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Chapter one


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  • 1. Chapter One
    Meghan Preissing
    Sped 413/513
    January 14, 2011
  • 2. Foundations of Special Education
    The Law
    Public Law 94-142, IDEA, NCLB, Section 504, and ADA
    Evidence-based instruction practices
    The individuals responsible for the learning environment of the students
    The parents of students serviced in special education play a vital role in education decisions for their child.
    Individuals with disabilities rights
  • 3. Public Law 94-142
    Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act (EAHCA)
    Required states to provide student’s with disabilities a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    This act also provided funding to the states to expand and improve their special education programs
    This was passed in 1975
  • 4. IDEA
    Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) is the new name for PL 94- 142
    IDEA includes many regulations for states that PL 94-142 did not
    Important elements of IDEA
    Students must be educated in the Least Restrictive Environment(LRE)
    LRE – giving special Ed. students as much exposure to the general classroom and general curriculum appropriate for their individual needs
    Requires schools to develop individual education plans (IEP) for special education students
    Established procedural safeguards to protect the rights of parents and students
  • 5. IDEA 2004
    IDEA 2004 is the most recent authorization of IDEA
    IDEA 2004 emphasizes
    Student and teacher accountability
    the use of Response to Intervention
    Greater inclusion of students with disabilities into the general education classroom
  • 6. NCLB
    No Child Left Behind Act passed in 2001
    Changed general and special education
    Increased accountability by testing students to ensure they were meeting statewide standards in reading and math
    Allows parents and students to choose different schools if their current school is not meeting annual yearly progress
    Required higher qualifications of teachers
    Gave schools greater flexibility in the use of education funds
    Put greater emphasis on reading by increasing the use of research based instruction
  • 7. NCLB and IDEA
    NCLB and IDEA (2004) were both created to increase the success of schools in America
    These changes resulted in a standards based education system
    Teachers and school districts teaching to ensure all children reach content standards and performance standards
  • 8. IDEA and NCLB
    These two laws also changed education by emphasizing the following
    Response to Intervention
    Multi tiered instruction
    Universal Design for Learning
    Differentiated Instruction
    Evidence –Based Practice
  • 9. Inclusion
    “Inclusion does not refer to a physical space; it refers to a condition or state of being.” (Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2008).
    Inclusion is a right of students with disabilities
    Students with disabilities are given the opportunity to feel like they belong to a group
    Individuals with disabilities are given access to general classroom, school activities, and respect by their peers
  • 10. Response to Intervention (RTI)and Multi tiered instruction
    Students are taught using research based instruction
    This instruction is set up into three tiers
    Tier one - High quality core instruction
    Tier two – High quality targeted supplemental instruction
    Tier three – High quality intensive instruction
    Learners are identified as learning disabled after they have responded unsuccessfully to multiple instruction interventions (RTI)
  • 11. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
    UDL is used so students with different needs can all learn, be challenged, and feel success while being taught together
    Activities and assessments are flexible to meet the needs of the students and their individual goals
    Accommodations and modifications are established prior to lesson implementation so many students can learn simultaneously
  • 12. Differentiated Instruction
    UDL and differentiated instruction when used together have the potential to make learning a positive experience for a variety of students
    Differentiated instruction involves making the challenge appropriate for students of different abilities
    Differentiated instruction also involves teaching using different types of instruction designed for different types of intelligences
  • 13. Evidence – based practice
    Researchers and teachers coming together to create repeatable educational methods
    Research and education have not always aligned because of different perspectives but, now there is more emphasis on the importance of them intertwining
    Teachers who use proven instructional methods increase the success of their students
    Researchers who design tests to meet the needs of teachers and students increase the success of students
  • 14. Diversity and Empowerment
    Educators must be aware of the diverse needs of their students
    Students are diverse in many ways
    Economic status
    Sexual orientation
    Physical ability
    Teachers must empower their students by raising their confidence and determination
    Teachers can empower students by teaching them these skills
    Decision making
    Problem solving
    Independent living
    Goal setting
    Locus of control
  • 15. ADA and Section 504
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 are two civil rights acts that protect students with disabilities as well
    These acts ensure that those with disabilities have access to public buildings and programs that receive federal funding
    Students who do not qualify for special education services under IDEA may receive assistance through Section 504
  • 16. Special Education
    Parents, teachers, and students come together to provide proper instruction and tools to give students with disabilities a meaningful life as independent as possible