So you’re about to start working with some of the most precious children you’ll ever come into contact with….. Click here ...
… .and you have a tremendous opportunity to use behavior analysis to improve a young person’s life…..
… .with  discrete trial procedures   being the tool for this gratifying success…..
… .so let’s learn how to  properly  administer discrete trials and really make a difference!!
The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative  Stimulus (S D ) Reinforcement Stimulus Ind...
The Building Blocks Reinforcer: Any stimulus, event, or condition whose  presentation  immediately follows a response and ...
The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Note:  All non-v...
The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Remember!!  Most...
The Building Blocks Indirect-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. Remember!!  ...
The Building Blocks Stimulus: Something that can or may cause a response.
The Building Blocks Prompt: A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
The Building Blocks Discriminative Stimulus (S D ): A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be rein...
The Building Blocks Reinforcement: The immediate, response-contingent  presentation  of a reinforcer resulting in an  incr...
The Building Blocks Hierarchy of Prompts: The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to resp...
The Building Blocks Verbal Prompt  (e.g. “water on”) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the...
The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:   Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt  (e.g. point t...
The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:   Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to...
The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:   Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to...
The Building Blocks Note:  You  DO NOT  provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
The Building Blocks Discrete Trial: The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that res...
The Building Blocks Behavior Analysis: The study of the operation of the principles of behavior with both human beings and...
Activity #1 You do not need to write these answers down, but remember to complete the homework before class  Given a defin...
<ul><li>A supplemental stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability  </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. <...
<ul><li>A supplemental stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability  </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. <...
<ul><li>A supplemental stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability  </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. <...
<ul><li>A supplemental stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability  </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. <...
<ul><li>A supplemental stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability  </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. <...
<ul><li>  Any outcome that follows a response  </li></ul><ul><li>by  more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminativ...
<ul><li>  Any outcome that follows a response  </li></ul><ul><li>by  more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminativ...
<ul><li>  Any outcome that follows a response  </li></ul><ul><li>by  more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminativ...
<ul><li>  Any outcome that follows a response  </li></ul><ul><li>by  more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminativ...
<ul><li>  Any outcome that follows a response  </li></ul><ul><li>by  more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminativ...
<ul><li>  The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immedia...
<ul><li>  The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immedia...
<ul><li>  The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immedia...
<ul><li>  The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immedia...
<ul><li>  The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immedia...
<ul><li>  The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD),  </li></ul><ul><li>the response,  </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome o...
<ul><li>  The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><li>the response,  </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome...
<ul><li>  The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><li>the response,  </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome...
<ul><li>  The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><li>the response,  </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome...
<ul><li>  The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><li>the response,  </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome...
<ul><li>  Which of the following is  NOT  one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?  </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prom...
<ul><li>  Which of the following is  NOT  one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?  </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prom...
<ul><li>  Which of the following is  NOT  one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?  </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prom...
<ul><li>  Which of the following is  NOT  one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?  </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prom...
<ul><li>  Which of the following is  NOT  one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts?  </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prom...
<ul><li>  Susie, a practicum student  </li></ul><ul><li>at WoodsEdge Learning Center, states the instructions  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>  Susie, a practicum student  </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>  Susie, a practicum student  </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>  Susie, a practicum student  </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>  Susie, a practicum student  </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions  </li></ul><ul><...
NICE JOB!!!  Now let’s learn more about discrete trials….
Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><l...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><l...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The S D : The occasion for a response </li></ul><ul><li>These are the instructions  </li></ul><ul><...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The S D : The occasion for a response </li></ul>Example!! “ Johnny, play with the car.”
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The response </li></ul><ul><li>This is the behavior that occurs after the S D  (the instruction) is...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The response </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny plays with the car. </li></ul>Example!!
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The outcome of that response </li></ul><ul><li>This is the result (e.g. reinforcement, correction) ...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>The outcome of that response </li></ul>Example!! “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!”
Discrete Trial Now let’s put all  3 parts  together!
Discrete Trial Example!! The S D : The response: The consequence: “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!”  “ Johnny, pl...
Activity #2 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the correct name of the  highlighted  part of the trial being ...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he  grabs...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he  grabs...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he  grabs...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he  grabs...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs ...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs ...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs ...
<ul><li>  After Johnny is given the instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”,  </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs ...
<ul><li>  The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer.  S...
