VISUAL MEANINGRelating to the sense of sight.MERCHANDISING MEANINGMerchandising is a marketingpractice in which the brand orimage from one product orservice is used to sell another
Coordination of physical elements in place ofbusiness, so that its project the right image toits customersChange a “passive looker into active buyers”Responsible for total merchandiseOverall business imagePlacements of design elements
Contd……..It is the activity and profession of developingthe floor plans and three dimensionaldisplays in order to maximize their salesThe display of products which makes themappealing and attractiveIt utilizes displays, colors, lighting ,smellsand sounds
PURPOSE OFVISUAL MERCHANDISING
The purpose is to attract ,engage,motivate the customers towardsmaking a purchaseBoth goods and services can bedisplayed to highlight their featuresand benefits
PRINCIPLES OFVISUAL MERCHANDISING
Make it easier for the customer to locatethe desired category and merchandiseMake it easier to self selectMake it possible to coordinate andaccessorizeEducate about the product in an effectiveand creative wayMake proper arrangements in such a way toincrease the sale of unsought goods
IMPORTANCE OFVISUAL MERCHANDISING
Purposes are to sell products and promotestore imageShould always try to be different, new, andcreativeChange a “passive looker” into an “activebuyer”Enhances brand imageGenerates impulse salesOverall business image
VISUAL MERCHANDISING SUCCESS FACTORS
ERRORS TO AVOID INVISUAL MERCHANDISING
Too much signageConfusing traffic patternsToo much proppingDisconnection between exteriorwindow and store contentsPoor lightingNo point of viewInconsistency in visual executions
OBJECTIVES OF AGOOD STORE DESIGN
Design should:be consistent with image and strategypositively influence consumer behaviorconsider costs versus valuebe flexiblerecognize the needs of the disabled –The Americans with Disabilities Act
OBJECTIVES OF THESTORE ENVIRONMENT
Get customers into the store (store image) Serves a critical role in the store selection process Important criteria include cleanliness, labeled prices, accurate and pleasant checkout clerks, and well-stocked shelves The store itself makes the most significant and last impression Once they are inside the store, convert them into customers buying merchandise (space productivity) The more merchandise customers are exposed to that is presented in an orderly manner, the more they tend to buy
APPAREL WALL PRESENTATION OF THE MERCHANDISE
Fashion apparel wall presentation.In the correct example, formal balance isachieved by creating a mirror image ofgarment on both sides of a center line. Thisdoes not occur in the incorrect example
In this, Informal balance is achievedbecause an equal amount of space is filledon either side of a centre line.This does not occur in the incorrectexample.
The ways goods arehung, placed onshelves, or otherwisemade available tocustomersShoulder-out Only one side showsFace-forward Hanging garment so full front faces viewer
METHODS OF DISPLAY
SHELVING HANGING PEGGINGFOLDING DUMPING
DISPLAYED MERCHANDISE Should be current Represent styles and lines Should be well stocked In demand New (inform customers of what is available) Encourage additional purchases Promote current theme Look good on display
ELEMENTS INVISUAL MERCHANDISING
ELEMENTSSTORE STORE MERCHANDISEFRONT INTERIOR DISPLAY STORE STORE LAYOUT SPACE
1. STORE FRONTThe exterior of a business.It includes: 1. Signs 2. Marquee 3. Entrances 4. Window Display
SIGNS There are four different types of signs are:1.Promotional Signs2.Location signs3.Institutional signs4.Informational signs
PROMOTIONAL SIGNSFor off-price events or specials.
LOCATION SIGNSFor direction to specific departments
INSTITUTIONAL SIGNSSigns for the store policies
INFORMATIONAL SIGNSFor product related benefits/features/ prices etc.
