Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining  factors
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Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining factors

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A brief but concise presentation on development management and bureaucracy's restraining and constraining factors.

A brief but concise presentation on development management and bureaucracy's restraining and constraining factors.

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Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining  factors Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining factors Presentation Transcript

  • Bureaucracy and Development Management in South Asian Context: Driving and Restraining Forces
    Presented by
    Prajwal Mani Pradhan
    Mahbuba Khatoon Minu
    Sk. Belayet Houssain
    Nusrat Fedrousi
  • Overview of the presentation
    Bureaucracy and Development management Relationship
    Restraining and Driving Forces for Bureaucracy
    Insights from Nepal
    Insights form Bangladesh
  • Bureaucracy
    A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarch bureaus and offices, each of which has a specified mission.
    Public agencies that translate the intent of democratic institutions into actions.
  • Advantages ?
    Ability to organize large tasks
    Concentration of specialized talent
  • Disadvantages ?
    Efficiency vs. responsiveness
    Responsiveness
    Efficiency
  • Analysis adapted from Hirschmann’s article
  • A brief history of conflicting Interests
    Riggs argued that too much attention was being given to the civil services of the Third World.
    He was concerned that this would encourage an overdeveloped and unaccountable bureaucracy which would lead in turn to negative development (Riggs, 1960).
  • Other scholars in the movement continued to believe that it was essential to persevere with a reform agenda for bureaucracies (Raphaeli, 1967; Waterston, 1965).
    Ageneral loss of momentum in the second half of the 1960s, Schaffer concluded that the movement had reached a `deadlock'.
  • Meanings into bureaucracy and Development Mgmt.
    Subject
    Object
    Medium of development & development mgmt
    (For implementation)
    Bureaucrats
    Programme
  • Conceptual diagram
    Driving Factors
    Bureaucracy
    Bureaucracy
    Driving Factors
    Bureaucracy
    Restraining Factors
    Present Situation
    Future Situation
    Past Situation
  • Driving Forces for Bureaucracy
    Debureaucratization
    Localization and training
    Circumvention
    Reorientation
    Decentralization
    Privatization and pressure
    Restraining Forces
  • Debureaucratization
    Earliest attempt to transform bureaucracy-1950s and 1960s
    Came through “Development administration movement” [American-dominated but primarily Asian-focused collection of comparative concepts and suggestions for reform.]
    Stripped of conceptual content, it called for radically different kind of civil service.
  • Debureaucratization
    Weberian model was inappropriate for poor
    Context(unstable and challenging)
    Resources(far less manpower and money)
    Challenge or task(not only to provide services but to initiate change in public behavior and act as a catalyst for development)
    These all were different from western countries.
  • Debureaucratization
    Proposed:
    drastic flattening,
    different relationship with public,
    flexible task force approach,
    field offices than head quarters
    Simply put proponents of this approach wanted to turn bureaucracy on its head.
    THIS DID NOT HAPPEN!!!
  • Debureaucratization
    The bureaucrats seemed
    Neither the will,
    The capacity,
    Nor the political freedom to undertake large scale structural and attitudinal changes.
    The movement failed to make effective linkages with its most important potential partner, the third world bureaucrat. Therefore lost its relevance.
  • Debureaucratization
    A prime reason for this failure was lack of understanding of the bureaucracy as stakeholder and actor.
    Outsider scholar saw as challenges( the outcomes of which they would not have to face)
    The bureaucrats saw as problems.
    Instead of considering development fad of moment, they gave attention to their own perceptions and interest and acted accordingly.
  • Localization and training
    Promotions recruitment, training, technical assistance, new job descriptions, the use of super numerous posts and development projects were all focused.
    When asked for their opinions they asked for:
    Localization
    Training
    Professionalization
    Justified in terms of developmental needs and nation-building.
    But also expanded status and employment opportunities of the bureaucrats themselves.
  • Localization and training
    A central contradiction
    Organization objective was often, to use the training to increase his her options and mobility.
    In many cases individual motivations won out over organizational objectives.
  • Circumvention
    Attention was given to build semi-autonomous public enterprises or parastatalslocated outside the conventional ministries.
    Growing feeling of frustration with the bureaucracy:
    Inefficient
    Corrupt
  • Circumvention
    Public enterprises(state-owned enterprises) seemed to be solution.
