Job analysis in Human Resource Management(HRM)


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Job analysis in Human Resource Management(HRM)

  1. 1. JobAnalysis PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET 1PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  2. 2. ANALYSIS OF WORK- JOB ANALYSIS  In order to achieve effective HRP,  duties involved and  skills required for performing all the jobs in an organization have to be taken care of. This knowledge is gained through analysis of work, popularly known as Job Analysis. 2PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  3. 3. JOB  A job is a bundle of related works  A synonym for job is work. Work is understood as physical and mental activity that is carried out at a particular place and time according to instructions in return for money 3PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  5. 5. Psychological Dimensions of work- Concerned with managerial problems @ Individual level Job satisfaction motivation perception attitudes learning 5PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  6. 6. Sociological Dimensions of work- Concerned with contextual and Structural factors affecting people’s experience of work Group dynamics Division of labor Power and politics communication leadership 6PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  7. 7. JOB ANALYSIS  JOB ANALYSIS refers to the process of collecting information about a job  It involves collection of information that should include Knowledge Skill Ability 7PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  9. 9. Knowledge, skills and abilities  Knowledge should be understood as the extent to which the job holder is familiar with his/her job  Skill refers to the specific capability to operate machine/system. This also includes information about tools, equipment and machinery.  Abilities refer to the physical and mental capacity needed to perform tasks. 9PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  10. 10. The process of job Analysis results in two sets of data JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION 10PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  11. 11.  a) Job description where the details regarding the job are given.  b) Job specification where we explain the qualities required by people applying for the job. 11PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  12. 12. Job description means what all a job involves Job Description Tasks & Responsibilities Tools and equipments Machines Duties Working conditions and hazards Job Title 12PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  13. 13. Job Specification means- the capabilities that a job holder should possess Job Specification EDUCATION COMMUNICATION SKILLS JUDGEMENTTRAINING EXPERIENCE 13PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  15. 15. Job analysis  Job analysis is useful for overall management of all personal activities  Job related data obtained from job analysis are useful in HRP, employee hiring and other functional, operational and managerial functions. 15PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  16. 16. Purpose of Job Analysis  Job analysis helps the organization to make suitable changes in the organizational structure, so that it matches the needs and requirements of the organization.  Duties are either added or deleted from the job 16PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  17. 17.  Fig 5:3 17PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  18. 18. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING  HRP determines  how many and  what type of personal will be needed in future.  The number and type of personnel are determined by the jobs that which need to be staffed.  Job related information is there fore necessary for HRP 18PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  19. 19. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION  Job analysis helps the HR manager  to locate places to obtain employees for openings anticipated in future.  An understanding of the  type of skills needed and  types of job that may arise in future enables managers to have a better continuity and planning in staffing their organisation. 19PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  20. 20. Contd:-  Similarly, selecting a qualified person to fill a job requires  knowing clearly the work to be done and  the qualifications needed for some one who can perform the task satisfactorily  Without a clear and precise understanding of what a job entails, the HR manager cannot effectively select some one to do the job. 20PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  21. 21. Cont:-  The objective of employee hiring is to  match right people with right jobs.  This objective is too difficult to achieve  without having adequate job information. 21PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  22. 22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  Job analysis is useful for an HR manager as it helps to know  what exactly the job demands in terms of knowledge and skills.  Training and development programs can be designed depending on the job requirements.  Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job analysis 22PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  23. 23. Training and Development  Based on the job requirements identified in the job analysis, the company decides a training program.  Training is given in those areas which will help to improve the performance on the job.  Similarly when appraisal is conducted we check whether the employee is able to work in a manner in which we require him to do the job. 23PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  24. 24. JOB EVALUATION  Job evaluation involves determination  of relative worth of each job for the purpose of establishing wages and salary differentials.  Relative worth is determined by job description and job specification 24PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  25. 25. Job Evaluation  Job evaluation refers to studying in detail the job performance by all individual.  The difficulty levels, skills required and on that basis the salary is fixed.  Information regarding  qualities required,  skilled levels,  difficulty levels are obtained from job analysis 25PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  26. 26. REMUNERATION  Job evaluation helps to determine  wage and salary grades of jobs which they occupy.  Remuneration also involves fringe benefits, bonus and other benefits.  Clearly remuneration must be based on relative worth of each job.  Ignoring this basic principle will result in inequitable compensation. 26PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  27. 27. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  Appraisal involves assessment of actual performance of an employee against  what is expected from them.  Such assessment is the basis for  awarding promotions, effecting transfers or assessing training needs.  Job analysis facilitates performance appraisal as it helps to  fix standards for performance in relation to the actual performance of an employee is compared and assessed. 27PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  28. 28. Performance Appraisal  Promotions and transfer :-  When we give a promotion to an employee we need to promote him on the basis  of the skill and talent required for the future job.  