MARQUEEThe sign that is used to display the store name
ENTRANCESDesigned with customerconvenience and store security inmind.There are several types ofentrances each portraying a certainimage
TYPES OF ENTRANCESRevolving – up scale storesPush-Pull – full service stores often with fancyhandlesElectronic – Self-serve stores, with carts suchas Wal-Mart, Meijer, Kroger.Climate Controlled – shopping malls.
WINDOW DISPLAYSThe store’s FIRST IMPRESSION with thecustomer.Begin the selling process even before thecustomer enters the store.Suggests the type of merchandise carriedin the store
TYPES OF WINDOW DISPLAYS 1. Promotional – promote the sale of one or more items by using special lighting and /or props. Skiwear with fake snow for accents 2. Institutional – promote store image rather than specific items. Designed to build customer good will, show that the business is interested in the community
STORE INTERIORAffects the store’s imageIncludes items such as: Floor & wall coverings Lighting Colors Fixtures
It is important to create a relaxing,comfortable place for customers to shopCustomers shop longer & are more relaxedand spend more when they are not pressedby crowds, delays & long lines
FLOOR AND WALL COVERINGS
Used to direct customer’s attention to the displayand creates mood.-Use more light for dark colors, less light for lightcolors .-Beam spread; the diameter of the circle of light.
FLOOD LIGHTINGCeiling lights to direct lights over an entirewide display area.
SPOT LIGHTING focuses attention on specific areas ortargeted items of merchandise
PINPOINTINGfocuses a narrow beam of light on aspecific item
COLORSColor selection shouldbe perfect.Help to makemerchandise lookmore interesting.Color schemes help tocreate moods.Capture shoppersattention.
Example; in Christmas displays onlycomplementary color scheme i.e. reds and greensare placed next to each other in setting as no otherscheme can accomplish this
STORE FIXTURESTo make store’s wall merchandisable, wall usuallycovered with a skin that is fitted with verticalcolumns of notches.
TYPES OF FIXTURES Most common types of fixtures: Stands Platforms and Elevations Round rack Bin T-Stand Four way faceout
STANDSUsed in a varietyor assortmentwindow- fromglass line to theback of the displaywindow
PLATFORMS AND ELEVATIONSPlatforms or Elevations can be tables and otherpieces of furniture that can be used to raise up amannequin, a form or arrangement ofmerchandise
ROUND RACKSCircular racks on which garments are hungaround the entire circumference
BINA rimmed table or bin used to hold sale or specialmerchandise on the sales floor, especially indiscount operations; it has no formal arrangement
T-STANDFreestanding, two-way stand in the shape of a T,that holds clothes on hangers, sometimes with onestraight Arm and one waterfall
FOUR -WAY STANDA fixture with four extended arms, that permitsaccessibility to hanging merchandise all the wayaround
2. STORE LAYOUT The way the floor space is usedto facilitate and promote sales andbest serve the customer
TYPES OF FLOOR SPACE1. Selling Space2. Merchandising Space3. Personnel Space4. Customer Space
SELLING SPACEIncludes: Interior displays Sales demonstration areas Sales transaction areas (wrap desk)
MERCHANDISE SPACEAllocated to items that are kept ininventory Selling floor Stock room area
PERSONNEL SPACESpace for employees: break rooms lockers restrooms
CUSTOMER SPACEComfort and convenience of customers: Restaurants Dressing rooms Lounges Restrooms Recreation area for childrenStores are competing more & more in theseareasAllocating more dollars and space for customerconvenience than ever before
Once the floor space has beenallocated, management & visualpersonnel spend a lot of timeplanning the effective use of thespace.
