Behavior-based robotics


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Behavior-based robotics

  2. 2. Outline  Definition of robots, robotics, behavior-based robotics  Expression of behavior robots  Behavior-based architectures  History of robotics  Applications  Key issues
  3. 3. What is a Robot?  Generally, it is a machine that functions in place of a living agent  "an automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human."
  4. 4. Robotics??  Refers to study and use of robots.  It’s a multi-disciplinary field.  Best robotics researchers and engineers will touch upon all disciplines:  Mechanical engineering  Electrical engineering  Computer Science  Computer science is concerned primarily with:  Robot Programming  Perception  Intelligent behavior
  5. 5. Behavior-based Robotics??  Behavior is what an external observer sees a robot doing.  Robots are programmed to display desired behavior.  Behavior is a result of a sequence of robot actions.  Observing behavior may not tell us much about the internal control of a robot.  Control can be a black box.
  6. 6. Behavior-based Robotics?? (cont.)  An intelligent robot is a machine able to extract information from its environment and use knowledge about its world to move safely in a meaningful and purposive manner.
  7. 7. Expressions of Behaviors Stimulus Behavior  Stimulus-response (SR) diagrams  Functional notation b(s) = r  Finite state acceptor (FSA) diagrams Response
  8. 8. Types of State  External state: state of the world  Sensed using the robot’s sensors  E.g.: night, day, at-home, sleeping, sunny  Internal state: state of the robot  Sensed using internal sensors  Stored/remembered  E.g.: velocity, mood  The robot’s state is a combination of its external and internal state.
  9. 9. State and Intelligence  State space: all possible states the system can be in  A challenge: sensors do not provide state!  How intelligent a robot appears is strongly dependent on how much it can sense about its environment and about itself.
  10. 10. Expressions of Behaviors (cont)  A Navigational Example Consider a student going from one classroom to another. The following kinds of things are involved. • Getting to the destination from current location • Not bumping into anything along the way • Skillfully negotiating the way around other students • Observing cultural customs • Coping with change and doing whatever else is necessary
  11. 11. Behavior-Based Architectures  Definition Robot architecture is the discipline devoted to the design of highly specific and individual robots from a collection of common software building blocks.
  12. 12. Behavior-Based Architectures (cont)  Evaluation Criteria • Supporting for parallelism • Hardware targetability • Support for modularity • Robustness • Timeliness in development • Run time flexibility • Performance effectiveness
  13. 13. Behavior-Based Architectures (cont)  A foraging example The tasks consists of a robot’s moving away from a home base area looking for attractor objects. • Wander • Acquire • Retrieve
  14. 14. Behavior-Based Architectures (cont)  Subsumption architecture (Brooks) • AFSM model • It is a layered architecture that uses-  arbitration strategies and  AFSM as its basis. • Coordination: Inhibition and suppression • Pros  Hardware retarget ability  Support for parallelism • Cons  Run time flexibility  Support for modularity
  15. 15. Behavior-Based Architectures (cont)  Motor schemas (Arkin) • A schema is the basic unit of behavior from which complex actions can be constructed; it consists of the knowledge of how to act or perceive as well as the computational process by which it is enacted. • Motor schemas are a software-oriented dynamic reactive architecture that is non-layered and cooperative.
  16. 16. History of Robots
  17. 17. Classic Purely mechanical machines. E.g. clock tower, AL jazari’s musical robot etc. Many machines that were capable of drawing, acting, flying, playing music etc. E.g. eating duck., mechanical calculators. Automation lead to programable machines. E.g. Radio controlled boat. Development of algorithms and mathematical calculations; computer science field arose.
  18. 18. G. Walter Grey's tortoise These vehicles had a light sensor, touch sensor, propulsion motor, steering motor, and a two vacuum tube analog computer.
  19. 19.  Walter applied cybernetics principles to robot design called “machine speculatrix”, which became a robotic tortoise.  The simple principles involved are:  Parsimony : simple is better.  Exploration or speculation.  Attraction.  Aversion  Discernment.
  20. 20. Middleware HONDA developed its first humanoid; 1981 to 1990 First industrial robot was build by German known as Famulus 1971 to 1980 Lunokhod 1, the first moving remote controlled robot landed on moon Bipolar transistor discovered; first comp game beaten human in chess; coined the term ‘Artificial Intelligence 1961 to 1970 1951 to 1960
  21. 21. Lunokhod 1
  22. 22. UNIMATE robot First industrial robot, that Began to work at general motor
  23. 23. KUKA- example of industrial robot They can load, unload, flame-machine, laser, weld, bond, assemble, inspect, and sort.
  24. 24. IBM 7535  IBM 7535 Manufacturing System provided it advanced programming functions, including data communication s, programmable speed.
  25. 25. Cog – MIT AI Lab Cog is a humanoid robot. It has a torso, arms and a head but no legs. Cog's torso does not have a spine but it can bend at the waist from side-toside and from frontto-back and can twist its torso the same way a person can. Cog's arms also move in a natural way.
  26. 26. Snake-like robot                                                                                               A. Hirose (Tokyo IT)
  27. 27. Snake (MIT) and Swimming (Eel) Robot (UHK)
  28. 28. LEGO Mindstorms
  29. 29. Present Era 2010 to Present 2001 to 2010 1991 to 2000 Honda revealed the most advanced humanoid robot ASIMO i.e. capable of running, walking, communication with humans, facial and environment recognition, voice and posture recognition and interact with environment. This era experienced highly advance robotics like iRobot humanoid which had more enhanced feature than ASIMO, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Global Hawk, etc. Robonaut 2, the latest generation robot called “The space walker”. Google’s robotic vehicles “The self driving car” is the latest development in History of Robotics.
  30. 30. Asimo Honda announced the development of new technologies for the next-generation ASIMO humanoid robot, targeting a new level of mobility. 
  31. 31. Unmanned Vehicles
  32. 32. Robonaut 2 oUses space tools. oWorks in similar environments suited to astronauts. o Very sensible. oEssential to NASA’s future.
  33. 33. Wheelesley: Development of a Robotic Wheelchair System  Wheelesley, consists of an electric wheelchair outfitted with a  computer and sensors and a Macintosh Powerbook that is used  for the user interface
  34. 34. The Robot Dog Aibo Artificial Intelligence roBOt intelligent life form. Good Boy! Aibo "Good Boy!" Sony’s AIBO could learn whatever name you give your AIBO. With built-in voice recognition, AIBO could learn up to fifty words (later Aibo models could do one thousand words) and talk back to you in a special AIBO tonal language. You command your pet to follow orders including "take a picture." AIBO has a built in camera. That is something your real life pet cannot do.
  35. 35. Suvelliance Humanoid Robot NUVO  Equipped with survelliance camera at head and owner could monitor the footage through mobile phone
  36. 36. Anthropomorphic Robots
  37. 37. Applications Entertainment Explorations Humanoids Assistants, In Medical Educational Transport
  38. 38. Key Issues  Grounding in reality: not just planning in an abstract world  Situatedness (ecological dynamics): tight connection with the environment  Embodiment: having a body  Emergent behavior: interaction with the environment  Scalability: increasing task and environment complexity
  39. 39. Questions??