal , hence are not controlled by indirect-acting consequences!
  • 10. The Building Blocks Stimulus: Something that can or may cause a response.
  • 11. The Building Blocks Prompt: A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
  • 12. The Building Blocks Discriminative Stimulus (S D ): A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  • 13. The Building Blocks Reinforcement: The immediate, response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.
  • 14. The Building Blocks Hierarchy of Prompts: The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response.
  • 15. The Building Blocks Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly within 3 seconds, then go on to the next prompt. The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:
  • 16. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly then go on to the next prompt.
  • 17. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly then go on to the next prompt.
  • 18. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) Full Physical Prompt (i.e. guide child to respond)
  • 19. The Building Blocks Note: You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  • 20. The Building Blocks Discrete Trial: The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  • 21. The Building Blocks Behavior Analysis: The study of the operation of the principles of behavior with both human beings and other animals.
  • 22. Activity #1 You do not need to write these answers down, but remember to complete the homework before class Given a definition or a related question, select the term that best matches the given definition or question.
  • 23.
    • A supplemental stimulus
    • that raises the probability
    • of a correct response.
    • Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Prompt D. Discrete trial
    #1
  • 24.
    • A supplemental stimulus
    • that raises the probability
    • of a correct response.
    • Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Prompt D. Discrete trial
    Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  • 25.
    • A supplemental stimulus
    • that raises the probability
    • of a correct response.
    • Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Prompt D. Discrete trial
    Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  • 26.
    • A supplemental stimulus
    • that raises the probability
    • of a correct response.
    • Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Prompt D. Discrete trial
    Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  • 27.
    • A supplemental stimulus
    • that raises the probability
    • of a correct response.
    • Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Prompt D. Discrete trial
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 28.
    • Any outcome that follows a response
    • by more than 60-seconds.
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence
    • Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence
    #2
  • 29.
    • Any outcome that follows a response
    • by more than 60-seconds.
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence
    • Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence
    Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  • 30.
    • Any outcome that follows a response
    • by more than 60-seconds.
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence
    • Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence
    Sorry… Remember a Stimulus is something that can or may cause a response. Back to the question!
  • 31.
    • Any outcome that follows a response
    • by more than 60-seconds.
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence
    • Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence
    Sorry… Remember a Direct-acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Back to the question!
  • 32.
    • Any outcome that follows a response
    • by more than 60-seconds.
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence
    • Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 33.
    • The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond
    • or immediately after the child makes
    • an incorrect response.
    • Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts
    #3
  • 34.
    • The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond
    • or immediately after the child makes
    • an incorrect response.
    • Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts
    Sorry… Remember that Reinforcement is the immediate, response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  • 35.
    • The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond
    • or immediately after the child makes
    • an incorrect response.
    • Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts
    Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  • 36.
    • The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond
    • or immediately after the child makes
    • an incorrect response.
    • Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts
    Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  • 37.
    • The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond
    • or immediately after the child makes
    • an incorrect response.
    • Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 38.
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    • Discrete trial C. Prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence
    #4
  • 39.
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    • Discrete trial C. Prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence
    Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  • 40.
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    • Discrete trial C. Prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence
    Sorry… Remember a Prompt is a supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. Back to the question!
  • 41.
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    • Discrete trial C. Prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence
    Sorry… Remember an Indirect-acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Back to the question!
  • 42.
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    • Discrete trial C. Prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 43.
    • Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?
    • Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
    • Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt
    #5
  • 44.
    • Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?
    • Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
    • Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt
    Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  • 45.
    • Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?
    • Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
    • Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt
    Sorry… that’s the first prompt on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  • 46.
    • Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?
    • Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
    • Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt
    Sorry… that’s #3 on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  • 47.
    • Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?
    • Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
    • Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 48.
    • Susie, a practicum student
    • at WoodsEdge Learning Center, states the instructions
    • to the child as they are written
    • in the child’s procedures.
    • These instructions
    • signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced
    • or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________.
    • Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial
    #6
  • 49.
    • Susie, a practicum student
    • at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
    • to the child as they are written
    • in the child’s procedures.
    • These instructions
    • signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced
    • or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________.
    • Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial
    Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  • 50.
    • Susie, a practicum student
    • at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
    • to the child as they are written
    • in the child’s procedures.
    • These instructions
    • signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced
    • or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________.
    • Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial
    Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts. This consists of motioning or gesturing to the correct response Back to the question!
  • 51.
    • Susie, a practicum student
    • at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
    • to the child as they are written
    • in the child’s procedures.
    • These instructions
    • signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced
    • or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________.
    • Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial
    Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response, the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  • 52.
    • Susie, a practicum student
    • at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
    • to the child as they are written
    • in the child’s procedures.
