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  • 1. Republika Srbija MINISTARSTVO EKONOMIJE I REGIONALNOG RAZVOJATechnology Transfer, Technology Brokerage Beograd June 2011. godine Intellectual Property Office Finansira Evropska unija
  • 2. Republika Srbija MINISTARSTVO EKONOMIJE I REGIONALNOG RAZVOJAIntroducing Workshop 1 Support to Enterprise Development Andrzej Schafernaker, Team Leader SECEP Finansira Evropska unija
  • 3. Session 1 The triple helix model of InnovationLisa CoweyKey Expert (Competitiveness and Innovation) ICIP Finansira Evropska unija
  • 4. Outline of talk• (Useful) Definitions• Models• Examples• Reality! Finansira Evropska unija
  • 5. Innovation• “the process of transforming an invention into something commercially useful and valuable” (Miller and Morris, 1999)• The successful commercial exploitation of a product, process, system or device. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 6. Technology Transfer “the process whereby inventions or intellectual property from academicresearch is licensed or conveyed through use of rights to industry”(Association of University Technology Managers 1998) Finansira Evropska unija
  • 7. Intellectual Property “A product of the intellectthat has commercial value”. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 8. Innovation: early models• Technology Push• Market Pull• Complex: Incorporating feedback loops and involving the main actors Finansira Evropska unija
  • 9. Examples of Successful Technology Push• Sony Walkman• SMS (Text Messaging)• Superconductivity• The Personal Computer• Cameras on mobile phones Finansira Evropska unija
  • 10. Technology Push- success factors? Finansira Evropska unija
  • 11. Examples of unsuccessful Technology Push• BetaMax• The Synclair C5• Electric Cars Finansira Evropska unija
  • 12. Examples of Market Pull• Lightweight materials for transport sector• On-line security systems for financial transactions• Military devices• Airport security Finansira Evropska unija
  • 13. Non Linear Models: ExamplesExamples of innovations from non-linear models: multiple drivers:• Fuel efficient cars• Healthcare and drug development• Convenience foodsLegislation and consumer preference are key drivers. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 14. University and public research - a special case?Commercialisation is not traditionally perceived as a primary goal of higher education institutes.Evolved and Evolving Innovation Models for Universities and R&D Institutes• Information and Documentation (I&D Model)• The Cooperation Model• Blurring of Boundaries (BoB) Model Finansira Evropska unija
  • 15. I&D Model• The transfer of existing knowledge across science-industry boundaries takes place without any transformation of that knowledge.• Information may be condensed, or, translated.• There is no assumption of personal contact between scientists and industry.• The scientist’s primary role is that of knowledge producer.• At most the scientist may be asked to provide titles and abstracts that may be easily understood by others and to avoid “unnecessary” or redundant publications. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 16. I&D ModelThe I&D model of science-industry relationsLinear: knowledge generation Dissemination Utilization• “Technology Push” model Finansira Evropska unija
  • 17. The Co-operation Model (Mid 1970s)• Emphasizes that science and technology transfer can only be successful if the inventors and commercializes actively exchange their ideas through immediate personal contact.• Exchange can be achieved informally or formally, e.g. through personnel exchanges between research institutions and industrial partners.• The role of the technology transfer professionals is to help to establish contacts and to clear up misunderstandings. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 18. The Cooperation Model Particular characteristics• A focus on the actual or perceived “cultural gaps” between science and the economy that can only be bridged by personal trust.• A focus on feedback of information on market needs to inform the technology development.• This model recognizes the importance of partnerships and joint ownership of technology development and transfer.• Example: Fraunhofer Gesellschaft “Market Pull” Model Finansira Evropska unija
  • 19. Example: Fraunhofer GesellschaftThe Fraunhofer Gesellschaft: the leading organization for applied research in Germany.Strong application orientation:• 70 % institute’s income to be acquired through industrial and public projects.• guarantees that only research proposals that can demonstrate a good return on investment will be pursuedEngagement in basic research:• the director of a Fraunhofer institute is always a university professor• 30 % of their income being supplied from base funding Finansira Evropska unija
