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EYE MOVEMENT BASED HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTIONTECHNIQUES: TOWARDS NON-COMMAND INTERFACE                                BY  ...
The Eye                      Eye Movement   Non-command       Introduction                                   Conclusion   ...
How We See ?                     Eye Movement   Non-command      Introduction                                Conclusion   ...
Physiology of Eye                        Eye Movement       Non-command       Introduction                                ...
Facts about Human gaze                        Eye Movement     Non-command       Introduction                             ...
Eye tracking Technology                      Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction                             ...
Techniques for measuring eye movements                       Eye Movement     Non-command      Introduction               ...
Techniques for eye tracking: Skin Electrodes                       Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction       ...
Techniques for eye tracking: Contact lens                        Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction         ...
Techniques for eye tracking: Head Mounted                        Eye Movement     Non-command       Introduction          ...
Techniques for eye tracking: Remote System                        Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction        ...
Current Challenges                        Eye Movement     Non-command       Introduction                                 ...
Non-command Interface                        Eye Movement       Non-command      Introduction                             ...
Towards and beyond Non-command interfaces                       Eye Movement   Non-command       Introduction             ...
Interactive Applications                          Eye Movement   Non-command       Introduction                           ...
Interactive Applications: Accessibility                        Eye Movement    Non-command         Introduction           ...
Interactive Applications: Non-command based systems                     Eye Movement     Non-command      Introduction    ...
Interactive Applications: System Enhancement                       Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction       ...
Interactive Applications: Virtual Displays                         Eye Movement      Non-command         Introduction     ...
A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker                        Tobii T120 Eye Tracker         Tobii T120 Eye Trackers enabl...
A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker         Figure : Overview Of Eye Tracking System
A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker            Corneal   reflection                  Figure : Working of Eye Tracking S...
A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceVisual Search Physical and cognitive processing limitations can prevent ...
A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceMethodSubjects had to look for a specific object within a visual scene.  ...
A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive Science
A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceResultsPicture rather than word resulted in:     Faster total search tim...
Conclusion                        Eye Movement      Non-command       Introduction                                        ...
Conclusion                        Eye Movement     Non-command       Introduction                                         ...
Embhcit
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Embhcit

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  • Close your eyes and imagine you have not seen ever since the world and yourself. You will not have an idea with what it looks like when you only feel it. Eyes are very important for the human body. It helps the human body to do its tasks with coordination. Without it, a man won't be able to see the beauty of this wonderful world. Eyes are the windows of the soul. Without eyes, the five basic senses would not be complete. So, it should be presentEyes are the parts of our body that perceive light. They allow us to see the world and to understand how objects relate to each other. We can distinguish far objects from close ones and determine their color and shape.How do the eyes interact with other parts of the body? (Interaction with other Body Parts)The brain processes the raw data from the eyes to make sense of what you see compared to your knowledge of the world around you. The brain interprets what it receives from the eyes. You do not directly "see".A clear example of this can be seen from experiments where subjects wear glasses that invert the view (turn it upside down). After a while the brain will adjust and turn the scene back up the right way because that agrees with other more reliable information you are receiving.Similarly the brain adjusts changes in color and light levels to better match how the objects should appear.It also combines the two slightly different views from your left and right eyes to work out the distance of objects from you. Your right eye will show a little more of an object's right side and the left eye will show more of an objects' left side. This is called stereoscopic vision. The difference between the views from each eye becomes less the further the object is away from you.Our perceptions are not perfect and can lead to misinterpretations of what we see. These are called optical illusions.However even though the brain's processing can be inaccurate, at most times we perceive a faithful reconstruction of the real world. Only optical illusions remind us that there is at times a difference between perception and the true state of affairs. Without our eyes and the complex processing of visual information by our brains we would not be able to make sense of writing, art or photos, nor understand as much as we do from limited visual information.
  • Transcript of "Embhcit"

    1. 1. EYE MOVEMENT BASED HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTIONTECHNIQUES: TOWARDS NON-COMMAND INTERFACE BY RAJ KIRAN 09B91A0586 GNITC
    2. 2. The Eye Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Eyes are the windows of the soul.  Eye are the parts which perceive light in our human body.  Interaction with other body parts.  A Combination of eyes and brain help us in processesing complex visual information.
    3. 3. How We See ? Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface
    4. 4. Physiology of Eye Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Cornea is a transparent structure that covers the iris and pupil; a part of the focusing system of an eye.  Pupil is the adjustable opening at the center of the iris that allows varying amounts of light to enter the eye.  Lens helps to focus light on the retina.  Retina includes rods (94%), which are sensitive to light and cones (6%) that capture colors. Cones are concentrated in the centre of the retina - the fovea
    5. 5. Facts about Human gaze Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  One’s eye is rarely stationary.  Eye movement reflects a viewer’s visual information process.  The eyes can move faster than the hand.  Eye movement consists of:  Saccades  Fixations
    6. 6. Eye tracking Technology Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  What is Eye tracking?  Eye tracking is the measurement of eye activity.  Why use eye tracking ?  Gives an accurate measure of where one’s looking.  Enhances or back-ups observations.  Can lead to many potentially useful applications.