    • These instructions
    • signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced
    • or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________.
    • Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial
    Right On!!! A Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. (e.g. the instructions in the procedures book) On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 53. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn more about discrete trials….
  • 54. Discrete Trial
    • Review definition:
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
  • 55. Discrete Trial
    • Review definition:
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    Now that we’ve got the definition down, let’s look at each of the 3 parts that make up a discrete trial ….
  • 56. Discrete Trial
    • The S D : The occasion for a response
    • These are the instructions
    • given by the practicum student
    • to the child
  • 57. Discrete Trial
    • The S D : The occasion for a response
    Example!! “ Johnny, play with the car.”
  • 58. Discrete Trial
    • The response
    • This is the behavior that occurs after the S D (the instruction) is delivered
  • 59. Discrete Trial
    • The response
    • Johnny plays with the car.
    Example!!
  • 60. Discrete Trial
    • The outcome of that response
    • This is the result (e.g. reinforcement, correction) that follows the response
  • 61. Discrete Trial
    • The outcome of that response
    Example!! “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!”
  • 62. Discrete Trial Now let’s put all 3 parts together!
  • 63. Discrete Trial Example!! The S D : The response: The consequence: “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!” “ Johnny, play with the car.” Johnny plays with the car.
  • 64. Activity #2 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the correct name of the highlighted part of the trial being described.
  • 65.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head .
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Consequence
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    #7
  • 66.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head .
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Consequence
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing the phone” Back to the question!
  • 67.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head .
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Consequence
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Sorry… The S D consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  • 68.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head .
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Consequence
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Right On!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  • 69.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
    • The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy.
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Consequence
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    #8
  • 70.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
    • The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy.
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Consequence
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (S D ) “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  • 71.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
    • The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy.
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Consequence
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Sorry… The S D consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  • 72.
    • After Johnny is given the instructions
    • “ Johnny, use the phone”,
    • he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
    • The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy.
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Consequence
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    Right On!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  • 73.
    • The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure:
    • “ Johnny, where’s your shirt?”
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Consequence
    #9
  • 74.
    • The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure:
    • “ Johnny, where’s your shirt?”
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Consequence
    Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (S D ) “Johnny, where’s your shirt” Back to the question!
  • 75.
    • The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure:
    • “ Johnny, where’s your shirt?”
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Consequence
    Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing his shirt” Back to the question!
  • 76.
    • The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure:
    • “ Johnny, where’s your shirt?”
    • Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above?
    • Response
    • Discriminative stimulus (S D )
    • Consequence
    Right On!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 77. Activity #3 Given a description of a series of events, select whether those events constitute a discrete trial .
  • 78.
    • Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    #10
  • 79.
    • Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    Sorry… Remember that a discrete trial must have an S D (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.” Back to the question!
  • 80.
    • Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    Right On!!! A discrete trial must have an S D (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.” On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  • 81.
    • Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.”
    • The child then picks up the phone
    • and puts it to her ear.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    #11
  • 82.
    • Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.”
    • The child then picks up the phone
    • and puts it to her ear.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    Sorry… Remember a correct discrete trial contains an S D (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and the immediate outcome. Back to the question!
  • 83.
    • Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.”
    • The child then picks up the phone
    • and puts it to her ear.
    • Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer.
    • Is this a discrete trial?
    • (i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response)
    • Yes
    • No
    Right On!!! This example DOES contain an S D (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and an immediate outcome. On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 84. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn how to discriminate a correct discrete trial from an incorrect discrete trial…
  • 85. Discrete Trial
    • Review definition:
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
  • 86. Discrete Trial
    • Review definition:
    • The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),
    • the response,
    • and the outcome of that response.
    So what makes a discrete trial correct or incorrect??
  • 87. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  • 88. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
    • (i.e. Make sure your child
    • actually likes the reinforcer
    • you’re using, BEFORE you start
    • the procedure)
    #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  • 89. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
    • (i.e. Make sure your child
    • actually likes the reinforcer
    • you’re using, BEFORE you start
    • the procedure)
    #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. HINT!! You can do this by placing 2 or 3 of the child’s reinforcers (toys/edibles) on the table and seeing which one he/she grabs first
  • 90. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Complete the next two steps PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D ) to the child…
  • 91. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  • 92. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. HINT!! You can get most of the children to do this by saying “Quiet Hands”.
  • 93. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  • 94. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now that you have a TRUE reinforcer and the child’s FULL attention...
  • 95. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial … .let’s learn the steps to correctly deliver the instructions (S D ) !!
  • 96. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) exactly as it is written in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts.
  • 97. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  • 98. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. In other words: without smiling, laughing, or anything else that may be reinforcing to the child.
