ANALYSIS OF WORK- JOB ANALYSIS
In order to achieve effective HRP,
duties involved and
for performing all the jobs in an organization have
to be taken care of.
This knowledge is gained through analysis of
work, popularly known as Job Analysis.
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A job is a bundle of related works
A synonym for job is work. Work is
understood as physical and mental activity
that is carried out at a particular place and
time according to instructions in return for
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Sociological Dimensions of work- Concerned with
contextual and Structural factors affecting
people’s experience of work
Division of labor
Power and politics
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JOB ANALYSIS refers to the process of
collecting information about a job
It involves collection of information that
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JOB ANALYSIS AS A PROCESS
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Knowledge, skills and
Knowledge should be understood as the
extent to which the job holder is familiar with
Skill refers to the specific capability to
operate machine/system. This also includes
information about tools, equipment and
Abilities refer to the physical and mental
capacity needed to perform tasks.
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The process of job Analysis
results in two sets of data
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a) Job description
where the details regarding the job are given.
b) Job specification
where we explain the qualities required by
people applying for the job.
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Job description means what all a job
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Job Specification means- the capabilities
that a job holder should possess
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Job analysis is useful for overall management
of all personal activities
Job related data obtained from job analysis
are useful in HRP, employee hiring and other
functional, operational and managerial
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Purpose of Job Analysis
Job analysis helps the organization to make
suitable changes in the organizational
structure, so that it matches the needs and
requirements of the organization.
Duties are either added or deleted from the
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HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
how many and
what type of personal will be needed in future.
The number and type of personnel are
determined by the jobs that which need to
Job related information is there fore
necessary for HRP
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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Job analysis helps the HR manager
to locate places to obtain employees for openings
anticipated in future.
An understanding of the
type of skills needed and
types of job that may arise in future enables
managers to have a better continuity and
planning in staffing their organisation.
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Similarly, selecting a qualified person to fill a
knowing clearly the work to be done and
the qualifications needed for some one who can
perform the task satisfactorily
Without a clear and precise understanding of
what a job entails, the HR manager cannot
effectively select some one to do the job.
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The objective of employee hiring is to
match right people with right jobs.
This objective is too difficult to achieve
without having adequate job information.
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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Job analysis is useful for an HR manager as it
helps to know
what exactly the job demands in terms of
knowledge and skills.
Training and development programs can be
designed depending on the job requirements.
Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job
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Training and Development
Based on the job requirements identified in
the job analysis, the company decides a
Training is given in those areas which will help
to improve the performance on the job.
Similarly when appraisal is conducted we
check whether the employee is able to work
in a manner in which we require him to do the
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Job evaluation involves determination
of relative worth of each job for the purpose of
establishing wages and salary differentials.
Relative worth is determined by job
description and job specification
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Job evaluation refers to studying in detail the
job performance by all individual.
The difficulty levels, skills required and on
that basis the salary is fixed.
difficulty levels are obtained from job analysis
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Job evaluation helps to determine
wage and salary grades of jobs which they occupy.
Remuneration also involves fringe benefits, bonus
and other benefits.
Clearly remuneration must be based on
relative worth of each job.
Ignoring this basic principle will result in
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Appraisal involves assessment of actual
performance of an employee against
what is expected from them.
Such assessment is the basis for
awarding promotions, effecting transfers or assessing
Job analysis facilitates performance appraisal as
it helps to
fix standards for performance in relation to the actual
performance of an employee is compared and
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Promotions and transfer :-
When we give a promotion to an employee
we need to promote him on the basis
of the skill and talent required for the future job.
Similarly when we transfer an employee to
the job must be very similar to what he has done
To take these decisions we collect
information from job analysis.
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Organizations generally maintains
computerized personal data base. Such
information is useful as it helps:-
Improve administrative efficiency
Provide decision support
Job analysis is vital in building such
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SAFETY AND HEALTH
Job analysis gives excellent opportunity to
reveal and identify hazardous conditions and
unhealthy environmental factors.
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Health and safety :-
Most companies prepare their own health
and safety, plans and programs based on job
From the job analysis company identifies the
risk factor on the job and based on the risk
factor safety equipments are provided.
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Acceptance of job offer :-
When a person is given an offer/appointment
letter the duties to be performed by him are
clearly mentioned in it
This information is collected from job
analysis, which is why job analysis becomes
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Career path planning :-
Many companies have not taken up career planning
for their employees. This is done to prevent the
employee from leaving the company. When we plan
the future career of the employee, information will
be collected from job analysis. Hence job analysis
becomes important or advantageous.
7. Labour relations :-
When companies plan to add extra duties or delete
certain duties from a job, they require the help of job
analysis, when this activity is systematically done
using job analysis the number of problems with
union members reduce and labour relations
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Job design involves conscious efforts to
duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to
achieve certain objectives.
the relationships between the job holder and his
superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
In movies actors are to be given roles
according to their personality, likewise the
same applies to the corporate world.
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If there is no proper Job
If the jobs are designed properly, then highly
efficient managers will join the organisation.
They will be motivated to improve the
productivity and profitability of the
However, if the jobs are designed badly, then
it will result in absenteeism, conflicts, and
other labour problems.
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JOB DESIGN- What else
Job Design is the process of putting together
various elements to form a job, bearing in
organizational and individual worker requirements
considerations of health, safety, and
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Job design is the process of:-
Deciding the contents of the job.
Deciding methods to carry out the job.
Deciding the relationship which exists in the
Job analysis helps to
develop job design and
job design matches the requirements of the job
with the human qualities required to do the job.
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1. ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS
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CHARECTERISTICS OF TASK
Assembling number of task into a job
Task characteristics refer to features of the
job that is depending on
the type of job and
the duties involved in it
In case the company is not in a position to
appoint many people, a single job may have
many duties and vice versa.
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Work Practices and Work Flow
The process or flow of work in the
There is a certain order in which jobs are
performed in the company.
Every organization has different work
Although the job may be the same the
method of doing the job differs from
company to company. This is called work
practice and it affects job design.
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How to Plan & OrganizeWorkflow in Hotels _
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Concerned with designing and shaping jobs
to fit the physical abilities and characteristics
of individuals so that they can perform their
It helps employers to design jobs so that
workers' physical ability and job demands are
It will not alter the nature of job tasks but the
location of the tools and facilities keeping in
mind handling of the job is the primary
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a) EmployeeAbilities and Availability
b) Social and cultural Expectations
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Employee availability and
Certain countries face the problem of lack of
They are not able to get employees with
specific education levels for jobs and have to
depend on other labour markets due to this
job design gets affected.
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Social and cultural
The social and cultural conditions of every
country is different
For example:- when an MNC appoints an
Indian it has to take into account of his
festivals, auspicious time, inauspicious time,
etc. to suit the Indian conditions.
This applies to every country and therefore
job design will change accordingly.
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3. BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS
Job design is affected by behavioural factors
also.These factors are
a) Feedback :-
Job design is normally prepared on the basis of
job analysis and job analysis requires employee
feedback based on this employee feedback all
other activities take place.
Many employees are however not interested in
providing a true feedback because of fear and
insecurity.This in turn affects job design.
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Every worker desires a certain level of freedom to his
job effectively. This is called autonomy. Thus when
we prepare a job design we must see to it that
certain amount of autonomy is provided to the
worker so that he carries his job effectively.
When the same job is repeated again and again it
leads to burden and monotony. This leads to lack of
interest and carelessness on the job. Therefore,
while preparing job design certain amount of variety
must be provided to keep the person interested in
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