    Could be effective mechanism for reducing foreign control making up lack of an effective private sector.
    Bureaucracy didn’t simply stand by and watch this(reducing of its sphere of control and opportunities for employment.
  • Circumvention
    Bureaucrats moved quickly and effectively either to take up these(better paid and resourced jobs) or in alliance with politicians to spin a web of bureaucratic and political controls over the new enterprises.
    Bureaucracy might have been bypassed but not the bureaucrats.
  • Reorientation
    Unable reform bureaucracy or to bypass it-an attempt to re-orient it.
    The problems of this approach were threefold
    Positive public response needed
    Tasks of preparing job descriptions for and monitoring the performance of reoriented people-focused civil service would be very difficult.
    The whole exercise would be time-consuming and demonstrable results would take longer to emerge
    Very little in this for the bureaucrats
  • Decentralization
    Kiggundu’s (1989) “an ideal rather than a reality”
    Takes a very politically secure government to parcel out political power.
    Takes more resources than most local councils have, allowed to keep.
  • Decentralization
    Numerous obstacles to bureaucratic support for devolution in poor countries.
    Lack of financial and incentive systems at the local level.
    To make decentralization work therefore require an affordable means of attracting able administrators away from the capital, especially since politicians show little sustained interest (Silverman, 1990).
  • Privatization and pressure
    1980s and 1990s dominated by Policy-based lending called Structural Adjustment Program.
    SAP required:
    Reduction in size of government
    Reduced govt. controls
    Regulations
    Subsidies and protection of various forms
    Markedly increased emphasis on free market
    Liberalization of trade
  • Privatization and pressure
    Having failed to turn the bureaucracy on its head, or to bypass it, decentralize or reorient it the new answer was to privatize it or least part of it.
    Nelson(1989) identified essential problem as anti-state nature of many reform
    It actually takes a more effective government to privatize.
  • Privatization and pressure
    Issues related with Pay:
    Mozambique by early 1990s a driver working for a donor organization was earning more than the most senior agricultural officer in government.
    In Kenya the disparity between public and private wages grew by 3 per cent a year during the period 1982-92.
  • Privatization and pressure
    The World Bank and the bilateral donors should decide what they want;
    The Bank keeps telling us to reduce the size of government;
    The other are now telling us to add all of these new democratic agencies
  • Becoming accountable and responsive
    Governance has become latest concern of development management.
    It means different things to different people.
    The World Bank(1992) “manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country economic and social resources for development.”
  • Becoming accountable and responsive
    To make bureaucracy accountable , transparent and even responsive the objective is to achieve this outcome by supply but by demand(civil societies)
    It should conduct more like the private sector through reforms such as those suggested by new public management.
  • Becoming accountable and responsive
    Over-large state(one that employs too many people, absorbs too much revenue and intervenes in areas where it does not belong)
    Over powerful state(one with too many powers of regulation and control)
    Poor countries where??? First one
  • Four Corners of Bureaucratic Decline
    Incentives
    Public service
    Resources
    Legitimacy
  • Becoming accountable and responsive
    How can governments raise the revenue necessary to pay salaries that will motivate bureaucrats to provide quality services that will re-establish legitimacy?
  • Learning from Nepal
    Adapted from: SapkotaB.N., Building partnerships for reforms in the Nepalese bureaucracy,Asian Review of Public Administration
  • Nepal perspective
    Nepal had blend of civil and military systems before the advent of democracy 1951 A.D.
    Since then Nepalese bureaucracy has travelled a long way from centralized and discretionary regime to a more decentralized, liberal and rule of law regime.
    The civil service act of 1956 was enacted.
    1960 multi party system replaced by party less panchayat system(lasted for 30 years)
    During this period also various reform commission were constituted at various level.
  • In 1975 another commission made recommendation to promote institutional dev of govt agencies especially capacity building in planning in project dev and its supervision and in designing and implementing corresponding M&E systems.
  • Factors affecting Nepalese bureaucracy
    Political milieu
    Dec 16 1960, partylesspanchayat system
    1990 multi party democracy
    People participation through decentralization and empowering local bodies emphasized in constitution.
    Right to information granted by constitution
  • Economic trend
    Has implemented eleven development plan(including one-3 year interim plan, others are 5 year plan)
    31% of population below poverty
    Economic liberation was introduced with implementation of SAP.
