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  1. 1. Study Material prepared for School of Tourism Studies(STS), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala. 1Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  2. 2. While drafting a message ,you must convince your reader that your request or Idea is reasonable. Organize your message using the AIDA plan. 2Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  3. 3. Attention Interest Desire Action 3Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  4. 4.  Begin every message with an attention getting statement that is personalised,complete with you attitude, Straight forward, relevant or something that is of real interest or value. 4Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  5. 5.  Build the audience interest by further explaining the benefits and appealing to the audience emotions or logic. It can be done through 1. Emotional appeal 2. Logical appeal 5Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  6. 6. o It calls on human feelings, basing the argument on audience needs and sympathies. o Use words like Success ,Prestige,Comfort,savings,Free,Value etc. which can put the audience in a frame of mind which persuade them to accept your message. o Emotional appeals are not sufficient by themselves, emotions have to work with the logic. 6Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  7. 7.  It calls on human reason  In order to persuade an audience, a claim is made and then reasons and evidence are given to support it. 7Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  8. 8. Build desire by showing how your offer can really help the reader. 8Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  9. 9.  Suggest a specific step that the audience can take and restate to the course of action that you had already persuades them to commit. 9Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  10. 10.  Letters and Memos  Reports and Proposal  Notices and Circulars Most of the Business communication are used for routine, day to day exchange of information in an Organization. 10Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  11. 11. 1) Informing 2) Instructing 3) Enquiring 4) Apologizing 5) Reminding 6) Requesting 7) Explaining 11Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  12. 12. Just before leaving for office in the morning,kannan receives a note from his friend Krishnan. The brief given below is an important note of Information to Kannan. (Informal) Kannan, Sharma hospitalized. High B.P,MCH Room no:17,Would you like to come with us at 11 o’ Clock. Krishnan 12Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  13. 13.  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTLetter of Inquiry.docx  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTREMIND LETTER.docx  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTrequest letter.docx 13Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  14. 14.  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTPreji_resignation.docx 14Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  15. 15. A professional Report may be defined as a formal communication written for a specific purpose conveying authentic information to a well defined audience in a completely impartial manner and containing recommendations if required 15Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  16. 16. • It’s a major form of professional communication • Extensively used by government, business and industry as well as professionals • It facilitates decision making • It acts as an instrument in nurturing the health of an organization and promoting its growth. • Used to study the present situation and to access the progress of the ongoing business 16Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  17. 17.  Voluntary/Authorized  Routine/Special report  Internal/External  Short/Long  Informational/Analytical 17Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  18. 18. Voluntary Reports  Prepare at your own initiative  Require more detail and support  More background information must be provided Prepare at the request of some one else Requires less detail They are more specific They are organised to the readers needs Authorized Reports 18Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  19. 19. Routine Reports  These are submitted on a recurring basis (daily,weekly,monthly etc) E.g:-Financial reports, sales report  Organised in a structured way Non –recurring reports Presents results of investigation or other one time studies There by requires more introduction and background information. Special Reports 19Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  20. 20. Internal Report o Designed to use within the Organisation o Usually under ten pages  Designed to sent people outside the Organisation  They are more formal in nature  Can be in a letter format ( Up to five pages or in a manuscript form (Exceeding 5 pages ) External Report 20Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  21. 21. Short Reports 1 – 9 pages Discuss just one part of the problem May not require a formal research  10 pages or more  Examine a problem in detail  Requires extensive research  Consumes more time to prepare Long Reports 21Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  22. 22. Informational Focus on facts and figures It explains a specific topic Purpose is to inform and educate the readers  Designed to solve a problem  Convince readers on the reached conclusions and recommendations which are derived out of scientific study  Contains datas,analysis and interpretations. Analytical 22Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  23. 23. A proposal is a special type of analytical report designed to get the products ,plans or projects accepted by others. They include bids to perform work under a contract, pleas for financial support  Their acceptance can lead to significant operational improvements and safer working conditions.  Proposals can be 1 OR 2 pages or may be 100’s of pages. 23Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  24. 24. 1. Internal and External Proposals 2. Solicited and Unsolicited Proposals 3. Long proposals 4. Short Proposals 24Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  25. 25. They are submitted to decision makers in one’s own organisation.They have two primary purposes. 1. To seek approval for a project or course of action such as revising the eligibility of certain posts, changing the training schedules, etc 2. Request additional resources such as capital assets ,human resource or Operating funds. 25Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  26. 26. External Proposals are submitted to decision makers outside the Organization, such as current or potential clients or Government agencies. They make also seek for approval for projects and funds. 26Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  27. 27. Solicited Prepared on Request RFP-Request for proposal which includes Instructions that specify the exact type of work to be performed. Some companies Publishes RFP along with their contract for proposal  Prepared not on request but on to obtain more business  They are initiated mainly within the organisation mainly for adopting a programme,policy or idea.  It was the writer who make an initial move in an unsolicited proposal Unsolicited 27Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  28. 28. The main three parts of a Proposals are Proposal Introduction  Background or statement of the problem  Solution  Scope (States the boundaries – what you will and will not ) Proposal body Proposal closing 28Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  29. 29. 1.Transmittal part 2.Body of the proposal with complete information 3. Summary 29Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  30. 30. They are less formal in nature and may include the following parts 1. Letter of Transmittal if the proposal is solicited, then it follows a direct approach highlighting the aspects which gives a competitive advantage If solicited, then it follows the AIDA pattern 30Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  31. 31.  They use From To Date Subject  Good Memos discuss only one topic and their tone is Conversational. 31Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  32. 32.  Memos goes within the organization  Most common form of written communication between people or departments in an organisation. 32Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  33. 33. To date: From Subject:- 33Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  34. 34. Notices  A notice is a written communication which presents news about past or present or future events.  It can be informal or formal but mostly the latter.  It is meant to read by a specific section of the audience. 34Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  35. 35. A written communication intended for a large audience It imparts some specific information to a large target audience Communication is general in Character and does not cater to the needs of few individuals alone. 35Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  36. 36. Circulars They are more formal Audience are usually large in number They are the field of reference in the future Self explanatory and there should not be any doubt in the content Notices Can be informal and formal Audience are usually small in number Not used for any future course of action as reference Not rigid in its content and always open to changes 36Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  37. 37.  To catch public attention  Intimating customers about the changes  Expansion of business  Joining of a new partner  Retirement of a partner or Director  To promote sales  Passing information's 37Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  38. 38. C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTCircular(1).pdf 38Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  39. 39.  A commercial business letter is a written form of business communication usually in formal language, mainly used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter will depend on the relationship between the parties concerned. 39Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  40. 40. Formal Letters  Business Letters  Complaint Letters  Application Letters  Credit letters  Collection Letters Informal Letters  Personal Letters 40Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  41. 41.  Routine, Goodwill and Good news messages  Bad news  Persuasive (Influential)messages 41Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  42. 42.  Whenever you submit your resume, accompany it with a cover to let readers know what you are writing 42Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  43. 43. Solicited  It is written in response of an announced job opening.  You usually knows what qualifications the organizations are seeking.  Will have more competition as hundreds of applicants will be vying for the same job.  It is sent to an organization that has not announced an opening.  This letter stands a better chance of being read and receiving individualized attention. Unsolicited 43Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  44. 44.  In a Solicited letter, You need no special attention because you are invited to apply  In an unsolicited letter, the reader’s attention and interest has to be Captured 44Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  45. 45. Hyper Link PPT 1Solicited letter.docx 45Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  46. 46. Replies can either be positive or stating an inability to supply goods or to render the service they are asked to do. If the reply letter is positive ,they are attached with a pricelist along with other relevant details that will help the prospective buyer. Replies should also contain terms and conditions of the payment and also made a reference to the enquiry letter. 46Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  47. 47.  Appreciate your enquirer for showing an interest in you  Apologize for not being able to give information requested  Give the correct reason for not been able to help them  Suggest some other source of information 47Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  48. 48. Dear Sir, Thank you for showing an interest in our company and contacting us. Though we are serving customers,we are not in the position to take on any new orders at present. This is because we are facing some financial problems due to non- receivables. I will however give you the address and telephone number of some other companies who are engaged in the manufacture of the same products. We will however be ready to serve you in the near future Please accept our apologies for the inconvenience. Yours truly Sd/- Name 48Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  49. 49.  Order Letter are the main letters of a company.  All the other letters arise from these .  They are standardized letters .  