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The state of global internet access as of 2012

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    The state-of-broadband-2012 The state-of-broadband-2012 Document Transcript

    • The State ofBroadband 2012:ACHIEVING DIGITALINCLUSION FOR ALLA report by the Broadband CommissionSEPTEMBER 2012
    • ABOUT THE COMMISSIONThe Broadband Commission for Digital Development was established by the InternationalTelecommunication Union (ITU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) in response to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon’s call to stepup efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Launched in May 2010,the Commission comprises government leaders from around the world and the top-level representatives and leaders from relevant industries and international agencies andorganizations concerned with development.The Broadband Commission embraces a range of different perspectives in a multi-stakeholderapproach to promoting the roll-out of broadband, and provides a fresh approach to UN andbusiness engagement. To date, the Commission has published a number of high-level policyreports, as well as a number of best practices and case studies. This report is published by theCommission on the occasion of the 2012 Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly inNew York.More information about the Commission is available at: www.broadbandcommission.org
    • ChapterThe State ofBroadband 2012:ACHIEVING DIGITALINCLUSION FOR ALLA report by the Broadband CommissionSEPTEMBER 2012
    • AcknowledgementsThis Report has been written collaboratively, drawing on insights and richcontributions from a range of Commissioners and their organizations. It hasbeen compiled and edited by the chief editor and co-author, Phillippa Biggsof ITU. Antonio García Zaballos of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)contributed Chapter 7 and part of Chapter 4. Design concepts were developedby Ahone Njume-Ebong and Maria Candusso of ITU, with support from Simonde Nicola. Youlia Lozanova, Anna Polomska and Nancy Sundberg providedregulatory analysis of National Broadband Plans. Esperanza Magpantay, SusanTeltscher, Piers Letcher and Ivan Vallejo provided statistical insights and data.Preparation of this report has been overseen by Doreen Bogdan-Martin, withadministrative support from Venus Shahna-Ekman.We are indebted to the contributors who have made this report possible.Contributors are accredited under their contribution. We wish to thank thefollowing people for their kind review and comments (listed in alphabetical orderof institution, followed by alphabetical order of surname):Guillermo Alarcon, Florian Damas, Mirela Doicu, Florence Gaudry-Perkins,Gabrielle Gauthey, Revital Marom and André Mérigoux (Alcatel Lucent);Judi Bird, Richard Desmond, Catherine Higgins, Peter Higgins, E. O’Shea,Joseph McCarroll and Michael Rolfe and Andrew Scarvell (the AustralianGovernment); John Garrity (Cisco); Mikael Halen, Heather Johnson, PaulLanders and Elaine Weidman (Ericsson); Alison Birkett, Fabio Nasarre andBalazs Zorenyi (European Commission); Narda Jones, Margaret Lancaster,Richard Lerner, Roxanne McElvane, Julie Saulnier and Emily Talaga (the FederalCommunications Commission of the United States); Ivan Huang (Huawei); Dr.Esteban Pacha Vicente (IMSO); Melanie Yip (Infocomm Development Authorityof Singapore); Christoph Legutko, Carlos Martinez, Glenn Olson, Peter Pitsch,Rakesh Puvvada and John Roman (Intel); Antonio García Zaballos (Inter-American Development Bank); Renata Brazil-David, Patrick Masambu and JoséToscano (ITSO); Jose María Diaz Batanero, Paul Conneally, Gary Fowlie, TobyJohnson, Lisa Kreuzenbeck, Piers Letcher, Youlia Lozanova, Gemma Newbery,Sarah Parkes, Susan Schorr, Susan Teltscher and Ivan Vallejo (ITU); PaulGarrett and Paul Mitchell (Microsoft Corp.); Irena Posin (Government of Serbia);Dr. Saad Zaafer Al Kahtani (STC); Carlos Helú Slim (the Slim Foundation);the Telefonica team; Indrajit Banerjee, Janis Karklins, Irmgarda Kasinskaite,Fengchun Miao, Zeynep Varoglu and the UNESCO team (UNESCO); Ali Jazairy,Michele Woods and Victor Vazquez-Lopez (WIPO).This report was externally peer-reviewed by Dr. Tim Kelly (World Bank),Michael Kende (Analysys Mason) and Michael Minges (consultant), to whomwe are deeply indebted. We are especially grateful to Florence Gaudry-Perkinsof Alcatel Lucent, Margaret Lancaster of U.S. Federal CommunicationsCommission, Paul Mitchell of Microsoft and Carlos Helú Slim of the SlimFoundation for their dedicated reviews of this report.