  • 20. Blurring of Boundaries (BoB) Model 1990s onwards This model assumes that institutional boundaries between science and the economy are becoming increasingly permeable and “blurred”. Two variants: 1. The Entrepreneurial University: engaging in licensing and spinout activities. This is seen as a factor in economic development in its own right. 2. Networks: which emphasis how academic knowledge production is part of a comprehensive and complex innovation process. This model highlights, the interaction of the systems’ components or feedback loops. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 21. BoB CharacteristicsIn this model the technology transfer office is increasing engaged in networking activities to link the university to:• other research organizations• different kinds of firms• political agenciesAll of these are seen as different nodes in the innovation process. A “Feed-back Loops Model” Finansira Evropska unija
  • 22. The Entrepreneurial University The Entrepreneurial University: engaging in licensing and spinout activities.Example: Oxford University• considered to be “one of Europes most innovative and entrepreneurial universities”• Technology Transfer Office (TTO) files on average one new patent application per week• TTO spins out a new company from University research every two months Finansira Evropska unija
  • 23. The London Technology NetworkNetworks: academic knowledge production is part of a comprehensive and complex innovation process.Example: The London Technology Network• a network of over 100 university-based research experts• LTN links 6,000 academics across London and the SE• Helps map their research in order to provide technology solutions to business needs.• runs the London Innovation Relay Centre -stimulating the exchange of technologies across Europe part of a trans- European network of more than 70 centres spanning 31 countries. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 24. Innovation: Key Players• Enterprises Large Multi-Nationals SMEs• Knowledge Base Universities Research Institutes• Policy Makers National and Regional Government Triple Helix: Interactive (non linear model) Sometimes criticized for neglecting the entrepreneurs Driven by: ECONOMICS! Finansira Evropska unija
  • 25. Making Innovation Happen: Converting theory in to practice Models of Innovation and Technology Transfer: Theoretical and Process Driven Finansira Evropska unija
  • 26. Making Innovation Happen: Converting theory in to practice Reality of Technology Transfer: People, Relationships and Partnerships. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 27. Pitanja i komentari•• Finansira Evropska unija
  • 28. Session 2 Undertaking Innovation Audits and Developing Expert DatabasesLisa CoweyKey Expert (Competitiveness and Innovation) ICIP Finansira Evropska unija
  • 29. Outline• What are ‘expert databases’ they and who uses them?• Examples• Auditing to create a database Finansira Evropska unija
  • 30. Externally facing Databases• External Audience – R&D seekers Contract research/testing opportunities (Equipment and specialist facilities) – Industrial collaborators and the Media Group R&D collaborations Individual Consultancy opportunities (Experts with specialist knowledge) – Technology adopters Licensing opportunities – Investors Spinout-out opportunities Finansira Evropska unija
  • 31. Examples: Equipment and specialist test facilities • Enables a range of under-utilised equipment to be offered to the commercial sector • At a commercial price! • With support for use Professional testing service • Companies can carry out profitable research and development • Without investment in specialist equipment and personal sting Finansira Evropska unija
  • 32. White Rose Consortium: Services offered Leeds, Sheffield and York Universities UK Pooling of resources addressing single industry Finansira Evropska unija
  • 33. Mirror Example: RED• Research Excellence Directory• Developed by the South East England Development Agency (SEEDA)• Enabled a business to easily locate a “suitable” research partner.• Online (replaces hard copy)• Based on the output of the UK RAE. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 34. DTU Research database Finansira Evropska unija
  • 35. Examples: ExpertsExpert Opinion•• Knowledge• http://www.isis- e.html• yers/consultancy Finansira Evropska unija
  • 36. Examples: Technology acquisitionLicensing opportunities• Access to new technology development opportunities – Technology Patents – Software – Databases – Devices Finansira Evropska unija
  • 37. Technology search: Imperial Innovations UK Finansira Evropska unija
  • 38. Technology search: Licensing opportunities Finansira Evropska unija
  • 39. Technology search:13 Scottish Universities• highlights technology licensing opportunities and collaborative development opportunities currently available from 13 Scottish universities in one location.• Finansira Evropska unija
  • 40. Finland: TEKESFinansira Evropska unija
  • 41. Technology search: LTN• Finansira Evropska unija
  • 42. Developing your own internal database• Technology auditing can play an important role in populating and refreshing a database.• Key to the process is demonstrating benefits (and not punishments) to the academic community.• Informal (coffee based!) auditing can be as revealing as formal paper-based exercises. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 43. Technology/ Expertise AuditingApproach:• Build Trust “auditing” makes people nervous!• Gain support Involve gate-keepers and Deans• Offer Examples and Pilot the activity Existing and your own• Be focused Note preferences: Consulting or collaborating or contracting?• Keep it simple Limit the work for the responders. Better a little valuable information than nothing at all.• Respect confidentiality• Involve the end users in design of the database! Finansira Evropska unija