It is very Important that the order to be detailed and complete so that it can be promptly executed. 49Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  50. 50.  The seller should be thanked for his quotation  Give complete specification of the goods you are ordering  Number/Quantity  Size  Colour  Style  Brand  Model Number  Unit Price  Quality 50Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  51. 51.  State How you will pay for the goods/Services  By Cash  Post dated cheque( Credit)  Account remittance  Discounts if any?  Mention if you want insurance during transport  Mention the date by which you need the goods  At the end, mention what is most important to you  Quality  Prompt delivery/Good packing etc 51Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  52. 52.  Hyper Link PPT 1Order letter.docx 52Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  53. 53. An order form is a preprinted paper kept to be filled up. It is also called an order blank .It has routine headings and subheadings which are normally found in all orders. The Person placing the order fills up all necessary particulars.  They are time saving  Facilitate quick filling and serve as a ready reference  Very common for repeat and large orders  Company’s can keep pre-printed order forms 53Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  54. 54. C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTGO.P.4-11- Fin.pdf Hyper Link PPT 1GO.P.50-11-Fin.pdf 54Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  55. 55. • Drafting a complaint letter requires special care. • It should be done carefully. • The letter should be courteous and clear. • The letter should not have an offensive tone . • The complaint should be made politely but firmly without displaying emotions of anger or annoyance. 55Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  56. 56.  Reference should be made to the date of the order and order number  A clear description of the mistake or deficiency in service to be mentioned  Nothing should be left to imagination  The loss suffered should be mentioned accurately without any exaggeration  The possible action that can be taken by the supplier can also be suggested  Be firm about your need  Be definite about what you are asking for and appeal to the supplier’s sense of goodwill 56Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  57. 57.  Complaint letter Hyper Link PPT 1COMPLAINT LETTER 1.docx 57Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  58. 58. Most of the business and trade are today based on credit. Credit which refers to “Buy now pay later” is opposed to the Cash concept "Buy now, pay now” 58Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  59. 59.  75 % of the business are of credit sales account  It always carries an element of risk of non payment  All business men prefer to make a number of enquiries before extending credit to some one 59Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  60. 60. Letters regarding credit are important letters and have to be written with great care and after a full investigation only or there are good chances that it may prove disastrous. 60Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  61. 61.  Thank the party for the order  Assure him that you are willing to extend credit to him  Tell about your company policy of conforming with references about the financial standing of the potential customer before extending credit to him.  Explain why you need the information  Assure him that you will keep the information confidential  Request customer to send the required information as fast as possible  Make a request for complete information so that you do not have to trouble him again. 61Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  62. 62.  Hyper Link PPT 1Credit letter.docx 62Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  63. 63.  Hyper Link PPT 1Credit Sanctioned.docx 63Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  64. 64.  Refusal of credit must be specified in the beginning itself  Do not build false hope  Letter should be extra polite  Express extreme confidence on the buyer  End on a hopeful note 64Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  65. 65.  Hyper Link PPT 1Credit 3.docx 65Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  66. 66. The problem facing today is the collection of payments from their customers, as most of the business is transacted on Credit. To take care of the receivables, one have to write so many collection letters to the concerned 66Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  67. 67.  Sending a statement showing the accounts position  Reminding about the credit and its due date  Discussion  Appeal  Warning/Legal Action 67Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  68. 68. At this stage no request for payment normally made. It is assumed that the debtor will pay in due course. This letter is very simple and an attachment showing the details of the amount to be paid is sent. It will mention the way the payment is to be made, for eg:-Demand draft,Cheque etc 68Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  69. 69. At this stage ,the benefit of the doubt is given to the customer .We should not assume that he is not paying purposely. There can be many reminders sent in case the client does not pay. Each reminder must be stronger than the previous one. A maximum of three reminders can be sent. 69Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  70. 70. Hyper Link PPT 1Collection letter_reminding.docx 70Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  71. 71.  Letter which is written to find out what the problem actually is- ie defective goods, late delivery etc  The supplier should try and take interest in the customer’s problem ,try and offer to solve them You must try to reach an amicable solution 71Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  72. 72.  Hyper Link PPT 1Collection_discussion.docx 72Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  73. 73. A letter of this will be written if there is no proper response from the side of the buyer. The other portion is to sent a strong threatening letter Appeal should be made to arouse his self esteem and prestige Please say how your business has tampered because of his credit due 73Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  74. 