    • ChapterContents1. Introduction 042. Introducing our Future Built on Broadband 063. Broadband for Driving Development and Achieving the Millennium Development Goals 204. Evaluating Global Growth in Broadband: the Need for Policy Leadership 34 4.1 Target 1: Making broadband policy universal 37 4.2 Target 2: Making broadband affordable 42 4.3 Target 3: Connecting homes to broadband 43 4.4 Target 4: Getting people online 445. Achieving Digital Inclusion for all: Investing in Infrastructure 466. Multilingual Content as a Driver of Demand 607. Policy Recommendations to Maximize the Impact of Broadband 668. Conclusions 74List of AnnexesAnnex 1: Impact of Broadband on Various Economies 76Annex 2: Examples of key Countries with the “Reaching the Third Billion” program (Intel) 80Annex 3: Fixed Broadband Penetration, worldwide, 2011 (ITU) 82Annex 4: Mobile Broadband Penetration, worldwide, 2011 (ITU) 84Annex 5: Target 3 – Percentage of Households with Internet, Developing Countries, 2011 (ITU) 86Annex 6: Target 4 – Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, worldwide, 2011 (ITU) 88Annex 7: Target 4 – Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, LDCs (ITU) 90Annex 8: Target 4 – Percentage of Individuals using the Internet, Developing Economies, (ITU) 91 1
    • List of Featured Insights Featured Insight 1: How Broadband is Changing our Society (Carlos Slim, President, Slim Foundation) Featured Insight 2: Broadband for Private Sector Development (Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, Secretary-General, UNCTAD) Featured Insight 3: Enabling Sustainable, Economic Well-being through Mobile Technology (Sunil Bharti Mittal, Chairman & Managing Director, Bharti Airtel Ltd) Featured Insight 4: Broadband for Improving the Lives of Women – and their Families (H.E. Ms. Jasna Matic, Government of the Rep. of Serbia) Featured Insight 5: Broadband and m-Learning (Alcatel Lucent) Featured Insight 6: Integrating ICT into Education – the Millennium Village Project (Ericsson and The Earth Institute) Featured Insight 7: E-health in China (Huawei) Featured Insight 8: A Talent for Innovation – Why Broadband is the Question and the Response (Professor Bruno Lanvin, Executive Director, INSEAD eLab) Featured Insight 9: The Trans-Eurasian Information Super Highway Project (H.E. Minister Professor Dr. Abbasov, Minister of Communications and Information Technologies of the Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan). Featured Insight 10: The Need for Policy Leadership (Dr. Robert Pepper, Cisco Corporation) Featured Insight 11: Designing National Broadband Plans (Inter-American Development Bank) Featured Insight 12: U.S. Executive Order to “Dig Once” (U.S. Federal Communications Commission) Featured Insight 13: Australia’s National Digital Economy Strategy and National Broadband Network (Senator the Hon. Stephen Conroy, Minister for Broadband, Communications & the Digital Economy, Government of Australia) Featured Insight 14: Open access in the digital economy (ITU) Featured Insight 15: The Importance of Small Cells for Wireless Broadband (Alcatel Lucent) Featured Insight 16: The Role of Satellite in Connecting the Next Billion (Mr. José Manuel Do Rosario Toscano, Director-General of the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, ITSO) Featured Insight 17: How Broadband Satellite-Based Services will contribute to Meeting the Global Broadband Challenge (Dr. Esteban Pacha, Director General, International Mobile Satellite Organization, IMSO) Featured Insight 18: Reaching the Third Billion – Bringing the Prepaid Miracle to Broadband (John Davies, Vice-President, Intel) Featured Insight 19: Broadband for Empowering Women (H.E. Ms. Jasna Matic, Government of the Rep. of Serbia) Featured Insight 20: The Relationship between local content and Internet development (UNESCO, OECD and ISOC) Featured Insight 21: Internationalized Domain Names (UNESCO) Featured Insight 22: Preparing for Mobile Broadband (World Bank) Featured Insight 23: Keeping an eye on quality of service standards (Leong Keng Thai, Deputy Chief Executive/Director-General (Telecoms and Post), Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore) Featured Insight 24: Intellectual Property (IP) and Broadband (Mr. Francis Gurry, World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO)2