    7. 7. Techniques for measuring eye movements Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Measuring Visual line of gaze (Where he or she is looking in space).  Different techniques used for measuring eye movements.  Skin Electrodes  Contact lens  Head Mounted  Remote System
    8. 8. Techniques for eye tracking: Skin Electrodes Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Electrodes placed on the skin around the eye socket.  Measuring the electrical differences between retina and cornea.  GOOD POINTS:  Both eyes can be recorded together  Least expensive  Simple to use  DOWNFALLS:  It is limited to horizontal and vertical movements  Poor accuracy for absolute positioning
    9. 9. Techniques for eye tracking: Contact lens Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  A non-slipping contact lens fits over corneal bulge.  Tracking is recorded by affixing a magnetic coil or mirror to the lens.  GOOD POINTS:  Provides accurate data about the nature of human eye movements.  DOWNFALLS:  Extremely awkward, uncomfortable for the user.  Interferes with blinking.  Covers only a limited range of eye movements.
    10. 10. Techniques for eye tracking: Head Mounted Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Small camera and light source mounted to users head via a headband or helmet  Reports the angle of the user’s eye with respect to his or her head.  Two data sources can determine the line of gaze in physical space.  GOOD POINTS:  Doesn’t restrict the user’s head movements  DOWNFALLS:  More awkward to use than the desk-based system as the user has to have instrument mounted to head.
    11. 11. Techniques for eye tracking: Remote System Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Most practical method of eye tracking.  Uses Illuminator/eye camera.  Tracking visible features of the eye.  Head movements can be distinguished from eye movements by tracking 2 points.  GOOD POINTS:  Allows for a fair range of head movements  Accurate, fast and affordable  DOWNFALLS:  Head still needs to stay within camera range.  Delicate to calibrate and operate
    12. 12. Current Challenges Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Midas Touch problem  Jitter of eye  Multiple “Fixations in a single Gaze”  Instability in eye Tracking Equipment
    13. 13. Non-command Interface Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Non-command interaction  Interaction Techniques  Object Selection  Moving an object  Eye controlled scrolling text  Menu commands  Listener window
    14. 14. Towards and beyond Non-command interfaces Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Command Style  Interactivity  New Interface Styles  Beyond Windows System
    15. 15. Interactive Applications Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Accessibility  System Enhancement  Non-Command Based Systems  Virtual Displays
    16. 16. Interactive Applications: Accessibility Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Eye tracking can allow people to use their eyes to communicate  Because the ability of some handicapped individuals to operate other devices is limited or nonexistent.  The eye movement interface need to perform only minimally well to provide a significant benefit.
    17. 17. Interactive Applications: Non-command based systems Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Non-command based system  The system passively monitors the user and responds as appropriate, rather than waiting for the user to issue specific commands.  EX : Gamming Applications
    18. 18. Interactive Applications: System Enhancement Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Mainly used for the users whose hands are occupied  Potential Problems:  Some will find the eye movement based interface better (faster, more convenient and more natural) while others may feel uncomfortable.  Too unnatural to use in critical situations?  Eye tracking may be best used to act as a supplemental input or display method.
    19. 19. Interactive Applications: Virtual Displays Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Making VR more realistic  If accurate, the user cannot detect the difference between this arrangement and the large, high-resolution display it emulates.
    20. 20. A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker Tobii T120 Eye Tracker Tobii T120 Eye Trackers enable you to conduct on-screeneye tracking studies for a wide variety of research purposes. Itdelivers reliable results in a natural testing environment
    21. 21. A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker Figure : Overview Of Eye Tracking System
    22. 22. A Case Study on Tobii T120 Eye Tracker Corneal reflection Figure : Working of Eye Tracking System  Initially position and orientation of eye are determined.  The Gaze Point is found at the intersection of optical axis and the viewing plane
    23. 23. A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceVisual Search Physical and cognitive processing limitations can prevent us from instantly recognizing the presence of a target item in a single glance.
    24. 24. A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceMethodSubjects had to look for a specific object within a visual scene.  Target could be specified by a word or a picture. Pictures specify the target template more elaborately than words.  To manipulate the time that the subject had to build up a target template and keep it salient in memory.  To manipulate target familiarity, the target specification was either shown 4 times to the subject prior to experiment.
    25. 25. A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive Science
    26. 26. A Case Study on Eye Tracking in Cognitive ScienceResultsPicture rather than word resulted in:  Faster total search times  Shorter scanning and verification times  Fewer regions visited  Shorter scanning fixation durations (rejection of distractors)
    27. 27. Conclusion Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  An Eye tracker as an input device is far from “perfect”  The approach in designing interaction techniques should be more efficient  We can view eye movement-based interaction as an instance of an emerging new style of user-computer interaction  It is helpful for usability studies to understand users interact with their environments  Potentially could provide new and more effective methods of computer-human interaction
    28. 28. Conclusion Eye Movement Non-command Introduction Conclusion Tracking Interface  Potentially could provide new and more effective methods of computer-human interaction  It is amazing that eye movement-based interaction can be done at all  The Technology is still improving, and is “not quite there” yet – but has an exciting future!
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