Similarly when we transfer an employee to another branch  the job must be very similar to what he has done before.  To take these decisions we collect information from job analysis. 28PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  29. 29. PERSONAL INFORMATION  Organizations generally maintains computerized personal data base. Such information is useful as it helps:-  Improve administrative efficiency  Provide decision support  Job analysis is vital in building such Information systems. 29PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  30. 30. SAFETY AND HEALTH Job analysis gives excellent opportunity to reveal and identify hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors. 30PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  31. 31. Health and safety :-  Most companies prepare their own health and safety, plans and programs based on job analysis.  From the job analysis company identifies the risk factor on the job and based on the risk factor safety equipments are provided. 31PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  32. 32. Acceptance of job offer :-  When a person is given an offer/appointment letter the duties to be performed by him are clearly mentioned in it  This information is collected from job analysis, which is why job analysis becomes important. 32PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  33. 33. Career path planning :-  Many companies have not taken up career planning for their employees. This is done to prevent the employee from leaving the company. When we plan the future career of the employee, information will be collected from job analysis. Hence job analysis becomes important or advantageous.  7. Labour relations :-  When companies plan to add extra duties or delete certain duties from a job, they require the help of job analysis, when this activity is systematically done using job analysis the number of problems with union members reduce and labour relations improve. 33PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  34. 34. JOB DESIGN  Job design involves conscious efforts to  organize tasks,  duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives.  the relationships between the job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues.  In movies actors are to be given roles according to their personality, likewise the same applies to the corporate world. 34PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  35. 35. If there is no proper Job Design  If the jobs are designed properly, then highly efficient managers will join the organisation.  They will be motivated to improve the productivity and profitability of the organisation.  However, if the jobs are designed badly, then it will result in absenteeism, conflicts, and other labour problems. 35PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  36. 36. JOB DESIGN- What else  Job Design is the process of putting together various elements to form a job, bearing in mind  organizational and individual worker requirements  considerations of health, safety, and  ergonomics. 36PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  37. 37. Job design is the process of:- Deciding the contents of the job. Deciding methods to carry out the job. Deciding the relationship which exists in the organization.  Job analysis helps to  develop job design and  job design matches the requirements of the job with the human qualities required to do the job. 37PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  38. 38. Factors affecting JOB DESIGN  FIG 5.5 38PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  39. 39. 1. ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS Organizational factors Characteristics of task Work practices Ergonomics Work flow 39PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  40. 40. CHARECTERISTICS OF TASK  Assembling number of task into a job  Task characteristics refer to features of the job that is depending on  the type of job and  the duties involved in it  In case the company is not in a position to appoint many people, a single job may have many duties and vice versa. 40PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  41. 41. Work Practices and Work Flow  The process or flow of work in the organization :-  There is a certain order in which jobs are performed in the company.  Every organization has different work practices.  Although the job may be the same the method of doing the job differs from company to company. This is called work practice and it affects job design. 41PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  42. 42.  How to Plan & OrganizeWorkflow in Hotels _ eHow.pdf 42PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  43. 43. ERGONOMICS  Concerned with designing and shaping jobs to fit the physical abilities and characteristics of individuals so that they can perform their jobs effectively.  It helps employers to design jobs so that workers' physical ability and job demands are balanced.  It will not alter the nature of job tasks but the location of the tools and facilities keeping in mind handling of the job is the primary consideration. 43PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  44. 44. 44PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  45. 45. 2.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS a) EmployeeAbilities and Availability b) Social and cultural Expectations 45PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  46. 46. Employee availability and ability  Certain countries face the problem of lack of skilled labour.  They are not able to get employees with specific education levels for jobs and have to depend on other labour markets due to this job design gets affected. 46PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  47. 47. Social and cultural expectations :-  The social and cultural conditions of every country is different  For example:- when an MNC appoints an Indian it has to take into account of his festivals, auspicious time, inauspicious time, etc. to suit the Indian conditions.  This applies to every country and therefore job design will change accordingly. 47PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  48. 48. 3. BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS  Job design is affected by behavioural factors also.These factors are a) Feedback :- Job design is normally prepared on the basis of job analysis and job analysis requires employee feedback based on this employee feedback all other activities take place. Many employees are however not interested in providing a true feedback because of fear and insecurity.This in turn affects job design. 48PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET
  49. 49.  b)Autonomy :- Every worker desires a certain level of freedom to his job effectively. This is called autonomy. Thus when we prepare a job design we must see to it that certain amount of autonomy is provided to the worker so that he carries his job effectively.  c)Variety :- When the same job is repeated again and again it leads to burden and monotony. This leads to lack of interest and carelessness on the job. Therefore, while preparing job design certain amount of variety must be provided to keep the person interested in the job. 49PREJI.M.P, MTA, UGC-NET