    • List of FiguresFigure 1: The Structure of this Report (Broadband Commission)Figure 2: Introducing our Broadand Future (various; ITU, Akamai, Twitter, GlobalWeb Index)Figure 3: Smartphones as Portals to the Online World (ITU)Figure 4: Growth in broadband worldwide, 2001-2011 (ITU)Figure 5: Global Broadband Subscriptions, end 2011 (ITU, Point Topic)Figure 6: Policy Leadership in Broadband (ITU)Figure 7: Targets set by National Broadband Plans (ITU)Figure 8: Fixed-broadband sub-basket for Developing Countries, 2011 (ITU)Figure 9: Proportion of households with Internet access in developingcountries, 2002-2015 (ITU)Figure 10: Internet user penetration, 2000-2015 (ITU)Figure 11: Market Analysis for Broadband Provision (IDB)Figure 12: Functionality & User Experience (Intel)Figure 13: Top Ten Languages on the Internet (Internet World Stats)Figure 14: The Web of Many Languages, mid-2012 (ITU)Figure 15: Converged Regulation? The Mandates of Regulators, 2010 (ITU)List of TablesTable 1: Summary Statistics for High-Speed Connectivity (ITU)Table 2: Broadband and the MDGs (ITU)Table 3: Investing in Different Network Layers (ITU, Alcatel Lucent)List of BoxesBox 1: Our Mobile High-speed Future (ITU)Box 2: The Device Wars (Ericsson and Intel)Box 3: With 6 Billion Mobile Subscriptions, Have We Cracked UniversalAccess? (ITU)Box 4: Practical Uses of Mobile Communications in Low-income Countries(ITU) 3
    • 1 Introduction High-speed affordable broadband connectivity to the Internet is essential to modern society, offering widely recognized economic and social benefits (Annex 1). The Broadband Commission for Digital Development promotes the adoption of broadband-friendly practices and policies for all, so everyone can take advantage of the benefits offered by broadband. With this Report, the Broadband Commission expands awareness and understanding of the importance of broadband networks, services, and applications for generating economic growth and achieving social progress. It has been written collaboratively, drawing on insightful and thought-provoking contributions from our leading array of Commissioners and their organizations, foremost in their fields. This Report is structured around four main themes which can help us to realize the potential of broadband: Figure 1: The Structure of this Report The Need for Policy Leadership (Chapter 4) Multilingual Our Future Investing Content as a Built on in Demand Driver Broadband Infrastructure (Chapter 6) (Chapter 2) (Chapter 5) Broadband for Development & Achieving the MDGs (Chapter 3)4
    • Chapter 1The extension of broadband infrastructure, services and applications ischallenging, especially in the current economic climate — this Reportexplores some of the technical, policy and business decisions involved. Ittracks countries’ progress in the Commission’s four targets anounced at theBroadband Leadership Summit in October 2011 for: making broadband policyuniversal; making broadband affordable; connecting homes to broadband; andgetting people online.The report recognizes a clear need for policy leadership at the national levelto establish a strong vision among stakeholders and prioritize the deploymentof broadband at the national level. A growing number of countries now have anational broadband plan, policy or strategy in place, with some 119 countrieshaving a policy in place by mid-2012. Broadband is also becoming moreaffordable around the world, although it remains out of reach in many countries.Worldwide, countries are broadly on-track to achieve the Commission’s targetfor household penetration. However, additional growth in access is needed toachieve the targets for individual Internet user penetration. Smartphones andmobile broadband may provide the much-needed additional channel to achievethis extra growth.The Commission hopes that this Report will inform and guide internationalbroadband policy discussions and support the continued expansion of thebenefits of broadband globally. The recent UN Rio+20 Conference advancingthe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognized that “it is essentialto work toward improved access to ICT, especially broadband networksand services, and bridge the digital divide, recognizing the contribution ofinternational cooperation in this regard” (Rio+20 Outcome Documents). Forthen, broadband can deliver digital inclusion for all and continue to transformpolicy, social, and development outcomes around the world. 5