<ul><li>  The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer.  S...
<ul><li>  The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer.  S...
<ul><li>  The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer.  S...
Activity #3 Given a description of a series of events,  select whether those events constitute a  discrete trial .
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediate...
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediate...
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediate...
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child...
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child...
<ul><li>  Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child...
NICE JOB!!!  Now let’s learn how to discriminate a  correct  discrete trial from an  incorrect  discrete trial…
Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><l...
Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ),  </li></ul><ul><l...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1:  Check the presumed  reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial <ul><li>(i.e. Make sure your child  </li></ul><ul><li>actually  likes  the re...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial <ul><li>(i.e. Make sure your child  </li></ul><ul><li>actually  likes  the re...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Complete the next two steps PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D ) to th...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2:  Make sure the child has  stopped manipulating   their preferred reinforc...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2:  Make sure the child has  stopped manipulating   their preferred reinforc...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3:   Make sure the child is  looking at you   or the appropriate stimulus  u...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now that you have a TRUE reinforcer and the child’s FULL attention...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial … .let’s learn the steps to  correctly deliver the instructions (S D ) !!
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  exactly  as it is written in the ch...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  with a  neutral tone  of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  with a  neutral tone  of voice. In ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  with a  neutral tone  of voice. … s...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  with a  neutral tone  of voice. So,...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!”   #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!”   #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose.”   #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a  neutral tone  of voice. “ Su...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!”   #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now what do you do once the child makes a response  to your instructions (...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6:  Reinforce  only  the correct  behavior of the child  (as listed in the p...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6:  Reinforce  only  the correct  behavior of the child  (as listed in the p...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6:  Reinforce  only  the correct  behavior of the child  (as listed in the p...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7:  Deliver the outcome  (either a reinforcer or the proper  correction proc...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Let’s review all of the steps once again…
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1:  Check the presumed  reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2:  Make sure the child has  stopped manipulating   their preferred reinforc...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3:   Make sure the child is  looking at you   or the  appropriate stimulus  ...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  exactly  as it is instructed in the...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5:  Deliver the instructions (the S D )  with a  neutral tone  of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6:  Reinforce  only  the correct  behavior of the child  (as listed in the p...
How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7:  Deliver the outcome  (either a reinforcer or the proper  correction proc...
Activity #4 Given a description of TWO discrete trials, select which trial was administered correctly
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D  to little Audrey who is facing the wall.  </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey tur...
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D  to little Audrey.  </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey turns away from the wall a...
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D  to little Audrey.  </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey turns away from the wall a...
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the st...
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the st...
<ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the st...
Activity #5 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly
<ul><li>  Susie gives her assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her del...
<ul><li>  Susie gives her assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her del...
<ul><li>  Susie gives her assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her del...
Activity #6 Given a description of a discrete trial, select whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly…
Activity #6 cont. … THEN select, from the options given, WHY the trial was correct or incorrect.
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
<ul><li>  Jerry gives his assigned child the S D  exactly  </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunat...
NICE JOB!!!
You are….
ALL DONE!!!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Discrete trial workshow

608

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
608
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Discrete trial workshow

  1. 1. So you’re about to start working with some of the most precious children you’ll ever come into contact with….. Click here to advance to the NEXT slide!!
  2. 2. … .and you have a tremendous opportunity to use behavior analysis to improve a young person’s life…..
  3. 3. … .with discrete trial procedures being the tool for this gratifying success…..
  4. 4. … .so let’s learn how to properly administer discrete trials and really make a difference!!
  5. 5. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence
  6. 6. The Building Blocks Reinforcer: Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response.
  7. 7. The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Note: All non-verbal behavior is controlled by direct-acting consequences.
  8. 8. The Building Blocks Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal, hence only controlled by direct-acting consequences!
  9. 9. The Building Blocks Indirect-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal , hence are not controlled by indirect-acting consequences!
  10. 10. The Building Blocks Stimulus: Something that can or may cause a response.
  11. 11. The Building Blocks Prompt: A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
  12. 12. The Building Blocks Discriminative Stimulus (S D ): A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  13. 13. The Building Blocks Reinforcement: The immediate, response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.
  14. 14. The Building Blocks Hierarchy of Prompts: The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response.
  15. 15. The Building Blocks Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly within 3 seconds, then go on to the next prompt. The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:
  16. 16. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly then go on to the next prompt.