  • Social changes
    After multiparty democracy society started to get organized by creating trade union, consumer unions and cooperatives.
    Human rights gender equality and social welfare have become major concerns of people
  • Administrative reforms
    The role of civil service has changed.
    Facilitation, regulation, promotion and service delivery are regarded as the main tasks of bureaucracy in lieu of control mechanisms
    Transparency is being sought in decision making
    Bureaucracy is held responsible for its omissions and commissions
  • Restraining factors
    Traditionally Rigid because they are tied to procedural red tapism.
    Lack of commitment to public interest
    Traditional attitude of bureaucracy(power holders don’t want to necessarily share authority with other partners, fear of over shadow)
  • Current practice
    Empowerment of local governments(4000 VDC, 36 MC, 75 DDC)
    Devolution and Decentralization
    Privatization and liberalization
    Sharing development functions with NGOs
    Debureaucratising measures(simplification of working procedures, bundling of administrative services, deregulation and competitions, contracting out)
    Welcoming women as development partners
  • Constitution making process
    The interim constitution of Nepal is observed throughout the world as the most comprehensive interim constitution.
    The constitutional assembly itself is a track record of its own because of its pronounced inclusiveness.
    Many development project are waiting for the constitution to be formulated.
    The Government has also announced full devolution program for selected 14 districts to be effective from fiscal year 2006.
  • How did Nepal's economy survive during 10 years armed conflict?
    increased level of social mobilization,
    decentralization,
    increased resources to rural areas,
    stronger peoples' ownership of the programs and
    increasing remittances have helped not only to prevent large scale humanitarian crisis but also to accomplish some progress in human development indicators in the country.
    Shankar Prasad Sharma
    Vice chairman
    National Planning Commission
  • Recent Development
    April 16 2011, (YESTERDAY) Nepal signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA).
    2 major objective for Nepal
    Increased market access
    Promote investment
    Actions from Nepal government
    Will form a council
    Make action plan and act on it
  • Recent Development
    Since 2010 service sector has been opened to 11 service sector, 65 sub sector like banking financial sector, education, accounting, auditing.
    Government identified 19 products to be exported, most match with GSP(Generalized System of Preference) Facility.
    Proposing Nepali product to be duty free as Nepal is also a post conflict country (Caribbean, African and Afghanistan are already enjoying it).
    Shankar Sharma
    Nepali Ambassador to US
  • Learning from Bangladesh
  • Driving and Restraining Forces of Bureaucracy in Bangladesh Context
  • Driving Forces
    Civil Service Conduct Rules
    Civil Service Discipline & Appeal Rules
    Pension, gratuity and other allowances
    Different cadres for different professional groups- scope for development of professionalism
  • Driving Forces
    • Developing country- to enter in civil service is a pride and status
    • Policy formulation, implement and monitoring activities
    • Scope to engage in Development activities of the country
  • Restraining Forces:
    • Loss of elitism/values
    • Rules and regulations
    • Derailment of commitment of ruling party after election
    • Politicization
    • Legalize black money
  • Restraining Forces:
    Inclusion of military personnel into civil service
    Low salary
    Force Retirement or Dumping Posting
    Arbitrary termination & reinstate in service
  • Some notable progress:
    The Parliament started off very well including formation of the committees in the first session.
    Committees are active in many cases, though conflict of interest of committee members remains a predicament against effectiveness.
  • Among many important laws adopted was the Right to Information Act and human rights commission .
    Information Commission has an unenviable task of steering a process of transition from the culture of secrecy to openness.
  • Government's firmness to push ahead with the implementation of the DAP of Dhaka was encouraging.
    But this has been outshined by the report of tender-related violence, forcible grabbing of land, water bodies, forest and khas land by the leaders, agents and activists of the ruling party.
  • Discussion in Bangladesh perspective
    Can bureaucracy be successful in providing the critical support to a successful “statecraft”?
  • Discussion in Bangladesh perspective
    A strong, neutral civil service supports the growth and sustainability of better governance.
    The political institutions too are strengthened in the process.
    Viewed in this perspective politicization of services destroys institutional governance.
    Trapped in a politics of zero-sum game, optimism is drawn from the Bangladeshi penchant for democratic rights.
  • Discussion in Bangladesh perspective
    We remain hopeful in spite of the contrasting picture depicted above.
    Our people have never failed to take the correct decision.
  • Thank you