    • 2 Introducing our Future Built on Broadband The Internet is changing. From By 2020, the number of connected narrowband to broadband, from devices may potentially outnumber kilobits to Gigabits, from connected connected people by six to one people to connected things – our (Figure 2b), transforming our networked world is changing in concept of the Internet, and society, speed, size, scale, and scope. Our forever (Featured Insight 1). ultra-connected future will build on converged Next-Generation Today’s Internet economy is large Networks (NGN), while embracing and growing fast by every measure. broader concepts of embedded In 2012, the Boston Consulting intelligence, automated Machine Group estimated the size of the to Machine (M2M) traffic, and the Internet economy in the G20 ‘Internet of Things’. countries at around US$ 2.3 trillion or 4.1% of GDP in 2010; by 2016, In our future networked world, we this could nearly double to US$ shall enjoy high-speed connectivity 4.2 trillion2. In 2011, McKinsey on the move, roaming seamlessly estimated that the Internet accounts between networks, wherever we for 3.4% of total GDP and one fifth go – anywhere, anytime, via any of all growth in GDP for the G8 device. Today, the stellar growth countries plus five major economies of mobile means that many people (Rep. of Korea, Sweden, Brazil, now access the Internet via a mobile China, and India – McKinsey Global device (Figure 2a). Worldwide, Institute, 20113). Taking into account mobile phone subscriptions the spillover effects of broadband exceeded 6 billion in early 2012, could boost these estimates further, with three-quarters of those as broadband connectivity is also subscriptions in the developing argued to impact positively labor world (ITU, 2012). As the price of productivity (e.g. Booz & Company, handsets falls and their functionality 20094) and job creation (e.g. increases, soon the vast majority Ericsson, Arthur D. Little, 20125, of people on the planet will hold Shapiro & Hassett, 20126). in their hand a device with higher processing power than the most powerful computers from the 1980s (World Bank, 20121). In 2011, the number of networked devices surpassed the global population.6
    • Chapter 2 Figure 2: Introducing our Broadband Future Figure 2a: Mobile (at least 4.0 for Users) Mobile PCs and tablets The networks may or may not 3.5 Smartphones be mobile – but the users and devices definitely are. 3.0 Source: Ericsson Traffic & MarketSubscriptions (billions) Report 2012. 2.5 2.0, 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 *Smartphone forecasts from 2011 onwards 25 Mobile broadband Figure 2b: Talking Things & Talking People 20 Mobile subscriptions The number of networked devices overtook the total global Total number (billions) Total networked devices population in 2011. 15 Source: ITU. Note: “Total networked devices” refer to 10 all SIM cards and M2M connections. 5 0 2011 2015 2020 7
    • Chapter 2 Figure 2c: High-speed (at least for some) Countries with % connections to Akamai > 5 Mbps, shown on a sliding scale with light blue showing 100%. Source: Akamai: www.akamai. com/stateoftheinternet/ Map Visualization Note: Data unavailable for countries shaded in white. 0 % 100 The World Bank (2009) has IP (Figure 2d), share updates over estimated that a 10% increase social networks (Figures 2e, 2f), in broadband penetration would and outsource – or crowd-source yield a 1.21 and 1.38% increase in – everything from housework to GDP growth on average for high- homework (Box 1). income and low/middle-income countries respectively7. Country This will be the cutting-edge case case studies yield similar estimates for those of us able to access for individual countries as diverse high-speed broadband connections as Panama8, the Philippines9, and to the Internet. Large swathes Turkey (see Annex 1). Broadband of the industrialized world can is today a critical infrastructure in already access high-speed Internet the growing global digital economy, connectivity at over 5 Mbps; and countries that fail to invest however, the picture is not as bright in broadband infrastructure risk for Africa, much of southern Asia, being excluded from today’s online and Latin America (Figure 2c). economy, as well as the next stage of the digital revolution and future Internet. Internet Protocol (IP)-enabled broadband connections are not just about economic empowerment, however. Always-on connectivity can improve our lives in a myriad of ways by providing better access to health and education, enabling financial inclusion, facilitating m-payments, and creating transparency in government, as just a few examples. Broadband will ultimately also enable everyone to access data easily in the cloud, use video conferencing and Voice over 8