  17. 17. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently … .if the child doesn’t respond correctly then go on to the next prompt.
  18. 18. The Building Blocks The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) Full Physical Prompt (i.e. guide child to respond)
  19. 19. The Building Blocks Note: You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  20. 20. The Building Blocks Discrete Trial: The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  21. 21. The Building Blocks Behavior Analysis: The study of the operation of the principles of behavior with both human beings and other animals.
  22. 22. Activity #1 You do not need to write these answers down, but remember to complete the homework before class Given a definition or a related question, select the term that best matches the given definition or question.
  23. 23. <ul><li>A supplemental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt D. Discrete trial </li></ul>#1
  24. 24. <ul><li>A supplemental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  25. 25. <ul><li>A supplemental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  26. 26. <ul><li>A supplemental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  27. 27. <ul><li>A supplemental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>that raises the probability </li></ul><ul><li>of a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  28. 28. <ul><li> Any outcome that follows a response </li></ul><ul><li>by more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence </li></ul>#2
  29. 29. <ul><li> Any outcome that follows a response </li></ul><ul><li>by more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  30. 30. <ul><li> Any outcome that follows a response </li></ul><ul><li>by more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry… Remember a Stimulus is something that can or may cause a response. Back to the question!
  31. 31. <ul><li> Any outcome that follows a response </li></ul><ul><li>by more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry… Remember a Direct-acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Back to the question!
  32. 32. <ul><li> Any outcome that follows a response </li></ul><ul><li>by more than 60-seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) C. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  33. 33. <ul><li> The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immediately after the child makes </li></ul><ul><li>an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts </li></ul>#3
  34. 34. <ul><li> The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immediately after the child makes </li></ul><ul><li>an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts </li></ul>Sorry… Remember that Reinforcement is the immediate, response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  35. 35. <ul><li> The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immediately after the child makes </li></ul><ul><li>an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  36. 36. <ul><li> The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immediately after the child makes </li></ul><ul><li>an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  37. 37. <ul><li> The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond </li></ul><ul><li>or immediately after the child makes </li></ul><ul><li>an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  38. 38. <ul><li> The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete trial C. Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul>#4
  39. 39. <ul><li> The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete trial C. Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Back to the question!
  40. 40. <ul><li> The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete trial C. Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry… Remember a Prompt is a supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. Back to the question!
  41. 41. <ul><li> The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete trial C. Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul>Sorry… Remember an Indirect-acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Back to the question!
  42. 42. <ul><li> The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete trial C. Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  43. 43. <ul><li> Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt </li></ul>#5
  44. 44. <ul><li> Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt </li></ul>Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  45. 45. <ul><li> Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt </li></ul>Sorry… that’s the first prompt on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  46. 46. <ul><li> Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt </li></ul>Sorry… that’s #3 on the Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question!
  47. 47. <ul><li> Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  48. 48. <ul><li> Susie, a practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>at WoodsEdge Learning Center, states the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>to the child as they are written </li></ul><ul><li>in the child’s procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions </li></ul><ul><li>signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial </li></ul>#6
  49. 49. <ul><li> Susie, a practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>to the child as they are written </li></ul><ul><li>in the child’s procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions </li></ul><ul><li>signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  50. 50. <ul><li> Susie, a practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>to the child as they are written </li></ul><ul><li>in the child’s procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions </li></ul><ul><li>signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts. This consists of motioning or gesturing to the correct response Back to the question!
  51. 51. <ul><li> Susie, a practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>to the child as they are written </li></ul><ul><li>in the child’s procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions </li></ul><ul><li>signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response, the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  52. 52. <ul><li> Susie, a practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>to the child as they are written </li></ul><ul><li>in the child’s procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions </li></ul><ul><li>signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) D. Discrete trial </li></ul>Right On!!! A Discriminative Stimulus (S D ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. (e.g. the instructions in the procedures book) On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  53. 53. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn more about discrete trials….
  54. 54. Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul>Now that we’ve got the definition down, let’s look at each of the 3 parts that make up a discrete trial ….
  56. 56. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The S D : The occasion for a response </li></ul><ul><li>These are the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>given by the practicum student </li></ul><ul><li>to the child </li></ul>
  57. 57. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The S D : The occasion for a response </li></ul>Example!! “ Johnny, play with the car.”