VISUAL DECISIONSWhat product are to go whereAgencies – what products should be nextto each otherWhere to put seasonal merchandise suchas coats, swimwear and Christmas itemsTraffic patterns
STRAIGHT FLOOR LAYOUT ( GRID DESIGN)Best used in retail environments in which majority ofcustomers shop the entire storeCan be confusing and frustrating as it is difficult tosee over the fixtures to other merchandiseForcing customers to back of large store mayfrustrate and cause them to look elsewhereMost familiar examples for supermarkets anddrugstores
DIAGONAL FLOOR LAYOUTGood store layout for self-service type retailstoresOffers excellent visibility for cashier andcustomersMovement and traffic flow in the store issmooth
ANGULAR FLOOR LAYOUT ( CURVING/LOOP –RACETRACK DESIGN)Best used for high-end storesCurves and angles of fixtures and wallsmakes for more expensive store designSoft angles create better traffic flowthroughout the retail store
GEOMETRIC FLOOR LAYOUT (SPINE DESIGN)Is a suitable store design for clothingand apparel shops.Uses racks and fixtures to createinteresting and out- of- the – ordinarytype of store design without a high cost.
MIXED FLOOR LAYOUT (FREE FLOW DESIGN)Incorporates the straight, diagonaland angular plansHelps generates the most functionalstore designLayout moves traffic towards wallsand back of the store
Storage, Receiving, Marketing Underwear Dressing Rooms Tops Accessories Hats and Handbags Checkout counterStockings Clearance Items Tops PantsCasual Wear Skirts and Dresses Feature FeatureJeans Open Display Window Open Display Window
3. MERCHANDISE DISPLAYSThey are part of the general storeinteriorDisplays generate 1 out of 4 salesThey enable the customer to make aselection without personal assistance
KINDS OF DISPLAYS1. Closed Displays2. Open Displays3. Architectural Display4. Point-of-Purchase5. Store Decorations
CLOSED DISPLAYSLook but don’t touchRequire sales person assistanceExpensive or fragile merchandiseJewellery cases
OPEN DISPLAYHandle merchandise without asalespersonSelf-serviceUsed for most clothing
POINT-OF-PURCHASEPromote impulse buyingItems at the register Batteries Candy Magazines
STORE DECORATIONS Decorations for holidayssuch as Christmas, Halloweenand Valentine’s Day
Interior displays use fixtures andprops to showcase merchandiseProps are generally classified asdecorative or functional
PROPSObjects added that supportthe theme of the display
TYPES OF PROPSFunctional Props - practical items for holdingmerchandise such as mannequins and shirtformsDecorative Props -Only purpose is to enhancemerchandise. Items such as trees, tables, cars.Structural Props -used to support functionaland decorative props and change the physicalmakeup of displays. (boxes, rods, stands,stairways, etc)
IMPORTANCE OF INTERIOR DISPLAYSShow the customer what’s newShow customer how to put together a totallookA good display helps create multiple sales Customers want to look like the display Customers want you to show them what to wear
INTERIOR DISPLAYSOften convey a common themethrough out the store Animal prints, patriotic theme Used to tell a color story
The large display in a store including themannequins & wall displays are usuallyset up by visual departmentSmall table displays and fixture topdisplays are usually set up & maintainedby the individual department staff
It is important to changedepartmental displaysfrequently
INTERIOR DISPLAY LOCATIONSShould be chosen tomaximize merchandiseexposure Just inside store entrance At entrances to departments Near cash/wrap counter Next to related items By elevators and escalators Open-to-mall areas
WHEN TO CHANGE THE DISPLAYS?
When new merchandise comes inJust to change around the pieces of agroup that has been on the floor forawhile Gives the group a new look
The same customers walkthrough your departmentevery week – you want it tolook freshYou want to give them areason to buy
WHAT TO USE FORSUCCESSFUL DISPLAYS?
MannequinsAlternatives to mannequinsFixturesProps
TYPES OF MANNEQUINSRealisticSemi realisticAbstractSemi-abstractHeadless
REALISTICMANNEQUIN Resembles theeveryday personrather than amovie star.
SEMIREALISTICIs like realisticmannequin,But its makeupis moreDecorative andstylized.
ABSTRACTIs concerned with creating an overall effect ratherthan reproducing natural lines and proportions.Features such as elbows, fingernails are rarelyindicated.