74. When all appeals fail to bring any response from the debtor, there is no choice left but to threaten with legal consequences. Considered it as the last stage of the collection series The tone of the letter written must be very strong, but it must not be rude The client should be informed about the legal action which is going to be taken against him Regret the situation, but express your inability to change it 74Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  75. 75.  Hyper Link PPT 1Complaint_warning.docx 75Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  76. 76.  Selling is the most important functions for business. It is the sales letters that secures orders and brings in money for business to survive.  How effectively you can able to communicate the benefits of your products to the customers will determine the sales that will be generated by the company.  All is been carried out by the Sales letters 76Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  77. 77. It is a main source of securing orders It helps to introduce new products and services in a cheaper way It can reach out to more people in a cheaper way It can present more information about the product than that of an advertisement Less expensive to advertisement They can read it at their leisure time 77Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  78. 78.  Begin in a forceful way  Describe the product or service  Use positive words and phrases  High light + ve areas of your product ( low price)  Make the letter simple and easy to follow  Induce the reader for an easy action  Close the letter by saying the reader what to do and how to do that  Be truthful. Do not write anything false 78Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  79. 79. Hyper Link PPT 1Sales letter_.docx 79Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  80. 80.  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTComplaint Letter.docx C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTCollection letter.docx 80Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  81. 81. A business letter have a distinctive style and appearance. Each of the parts of the letter has a specific style, function and position. By following the layout principles, we can make the content more clear and easily understandable. 81Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  82. 82. 1. Heading or Letterhead 2. Dateline 3. Inside address 4. Salutation 5. Body of the letter 6. Complimentary clause 7. Signature 82Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  83. 83. Business letter usually consists of a printed part which contains the name of a company or person along with a complete mailing address and telephone number of the company Executive letter heads are personalized of a particular individual. His/her name appeared first followed by the designation, mailing address (postal and e- mail) and telephone number of the organisation 83Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  84. 84.  Every official document must be dated.  This makes filing easier and enables quick reference in the future  Helps in further correspondence  If using letterhead, the date should be put one line below the lowest line of the letterhead 84Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  85. 85.  The inside address which identifies the recipient of the letter which typed two or three lines below the date  It contains the name and address of the firm or the individual to whom the letter is written. It should start from the left margin 85Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  86. 86. This will begin at the left margin, two line spaces below the inside address. your relationship with the with the addressee will decide the formality of the situation 1. Dear Sirs or Sirs 2. Dear Sir or Sir 3. Dear Madams or Madam  When it is a mixed group, you would say Ladies and Gentlemen  When you address the following group, use relationship they share with you Dear Colleague,Dear Policy Holder, Dear Customer  If you are not sure about the concerned authority you are addressing, then you can use To Whom It May Concern 86Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  87. 87.  The Opening Paragraph  The Main Paragraph  The Closing paragraph 87Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  88. 88.  This is merely a polite way of ending a letter. It is placed on the right or left and can be followed by a Comma. The first word begins with a capital letter The more common ones are  Yours faithfully  Faithfully yours  Yours truly  Yours cordially  Yours sincerely  Sincerely yours 88Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  89. 89.  This is placed just below the complementary close. It signifies that the writer is giving ascent to whatever has been mentioned in the letter 89Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  90. 90. We sent telegrams when we have to communicate important messages Urgently Messages are always very short Usually send when we have short period of time 90Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  91. 91. 1. The address 2. Text 3. Senders name 4. Senders signature and address 91Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  92. 92.  Be brief but cannot be so brief that you cannot understand  The message must contain main points only  Remember you will be charged for each word  Ambiguity should be avoided  The message must be in capital letters. This will prevent misrepresentation.  Every telegram must be followed by a letter. The letter can convey the whole issue in detail. 92Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  93. 93.  C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTPERSONAL TELEGRAM.docx 93Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  94. 94. Always frame with a FYI approach(for your Information) Always use a Cover Letter Avoid silly and unprofessional messages and tone Write a simple subject line Be precise and focus on the content 94Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  95. 95. C:UsersPrejiDesktopHyper Link PPTKGMFA- Letter-To-HM-TRANSFER.jpg 95Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  96. 96. Etiquette is also about being comfortable around people and making them comfortable around you. There are many written and unwritten rules and guidelines for etiquette. 96Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  97. 97. When you initiate a call ,tell them the basic nature of your call Always return calls When you are on the receiving end of a phone call, identify yourself and your department Always spoke nicely so that the person at the other end can sense it. Make sure that your voice system is working properly 97Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  98. 