  58. 58. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The response </li></ul><ul><li>This is the behavior that occurs after the S D (the instruction) is delivered </li></ul>
  59. 59. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The response </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny plays with the car. </li></ul>Example!!
  60. 60. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The outcome of that response </li></ul><ul><li>This is the result (e.g. reinforcement, correction) that follows the response </li></ul>
  61. 61. Discrete Trial <ul><li>The outcome of that response </li></ul>Example!! “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!”
  62. 62. Discrete Trial Now let’s put all 3 parts together!
  63. 63. Discrete Trial Example!! The S D : The response: The consequence: “ Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!” “ Johnny, play with the car.” Johnny plays with the car.
  64. 64. Activity #2 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the correct name of the highlighted part of the trial being described.
  65. 65. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head . </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>#7
  66. 66. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head . </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing the phone” Back to the question!
  67. 67. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head . </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Sorry… The S D consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  68. 68. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head . </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Right On!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  69. 69. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. </li></ul><ul><li>The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>#8
  70. 70. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. </li></ul><ul><li>The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (S D ) “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  71. 71. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. </li></ul><ul><li>The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Sorry… The S D consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone” Back to the question!
  72. 72. <ul><li> After Johnny is given the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, use the phone”, </li></ul><ul><li>he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. </li></ul><ul><li>The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul>Right On!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  73. 73. <ul><li> The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, where’s your shirt?” </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul>#9
  74. 74. <ul><li> The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, where’s your shirt?” </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul>Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (S D ) “Johnny, where’s your shirt” Back to the question!
  75. 75. <ul><li> The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, where’s your shirt?” </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul>Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing his shirt” Back to the question!
  76. 76. <ul><li> The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnny, where’s your shirt?” </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus (S D ) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul>Right On!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  77. 77. Activity #3 Given a description of a series of events, select whether those events constitute a discrete trial .
  78. 78. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>#10
  79. 79. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Sorry… Remember that a discrete trial must have an S D (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.” Back to the question!
  80. 80. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Right On!!! A discrete trial must have an S D (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.” On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  81. 81. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child then picks up the phone </li></ul><ul><li>and puts it to her ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>#11
  82. 82. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child then picks up the phone </li></ul><ul><li>and puts it to her ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Sorry… Remember a correct discrete trial contains an S D (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and the immediate outcome. Back to the question!
  83. 83. <ul><li> Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” </li></ul><ul><li>The child then picks up the phone </li></ul><ul><li>and puts it to her ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a discrete trial? </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. does it have an S D , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Right On!!! This example DOES contain an S D (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and an immediate outcome. On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  84. 84. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn how to discriminate a correct discrete trial from an incorrect discrete trial…
  85. 85. Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Discrete Trial <ul><li>Review definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The occasion for a response (i.e. the S D ), </li></ul><ul><li>the response, </li></ul><ul><li>and the outcome of that response. </li></ul>So what makes a discrete trial correct or incorrect??
  87. 87. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  88. 88. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial <ul><li>(i.e. Make sure your child </li></ul><ul><li>actually likes the reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>you’re using, BEFORE you start </li></ul><ul><li>the procedure) </li></ul>#1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  89. 89. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial <ul><li>(i.e. Make sure your child </li></ul><ul><li>actually likes the reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>you’re using, BEFORE you start </li></ul><ul><li>the procedure) </li></ul>#1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. HINT!! You can do this by placing 2 or 3 of the child’s reinforcers (toys/edibles) on the table and seeing which one he/she grabs first
  90. 90. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Complete the next two steps PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D ) to the child…
  91. 91. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  92. 92. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. HINT!! You can get most of the children to do this by saying “Quiet Hands”.
  93. 93. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  94. 94. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now that you have a TRUE reinforcer and the child’s FULL attention...
  95. 95. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial … .let’s learn the steps to correctly deliver the instructions (S D ) !!
  96. 96. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) exactly as it is written in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts.
  97. 97. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  98. 98. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. In other words: without smiling, laughing, or anything else that may be reinforcing to the child.
  99. 99. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. … smiling, laughing, “excited” tones, etc. should be used as reinforcing consequences and paired with praise.