SEMI ABSTRACT Is more stylizedthan the semi-realisticmannequin and itsfeature may bepainted orsuggested ratherthan defined.
HEADLESS:Has a full-size orSemi-realistic bodywith Arms and legsbut no Head.It offers nopersonality orimage.
ALTERNATIVES TO MANNEQUINS Three quarter forms Articulated artist’s figures Dress forms and suit forms Drapers Hangers Lay down techniques Pin up techniques Flying techniques
THREE-QUARTERFORMS:Representation of apart of the Humananatomy, such as theTorso, the bust or thearea from Shoulderto waist or from hipsto ankles.
ARTICULATED ARTIST’S FIGURESbased on small wooden miniatures used byartists and designers to get correct proportionsand poses for figure drawing when live model isnot available
DRESS FORMS AND SUIT FORMS
INFLATABLESAre life-sized“balloons”That stimulateparts of Thehuman anatomy.Most resembles theLower half of thebody And is used toshow jeans andpants.
DRAPERWas a simple,uncomplicatedand oftenunderusedalternative tomannequin
HANGERS Simple hanger can be analternative to themannequin. Hangers caneither be hung by invisiblewire from a ceiling grid orit can be hung from a lookthat extends from a wallor panel.
PINUP TECHNIQUESMakes use of a panel, wall Or some verticalsurface onto which a Garment can bepinned, shaped and Dimensional zed.
LAY-DOWN TECHNIQUE Involves the folding, pleating and placement of garment next to garment or accessories next to featured garment.
FLYING TECHNIQUESmerchandise is pulled, Stretched or pulled thegarment into abstract Shapes that present anangular and crisp presentation.
ATMOSPHERICSThe design of an environment via: visual communications lighting color sound scentTo stimulate customers’ perceptual and emotionalresponses and ultimately influence their purchasebehavior
VISUAL COMMUNICATIONSName, logo and retail identityInstitutional signageDirectional, departmental and category signagePoint-of-Sale (POS) SignageLifestyle Graphics
CONTD…..Coordinate signs and graphics with store’simageInform the customerUse signs and graphics as propsKeep signs and graphics freshLimit sign copyUse appropriate typefaces on signsCreate theatrical effects
SOUND AND SCENTSound Music viewed as valuable marketing tool Often customized to customer demographics - AIE (http://www.aeimusic.com) Can use volume and tempo for crowd controlScent Smell has a large impact on our emotions Victoria Secret, The Magic Kingdom, The Knot Shop Can be administered through time release atomizers or via fragrance-soaked pellets placed on light fixtures
Adidas• Effectiveness : The display of upside down women signifies the freedom and independency of women which will motivate them to walk in the store.• Why did it work : It forces female customers to ponder what the store holds for them.
Marks & Spencer
Marks & Spencer• Clarity of thought : The window display clearly shows that the sale season is going on for the apparels and accessories offered by the store.• Creativity : The red color is used to indicate sale period which can be discovered from a far distance. Red colour is psychologically attached to the customers; it portrays excitement/ impulse purchase decisions
• Effectiveness : A customer interested would surely walk-in to avail the discounts as the display is shouting out for the sale season.• Why did it work : The entire display used the red color tints and shades indicating sales period & also providing an opportunity to avail extra reduction. The big banners as well as mannequins wearing similar t-shirts talking about sale are also very helpful
CONCLUSIONVisual merchandising is first and foremoststrategic activity.Put your best-selling merchandise in your best-selling space.If you only do one thing with your store, makeit professional.The storefront, tell the right story about whatkind of merchandise is availableInvest proper signage to take your store to thenext level.
BIBLOGRAPHYwww.textilescommittee.nic.inwww.google.comwww.wikipedia.comwww.visualstore.comwww.slideshare.comFashion: from concept to consumer 1999- frings, ginistephenVisual merchandising and display fifth edition – martin