    • Chapter 2 Chapter 100% Figure 2d: Internet Protocol (IP)-enabled 80% Worldwide regulation & legaliza- % Total countries tion of VoIP, 2004-2011 (% of total 20% number of countries). 40% Source: ITU. 20% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Allowed Closed Banned No Framework Figure 2e: Real-time Growth in Twitter @replies to and from users in Japan in real-time after the earthquake on 11 March 2011. Source: Twitter cited at Maproom: www.maproomblog.com/2011/06/ twitter-mapping_the_japanese_ earthquake.php Figure 2f: Loud & Social 80% Global Social Network Penetration, selected countries, as a % of active Internet users. 70% Source: Global Web Index Map Social Networking 2011, www. 60%Social network penetration visual.ly/global-map-social- networking-2011 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% ia ng ia Po e M d o ng A Ca e da Au na lia th UK ds ly ain ce y s sia ia Ru l p. n i az an ne or g pa Ho exic lan US Ita ys ss d Re ra an i lan ra Ko na ne Ch Sp In ap Br m pi Ja ala st ve Fr do er ilip a, er ng lA M re G In Ph Si Ko Ne ba lo G 9
    • Chapter 2 Box 1: Our Mobile High-speed Future Which trends will drive our mobile high-speed future, and how will they impact users? –– Real-time status updates for objects, as well as people, in a growing ‘Internet of Things’; –– Using location-based services and Global Information Systems (GIS) in many different ways in our lives – for example, to summon taxis, avoid traffic jams, track late buses or stolen cars, locate friends – and ourselves; –– Apps ‘pushing’ out information to users, rather than users searching for and ‘pulling’ in information; –– Sharing our likes and dislikes, resulting in targeted advertising, as well as search results tailored to our personal preferences; –– Better access to healthcare or government services and job opportunities; –– Collaborative crowd-sourcing in authorship, project management, funding relief efforts, generating encyclopaediae or news reporting; –– ‘Collaborative consumption’10 or the outsourcing of tasks or household chores for a price; –– Changes to our notions of privacy, or even the demise of privacy? –– Converged cross-platform malware, as well as converged services; –– Storing data in the cloud – you need never again be dependent on your physical device. Source: ITU. Given the prolific spread of mobile, as a portal to the content and apps in the future, the digital divide11 (or available in the online world. A inequality in access to Information host of online services and apps and Communication Technologies are today making mobiles and or ICTs) may no longer describe smartphones even more powerful disparities in access, but instead by combining several functions – for denote disparities in speed and example, Instagram enables the functionality – or more specifically, fast sharing of photos and video what people can do with their over different devices or different mobile devices (Figure 3). Indeed, social networks, while Mini Opera the handset may become relatively ‘compresses’ data-heavy websites less important, as more and more for easier access over lower speed people will use their mobile device mobile connections. 10
    • Chapter 2Figure 3: Smartphones as portals to the online world 1. Voice 2. Internet access 3. Newspaper/ Magazine stand 4. Games console 5. Navigation device 6. Camera & Video 7. Wallet Smart Phone 8. Television 9. Accessibility features and applications: Calculator, Alarm Clock, Address Book, GPS/Compass, Voice Recognition software, Audio prompts. Inbuilt 10. Spirit level 11. Instant messaging/ Social media
    • Chapter 2 There were 589 million fixed units sold18. According to Ericsson, broadband subscriptions by the end Singapore ranked number one in the of 2011 (most of which were located region for smartphone ownership19. in the developed world), but nearly We are moving towards a world with twice as many mobile broadband a multiplicity of devices, including subscriptions at 1.09 billion new specialized devices in a (Table 1). Of a stock of 5.97 billion pervasive “Internet of Things”. With mobile cellular subscriptions laptops shrinking in dimensions, as worldwide by the end of 2011, some smartphones gain in functionality, 18.3% related to mobile broadband subscriptions. Nearly a third of all the space between smartphones, handsets shipped in 2011 were tablets and PCs is shrinking fast, high-speed devices (IDC, 2012)12. while the gap between smartphones According to Ericsson, to date, and basic feature phones is mobile broadband subscriptions are widening. Tablets remain a great growing by approximately 60% year- enabler for broadband usage, as on-year and could reach around 5 they are able to deliver more content billion in 201713. via a larger screen. In reality, there is an important role for all of these Worldwide, the total number of different devices (smartphones, smartphones is expected to exceed tablets, netbooks, PCs, and fixed 3 billion by 2017 (Ericsson, 201214), devices), with people choosing the with the number of smartphones appropriate device for the task at sold in Africa and the Middle East hand – but they all need broadband expected to increase four-fold from (see Box 2: The Device Wars). 