  • 99. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. … smiling, laughing, “excited” tones, etc. should be used as reinforcing consequences and paired with praise.
  • 100. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. So, let’s see an S D delivered INCORRECTLY (i.e. without a neutral tone of voice)
  • 101. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  • 102. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the instructions were given with an excited tone while smiling …
  • 103. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose.” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Now let’s see an S D delivered CORRECTLY (i.e. with a neutral tone of voice)…
  • 104. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. “ Susie, touch your nose.”
  • 105. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the S D is delivered with a neutral tone with no reinforcing facial expressions (e.g. smiling, laughing)
  • 106. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now what do you do once the child makes a response to your instructions (S D )??
  • 107. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures).
  • 108. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). Remember!! Use the Hierarchy of Prompts for all incorrect behaviors…
  • 109. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). … and DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  • 110. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response.
  • 111. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Let’s review all of the steps once again…
  • 112. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  • 113. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  • 114. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  • 115. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) exactly as it is instructed in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts.
  • 116. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  • 117. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures).
  • 118. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response.
  • 119. Activity #4 Given a description of TWO discrete trials, select which trial was administered correctly
  • 120.
    • #1:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey who is facing the wall.
    • Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response.
    • Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy.
    • #2:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey.
    • Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response.
    • Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    #12
  • 121.
    • #1:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey.
    • Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response.
    • Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy.
    • #2:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey.
    • Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response.
    • Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    Sorry… remember the rules about WHEN to deliver the S D . Back to the question!
  • 122.
    • #1:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey.
    • Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response.
    • Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy.
    • #2:
    • Chris states the S D to little Audrey.
    • Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response.
    • Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    That’s right!!! The child is looking at the technician prior to the delivery of the S D . Click here for the next question
  • 123.
    • #1:
    • Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • #2:
    • Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    #13
  • 124.
    • #1:
    • Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • #2:
    • Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    Sorry… let’s review. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. Back to the question!
  • 125.
    • #1:
    • Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • #2:
    • Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student.
    • Which discrete trial was administered correctly ?
    • #1
    • #2
    That’s right!! The technician should NOT deliver the S D while the child is manipulating the object used in the procedure. On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 126. Activity #5 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly
  • 127.
    • Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
    • her child makes the correct response.
    • She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA
    • that is observing, marks the response as correct,
    • breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin,
    • and gives it to her child as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    #14
  • 128.
    • Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
    • her child makes the correct response.
    • She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA
    • that is observing, marks the response as correct,
    • breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin,
    • and gives it to her child as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    Sorry… Remember Step #7… #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response. Back to the question!
  • 129.
    • Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
    • her child makes the correct response.
    • She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA
    • that is observing, marks the response as correct,
    • breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin,
    • and gives it to her child as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    Right On!!! The reinforcer must be delivered within 1 second of the correct response On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 130. Activity #6 Given a description of a discrete trial, select whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly…
  • 131. Activity #6 cont. … THEN select, from the options given, WHY the trial was correct or incorrect.
  • 132.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy
    • as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    #15
  • 133.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy
    • as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    Sorry… Back to the question!
  • 134.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy
    • as reinforcement
    • for the correct response.
    • Was this a correct discrete trial ?
    • Yes
    • No
    Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  • 135.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite
    • toy as reinforcement for the correct response.
    • Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ?
    • Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt.
    • You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses.
    • The outcome was too delayed.
    • You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer.
    #16
  • 136.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite
    • toy as reinforcement for the correct response.
    • Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ?
    • Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt.
    • You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses.
    • The outcome was too delayed.
    • You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer.
    Sorry… the Hierarchy of Prompts states that you use a verbal prompt first, then a gestural prompt, followed by a partial physical and finally a full physical prompt. Back to the question!
  • 137.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite
    • toy as reinforcement for the correct response.
    • Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ?
    • Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt.
    • You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses.
    • The outcome was too delayed.
    • You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer.
    Sorry…that’s not it. The outcome was delivered immediately after the corrected response. Back to the question!
  • 138.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite
    • toy as reinforcement for the correct response.
    • Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ?
    • Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt.
    • You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses.
    • The outcome was too delayed.
    • You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer.
    Sorry… It’s perfectly fine to use toys as reinforcers (as long as you’ve checked to make sure the child enjoys the toy) Back to the question!
  • 139.
    • Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly
    • as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
    • his child makes an incorrect response .
    • Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child
    • makes the correct response.
    • Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite
    • toy as reinforcement for the correct response.
    • Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ?
    • Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt.
    • You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses.
    • The outcome was too delayed.
    • You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer.
    Right On!!! You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  • 140. NICE JOB!!!
  • 141. You are….
  • 142. ALL DONE!!!