  • 44. Pitanja i komentariTechnology Audit (SMEs) Dr Vassilis Kelessidis, 2000•• Finansira Evropska unija
  • 45. Session 3 PrototypingDr Vesna MandicCollaborative Training Center of the University ofKragujevacSee Separate set of handouts Finansira Evropska unija
  • 46. Session 4 Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs) Paul Moran Key Expert (Business Services) ICIP Finansira Evropska unija
  • 47. Outline• Background to KTP• What is a KTP?• Key players• Rationale• Case Studies• Further info Finansira Evropska unija
  • 48. Background• Knowledge Transfer Partnerships set up by UK Government in 2003 to replace the highly-successful Teaching Company Scheme (TCS) set up in 1975 to place high-performing graduates in mainly technical subjects into SMEs for up to 2 years (nb around 75% of graduates in TCS gained permanent positions with their host company)• Other similar models include Graduate Associate Programme (GAP) set up by Durham University to retain graduate talent in NE region by 1-year placements in SMEs (nb around 70% gained permanent positions) Finansira Evropska unija
  • 49. The Knowledge Transfer Partnerships• Knowledge Transfer Partnerships is Europes leading programme helping businesses to improve their competitiveness and productivity through the better use of knowledge, technology and skills that reside within the UK knowledge base.• Each partnership employs one or more high calibre Associates (recently qualified people) to work on a project, which is core to the strategic development of the business.• A Knowledge Transfer Partnership serves to meet a core strategic need and to identify innovative solutions to help that business grow.• KTP often delivers significant increased profitability for business partners as a direct result of the partnership through improved quality and operations, increased sales and access to new markets. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 50. KTP: Key PlayersCompany partner - this is usually a company(including not-for-profit) but in some cases it can be ahealth or education organisation or Local Authority. KTPsupports a broad cross-section of firms, regardless of sizeKnowledge-base partner - this is a higher educationinstitution (e.g. university ), college or researchorganisation (public or privately funded)KTP Associates – Each partnership employs one ormore high calibre Associates (recently qualified people),transferring the knowledge the company is seeking intothe business via a strategic project Finansira Evropska unija
  • 51. Rational for Knowledge Transfer PartnershipsEffective innovation (the successful commercial exploitation of new ideas) involves knowledge, technology, skills and adaptability to implement it, which is not always embodied in equipment or codified in an easily transferable form.• People embody the skills and often the real know-how to effect innovative change in businesses.• Knowledge developed or improved in academic institutions (knowledge base) may need extensive or intensive adaptation to particular business applications.• A qualified person with a direct link to the academic source is the ideal transfer agent. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 52. The GAP ModelKey challenges:• Graduate Retention (how to keep graduate talent in the North East of England and stem the outflow to the South East)And• Regional SME development (how to harness graduate talent to benefit SMEs) Finansira Evropska unija
  • 53. The GAP ModelThe Solution:• Find a good match between SME with a development need and graduate with appropriate skills / qualities• Graduate works in the SME for a year as an ‘Associate’ and produces tangible benefits to the SME as well as gaining an additional qualification and, in most cases, gaining full-time employment with the SME• Funded by the SME, local / regional govt, and (possibly) EU• NB The model can work with any type of SME and potentially for any graduate discipline (but applied subjects preferable) Finansira Evropska unija
  • 54. GAP Case-study• John C, GAP at Durham 1997-8, Associate with SME in Machinery industry. Also gained Advance Diploma in Enterprise Management from University of Durham.• Background in civil engineering, later (2001) gained accountancy qualification (ACA)• Now (since 2004) Group Finance Director with 2 privately-owned groups of companies in construction industry and real estate based in NE England Finansira Evropska unija
  • 55. Knowledge Transfer Partnerships: Case Study Harry Jones, (Oxford University’s Magnet Group) + Space Cryomagnetics Ltd (SCL). SCL: a small high-tech company, with extensive experience in low-temperature superconductors. SCL wanted to extend their business into the field of high-temperature superconductors. The Magnet Group: nationally leading experience with high- temperature superconductors. The group wanted to extend their winding technology to racetrack geometries, and had a desire to investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) marine propulsion, with potential applications in mind. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 56. Knowledge Transfer Partnerships: Outcomes Company: the world’s first MHD marine propulsion unit that uses a high-temperature superconducting magnet. Associate: NVQ in management, Oxford University MSc. University Group: published academic papers Finansira Evropska unija