29.7 million units sold in 2011 to 124.6 million by 2017 (Pyramid The strong growth in mobile Research15). In Latin America, broadband and smartphones is smartphones could represent half promising, but should not generate of all mobile phone sales by 201616. complacency. Indeed, growing Smartphone adoption is also gaining multi-device ownership means momentum rapidly in the Asia- that the number of mobile cellular Pacific region17, where smartphones subscriptions is today significantly are projected to account for 33.2% larger than the number of actual of all handsets sold in 2012, with mobile phone users (see Box 3: China alone representing 48.2% of Have We Cracked Access?). Table 1: Summary statistics for high-speed connectivity Broadband % Global Total Total 2011 Total, 2011 high-speed, 2011 Internet users 2.26 billion -/- -/- Source: ITU (http://www.itu.int/ ITU-D/ict/statistics/at_glance/ Fixed Internet 658.8 million KeyTelecom.html). Smartphone 589 million (2011) 80% (2010) shipment statistics from IDC subscriptions (2010) 2012 at www.mobithinking. com/mobile-marketing-tools/ Mobile latest-mobile-stats#phone- 5.97 billion 1.09 billion* 18.3% subscriptions shipments. Note: * includes data-only subscriptions. Handset 491.4 million 1.55 billion 31.8% shipments (smartphones) 12
    • Chapter 2Featured Insight 1: Chapter and this year, Connect2Grow, withHow Broadband is Changing the main aim of equal opportunityour Society for all people. In Latin America, we are creating free Digital LibrariesTechnology and innovation are mainly in public schools wherewhat makes it possible for human people can go to learn and surf thecivilization to advance. Throughout web for free with loaned computerhistory, technology and innovation equipment at high speeds. Telmexhave transformed the way we live has a programme in Mexico, whichand brought about civilizational has benefited more than 2.8 millionchange. Today, the digital revolution students, teachers and parents. Inis transforming our world and our Telmex’s Bibliotecas Digitales, ITsocieties even faster, some of which training is provided, while peopleare now connected through voice can borrow laptops and take themdata and video at the speed of light. home. We are developing thousandsTechnological progress is taking of WiFi hotspots for our customers.us from a secondary industrial The Broadband Commission issociety to a tertiary service society. documenting best practices, so weMore than 80% of the population in can know and learn from what isdeveloped countries now work in the being done in different countries.service sector. The telecom networkrepresents the circulation system of However, with such rapidthe knowledge society, with advances technological change, seriousin IT and computing leveraging our challenges are arising, due to aknowledge and brainpower. The lack of the deep structural changesdevelopment of the Internet has accompanying civilizationaltriggered profound socio-economic change. We are seeing very highand political changes, and is unemployment, especially amongtransforming the services industry. youth. What activities will create new jobs? Where are these new jobsBroadband Internet should be being formed? We need to promoteaccessible to all – this is the aim sectors which will create these newof work underway at the UN and jobs. Governments should introducethe ITU. In 2010, ITU and UNESCO IT in their activities, promote digitallaunched the Broadband Commission culture and economic activities thatto provide universal access to are creating new jobs. It is clear thatbroadband and universal access to IT is a key tool for economic growth.connectivity. Today, being connectedis crucially important – everyone There are huge vistas of opportunityhas to be connected, everyone opening up to create millions of jobs,should have access to knowledge with the possibility of developingand understanding – for education, hundreds of thousands of appshealth, business, for