EARTH QUAKE ENGINEERING DEFINITION: As a branch of engineering devote to mitigating earthquake hazards. earthquake engineering covers the investigation and solution of the sproblems,created by damaging earthquakes. In planning ,designing ,constructing and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities
EARTHQUAKE Is the result of a sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. That’s makes the ground shake After a while ,the rocks are break ,the earthquake occurs.
ZONES ZONE-5: The highest risks zone that suffers earthquake. The IS code assign zone factor of 0.36 (36% of gravity)for zone-5. It is reffered to as the very high damage risk zone. Himalayas, Punjab, Kashmir fall in this zone.
ZONE-4: The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for zone- 4. Country-Delhi ,Jammu ,Bihar fall in zone-4.
PROBLEMS Construction materials are not quality. In this generation the buildings are taken the time at maximum 5years and to fall on the ground. Because as the engineer was did the carless mistake to construct the building. Do not check the building.
SOLUTIONS Introductory remarks. Importance of construction & maintenance. Need for a comprehensive approach to Earthquake-resistant construction. Importance of conceptual design. Control or decrease of demands.
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Numerical design of structures ,particularly in establishing the design earth-quake shaking and in estimating the demands and predicting the supplies of the real three-dimensional soil-foundation-building system. Thus construction and maintenance, which includes repair, retrofitting and modification , must also be considered in addition to the design aspects.
IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE Design and construction of a structure are intimately related and the achievement of good workmanship depends. To a large degree , on the simplicity of detailing of the members and of their connections and supports.
NEED FOR ACOMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTON To covered by existing seismic code procedures has been discussed by the author in several publicaton. Behavior of the structure –serviceability , damageability , and safety against collapse. Depending on the limit state controlling the design.
IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTUAL DESIGN In any current seismic-resistant design procedure It is necessary to pay more attention to conceptual design. As the avoidance or minimization of problems created by the effects of seismic excitation by applying an understanding of the behavior rather than using numerical computations.
CONTROL OR DECREASE OF DEMANDS The foundation-superstructure system response ,the conceptual idea would be to control the input to the structure foundation. A decrease in demands can be achieved by proper selection of the configuration of the building. Followed by the basic principles or guideline for achieving efficient seismic-resistant construction.