  • 57. The Knowledge Transfer Partnerships• The Knowledge Transfer Partnerships.•• ge-transfer-partnerships-ktp Finansira Evropska unija
  • 58. Pitanja i komentari•• Finansira Evropska unija
  • 59. Session 5 Knowledge Transfer Networks Lisa Cowey Key Expert (Competitiveness and Innovation) ICIP Finansira Evropska unija
  • 60. Outline• What is a Knowledge Transfer Network?• Who is involved?• How do they function?• What do they do?• Examples – UK National Knowledge Transfer Network (KTNs) – London Technology Network – SEEDA Knowledge Networks – BRIN - British-Russian Innovation Network – EEN Finansira Evropska unija
  • 61. National Technology and Knowledge Networks (UK KTNs)• The KTNs have been set up by UK government, industry and academia to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and experience between industry and the science base.• They bring together diverse organisations and provide activities and initiatives that promote the exchange of knowledge and the stimulation of innovation in these communities.• KTNs encourage the active participation of all networks currently operating in their areas and aim to establish connections with networks in other fields that have common interests. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 62. National Technology and Knowledge Networks• The first KTNs were set up in 2005 and the network continues to grow.• They are active in Sectors Technologies Market-based areas• They interact strongly with the government’s Technology Programme and overall technology strategy.• KTNs also interact with each other, creating strong links, to maximise the benefits to the UK from successful knowledge transfer across technology boundaries.• This KTN portal helps to facilitate this. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 63. National Technology and Knowledge Networks• There are presently 19 Individual National KTNs in the UK.• Each KTN utilises a web portent to facilitate interactions between the research base and the industrial community.• works Finansira Evropska unija
  • 64. London Technology Network helping companies succeed through technology- intensive innovation.• Network of over 100 university-based research experts.• Promotes innovative collaborations• Helps to stimulate technology-intensive innovation between universities and business.• Links 6,000 academics across London• Maps their research in order to provide technology solutions to business needs• Holds networking and brokerage events• EEN office Finansira Evropska unija
  • 65. SEEDA Knowledge Networks• Regional Knowledge Network Programme established by the South East England Development Agency – Objective: to catalyse collaboration and bring more innovation to market.• Achieved through: KNs that bring together representatives of the knowledge base and business.• Each Knowledge Network has a very specific focus on the commercialisation of R&D for a technology or group of technologies. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 66. SEEDA Knowledge NetworksCurrently has seven active Knowledge Networks: Advanced Materials for Challenging Environments Marine Energy Network Photonics Network Satellite Communications, Earth Observation, Navigation & Science Air Traffic Management (ATM) Security network Digital Content Finansira Evropska unija
  • 67. Network Operation• The network operates though the “Sector Consortia” bringing a sectorial view to each network.• Each network aims to bring local SMEs in to contact with HEIs.• The Knowledge Networks are run by expert facilitators; they may be hosted by the SEEDA Sector Consortia or, where appropriate, the knowledge base.• The Knowledge Networks engender a creative environment in which lateral thinking and challenge is promoted; cross-sectoral approaches are encouraged. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 68. Knowledge Network Community• The broad community in the SEEDA Region that is interested in the activities of the Knowledge Network Programme.• The Knowledge Network Community is open to all and meets twice a year.• Meetings take the form of: An update on knowledge transfer and innovation activities. Opportunity for members to provide feedback on (and engage in) the existing Knowledge Networks and to propose topics for new Knowledge Networks. Opportunity for members to provide feedback on knowledge transfer Finansira Evropska unija
  • 69. BRIN - British-Russian Innovation Network• Builds technological partnerships between UK and the Russia• Database of technology offers and requests from British and Russian companies and R&D organisations.• Technology providers are represented by the BRIN members and partners – UK Innovation Relay Centres (IRCs) now EEN – Russian Innovation and Technology Transfer Centres, belonging to the Russian Technology Transfer Network, RTTN. Finansira Evropska unija
  • 70. Pitanja i komentari••••• Finansira Evropska unija