entertainment. and content that can be used byThe Broadband Commission is everyone connected via the web.working for digital inclusion for all People need to be trained to higherby 2015. levels of skills and education, so the young are better trained for workingHigh-speed Internet access via in job openings in tourism, health,mobile handsets is the most likely ICTs, culture and education. Onlineway of achieving this. Most people universities should be created andcan access voice via mobile, but made accessible to educate manynot yet data. High-speed 3G and 4G more people successfully over thetechnologies are starting to impact, Internet. How we work – and howbut we need to invest more quickly we retire – will have to change.in the smart technologies which Structural changes have to be made,will make access to data happen. and quickly, to avoid a deteriorationGlobally, 15% of the world population in living standards, unemployment,have smartphones, and more than socio-economic and political50% in the US, both growing fast. problems and crisis. We need to lookOperators have to offer customers the back and also acknowledge the costsbest conditions in quality, price and associated with the ways in whichtechnology over multiple platforms. societies move from the agricultural society to the industrial civilization.In 2012, the US has launchedConnect2Compete. In Mexico, Source: Mr. Carlos Slim Hélu, President, thewe launched a programme for Carlos Slim Foundation.technological innovation in 2010, 13
    • Chapter 2 Box 2: The Device Wars With laptops shrinking in dimensions, and smartphones gaining in functionality, the differences between smartphones, tablets and PCs are shrinking fast, while the gap between smartphones and basic feature phones is widening. Which device will win out? How will tomorrow’s digital generation access the Internet? The answers, as always, depend on the the exact question asked. Today, according to survey data about how people are accessing the Internet, PCs remain the dominant Internet access device of preference in many countries by a large margin, including in many emerging markets (see chart below). According to Ericsson’s Traffic & Market Report (2012), “mobile data is expected to have almost doubled in 2011. Laptops, which are perhaps more aptly described as mobile PCs, dominate data traffic in most mobile networks today, but smartphone traffic is growing faster, due to high growth in subscriptions”. The devices which people use to access the Internet Source: Intel. In the near future, the outlook for Internet access devices will be more diverse. Ericsson estimates that the total subscriptions of data-heavy devices (smartphones, mobile PCs and tablets) will grow from around 850 million at the end of 2011 to 3.8 billion by 2017. In terms of the number of devices, Ericsson predicts smartphones will outnumber both tablets and PCs (Figure 2a). Regarding data traffic however, the picture is quite different. Cisco (2012) estimates that adding one smartphone to a network is equivalent to adding 35 non-smartphones; adding one tablet is equivalent to 121 non-smartphones (or 3 smartphones); while adding a laptop/mobile PC is equivalent to 500 non-smartphones. This leads Ericsson to conclude that “in later years [i.e. towards 2017], data traffic will be split fairly equally between smartphones, mobile PCs and tablets” (see chart below). 14
    • Chapter 2 Chapter 10,000 Data: mobile PCs/tablets 8,000 Monthly PetaBytes (10-B) Data: mobile phones 6,000 Voice 4,000 2,000 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Figure source: Ericsson Traffic and Market Report 2012. Sources: Intel, Ericsson and Cisco Virtual Networking Index 2012.Featured Insight 2: In most low-income countries, mobileBroadband for Private solutions will be the preferredSector Development route to extending broadband. In several developing countries,As a Broadband Commissioner high-speed wireless subscriptionsand head of UNCTAD, the UN body already surpass fixed broadbandthat promotes the development- subscriptions. The challenge is tofriendly integration of developing leverage broadband in a way thatcountries into the world economy, helps accelerate development whereunderstanding the implications of it is most needed. Effective use ofemerging technologies for economic the Internet can help enterprisesdevelopment and poverty reduction become more productive, accessis high on my agenda. Possibilities information and knowledge, andto make use of ICTs for development bring their output to markets. Thehave