  100. 100. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. So, let’s see an S D delivered INCORRECTLY (i.e. without a neutral tone of voice)
  101. 101. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  102. 102. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the instructions were given with an excited tone while smiling …
  103. 103. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose.” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Now let’s see an S D delivered CORRECTLY (i.e. with a neutral tone of voice)…
  104. 104. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. “ Susie, touch your nose.”
  105. 105. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “ Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the S D is delivered with a neutral tone with no reinforcing facial expressions (e.g. smiling, laughing)
  106. 106. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now what do you do once the child makes a response to your instructions (S D )??
  107. 107. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures).
  108. 108. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). Remember!! Use the Hierarchy of Prompts for all incorrect behaviors…
  109. 109. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). … and DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  110. 110. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response.
  111. 111. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Let’s review all of the steps once again…
  112. 112. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first.
  113. 113. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  114. 114. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure PRIOR to delivering the instructions (S D )…
  115. 115. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #4: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) exactly as it is instructed in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts.
  116. 116. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #5: Deliver the instructions (the S D ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  117. 117. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures).
  118. 118. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response.
  119. 119. Activity #4 Given a description of TWO discrete trials, select which trial was administered correctly
  120. 120. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey who is facing the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>#12
  121. 121. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>Sorry… remember the rules about WHEN to deliver the S D . Back to the question!
  122. 122. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris states the S D to little Audrey. </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. </li></ul><ul><li>Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>That’s right!!! The child is looking at the technician prior to the delivery of the S D . Click here for the next question
  123. 123. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li> Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>#13
  124. 124. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li> Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>Sorry… let’s review. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. Back to the question!
  125. 125. <ul><li>#1: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>#2: </li></ul><ul><li> Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. </li></ul><ul><li>Which discrete trial was administered correctly ? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul>That’s right!! The technician should NOT deliver the S D while the child is manipulating the object used in the procedure. On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  126. 126. Activity #5 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly
  127. 127. <ul><li> Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her delight, </li></ul><ul><li>her child makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA </li></ul><ul><li>that is observing, marks the response as correct, </li></ul><ul><li>breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, </li></ul><ul><li>and gives it to her child as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>#14
  128. 128. <ul><li> Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her delight, </li></ul><ul><li>her child makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA </li></ul><ul><li>that is observing, marks the response as correct, </li></ul><ul><li>breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, </li></ul><ul><li>and gives it to her child as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Sorry… Remember Step #7… #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response. Back to the question!
  129. 129. <ul><li> Susie gives her assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, to her delight, </li></ul><ul><li>her child makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA </li></ul><ul><li>that is observing, marks the response as correct, </li></ul><ul><li>breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, </li></ul><ul><li>and gives it to her child as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Right On!!! The reinforcer must be delivered within 1 second of the correct response On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  130. 130. Activity #6 Given a description of a discrete trial, select whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly…
  131. 131. Activity #6 cont. … THEN select, from the options given, WHY the trial was correct or incorrect.
  132. 132. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy </li></ul><ul><li>as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>#15
  133. 133. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy </li></ul><ul><li>as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Sorry… Back to the question!
  134. 134. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy </li></ul><ul><li>as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a correct discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  135. 135. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite </li></ul><ul><li>toy as reinforcement for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome was too delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. </li></ul>#16
  136. 136. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite </li></ul><ul><li>toy as reinforcement for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome was too delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. </li></ul>Sorry… the Hierarchy of Prompts states that you use a verbal prompt first, then a gestural prompt, followed by a partial physical and finally a full physical prompt. Back to the question!
  137. 137. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite </li></ul><ul><li>toy as reinforcement for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome was too delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. </li></ul>Sorry…that’s not it. The outcome was delivered immediately after the corrected response. Back to the question!
  138. 138. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite </li></ul><ul><li>toy as reinforcement for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome was too delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. </li></ul>Sorry… It’s perfectly fine to use toys as reinforcers (as long as you’ve checked to make sure the child enjoys the toy) Back to the question!
  139. 139. <ul><li> Jerry gives his assigned child the S D exactly </li></ul><ul><li>as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, </li></ul><ul><li>his child makes an incorrect response . </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry repeats the S D and, to his delight, the child </li></ul><ul><li>makes the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite </li></ul><ul><li>toy as reinforcement for the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this an incorrect discrete trial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome was too delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. </li></ul>Right On!!! You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  140. 140. NICE JOB!!!
  141. 141. You are….
  142. 142. ALL DONE!!!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×