98. Advantages  It is convenient  It is economical  It has many add on facilities  It can help you to keep in touch with anyone around the world  Can get immediate feedback  Dependant only on the voice  Face to face communication is not possible  Does not provide a legal record of the communication Disadvantages 98Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  99. 99. Positive Impacts 1. Distance is no longer considered as a barrier.An individual can reach people within seconds, thereby revolutionising the concept of communication 2. Communication technologies avoid errors and duplication to a great extent. Any quantity of information can be within a fraction of a second 3. Standardization can be achieved through these technology which ensure consistency in the work 4. Office records become more uniform and professional ,thereby promoting goodwill outside 99Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  100. 100. 1. Cost factor cannot be ignored in communication technology. It includes both the installation cost and the recurring maintenance cost. Small organisations may find it difficult to afford such costs. 2. The new communication technologies are accompanied by an increase in information, which leads to psychological, physical and social problems. There would be anxiety, delayed decisionmaking,retention problem and reduced attention plan. 3. Mechanization can leads to unemployment as is substitutes human labour. 100Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  101. 101. The role of promotion is to communicate with individuals, groups or organizations so as to directly and indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing ,persuading, encouraging the customers  By effective promotion, we can influence the potential customers and trade intermediariesliketravelagents,touroperators,reservat ion services, hotels about the benefits of the product. The promotion can create awareness about the product 101Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  102. 102. The methods which are being used by almost all the marketing organizations are  Public Relations Advertising Sales promotions Publicity 102Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  103. 103.  It’s a paid form of non –personal communication about an organization's product or service communicated through a message.  The sales message is delivered through a paid medium for the purpose of influencing the buying behavior of the purchasers. 103Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  104. 104. The sales message is defined as any activity designed to spread information with a view to promoting the sales of marketable goods and services 104Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  105. 105. Firstly ,by spreading information among customers ,about the possibilities of consumption Secondly, by seeking to influence their judgment in favor of the particular goods which are subject of the advertisement. 105Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  106. 106. Unless a communication has as its purpose a sale of a product or service, it is not properly considered to be advertising. for eg:-the publication of a message, in a newspaper by a philanthropic organization soliciting funds is not an advertising activity. It is only a public announcement as there is no sale of product involved. 106Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  107. 107. 1. Encouraging potential customers to visit dealers or distributors 2. Announcing special sales 3. Securing new dealers or distributors 4. Inducing professionals to recommend a product 5. Demonstrating the benefits of a product 6. Showing how a product must be used 107Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  108. 108. Wider coverage Frequent appeal Lower cost 108Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  109. 109. Advertising is especially appropriate for communication with a large number of perspective purchasers of a commodity or a service. A uniform sales is directed towards all prospective purchasers. An advertisement can be placed before a large number of prospective customers as compared with the efforts of a salesman. 109Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  110. 110.  It can make its appeal frequently  No other means can make any appeal as frequent as that of the advertisement 110Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  111. 111.  Lower cost is another advantage of advertisement  Large numbers can be reached economically  Advertisement has lower cost per contact of a customer than any other means of promotion 111Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  112. 112.  Continuous and consistent representation of an organizations policies to the public at large and to sections of the public who have a special interest in the organization's activities.  It is a deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its public 112Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  113. 113.  Public relations is one of the important functions of the official tourist organisation.the objectives of public relations in tourism may be divided into two groups 1. Dissemination of information 2. Creation of favorable image for the tourist product 113Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  114. 114. News and Feature stories Press releases Films and slides Booklets and brochures News letters Newspapers Radio and TV Sales letter 114Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  115. 115.  Brochure is a document bound in the form of a booklet  It is a voluminous publication with special emphasis on the quality of the paper  It contains comprehensive and detailed information 115Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  116. 116.  Quality of a paper  Layout  Quality of printing  Photography  Detailed itineraries  Weather conditions  Maps of areas  Tour conditions 116Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
  117. 117.  A folder is a single piece of illustrated paper which can be folded  As compared to a brochure ,a folder is less voluminous and is less time consuming  It can be used alone or in conjunction with a sales letter  A folder is much short, tastefully illustrated and attractively designed and produced 117Preji M.P, UGC-NET,
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