never been greater. New Internet enables enterprises tomobile apps, innovative usage of engage in e-commerce, as well asthe Internet and the expansion of with Governments. However, thebroadband connectivity to more extent to which enterprises aredeveloping countries are creating making use of this opportunityunprecedented opportunities for varies considerably – both betweenenterprises in the South to link to countries and between companies ofnational and international value different sizes (UNCTAD Informationchains, knowledge networks, and Economy Report 2011). UNCTAD datamarkets. This is encouraging. show that fixed broadband use is today almost ubiquitous in developedAt the same time, there is no reason economies, with around 90% offor us to become complacent. The enterprises benefiting from high-global broadband landscape is still speed Internet access. The patterncharacterized by huge gaps in basic is more diverse elsewhere. Forconnectivity, as well as bandwidth. example, more than three-quartersAccording to Ookla, highest average of medium and large enterprises indownload speeds for consumers are Brazil, Colombia, Qatar, Singapore,currently found in Luxembourg at Turkey & UAE enjoy broadband49Mbit/s, compared to some LDCs, access, but the corresponding sharesuch as Bangladesh, Malawi, and is much lower in LDCs, especiallySudan, with speeds of 1 Mbit/s or among smaller companies.less. In areas where the market isfailing to deliver desired broadband Source: Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi,connectivity, policy-makers may Secretary-General, UNCTAD.need to intervene to expeditenetwork and service deployment. 15
    • Chapter 2 Box 3: With 6 Billion Mobile Subscriptions, Have We Cracked Universal Access? Accurate and up-to-date statistics are vital for good policy-making. With nearly 6 billion mobile subscriptions globally and per capita mobile penetration standing at 86.7% by the end of 2011 (ITU, 2012) three- quarters of the world’s population now have access to a mobile phone (Pew, 201120, World Bank 201221). Mobile phone penetration stood at 117% in the developed world at the end of 2011, compared to 78.8% for developing countries, so disparities in penetration and access still persist. Do statistics based solely on subscriptions risk generating complacency? Cisco (2012) estimates there were around 4 billion actual mobile users in 2011, forecast to rise to 5 billion mobile users by 2016, with one billion more users joining the mobile world over the next four years, equivalent to the population of India. Basing statistics on users rather than subscriptions leads to different conclusions as to whether access remains an issue for the developing world as, according to these estimates, actual user penetration is considerably lower than subscription penetration rates. The discrepancy in statistics partly derives from multiple Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card ownership and multi-device ownership, which are increasing dramatically. Cisco estimates that by 2016, a quarter of all mobile users will own more than one device and about 9% will have three or more devices. Deloitte notes a similar trend in multi-tablet ownership (TMT Predictions 201222) . Multi-ownership is a trend which mobile operators are monitoring closely. Today, most mobile subscriptions are device-centric (with typically one subscription per device). With multiple device ownership, it may be better to pool the bandwidth across different devices (per user), so mobile operators can offer packages for multiple devices. In spring 2012, Verizon announced the imminent introduction of data share plans, “Share Everything”, which allow users to share data plans within a single family and across multiple Multiple Device Ownership One-quarter of users will have Multiple (2+) Mobile Devices in 2016, up from 8% in 2011 100% 8% 12% 90% 15% 19% 22% 25% 80% 70% 60% 50% 92% 88% 40% 85% 81% 78% 75% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 16
    • Chapter 2 Chapterdevices23. AT&T has also committed to launching multi-device data plans24.This is good news for consumers with multiple devices, as they will no longerhave to hold a separate plan per device25. Growing demand for services viamultiple devices could exacerbate bandwidth constraints, with providerslooking for new ways to keep pace with need.Better market data is needed, improved statistics, and more informeddiscussion of trends in mobile usage. High-level broad-brush statistics maybe useful, but may engender complacency and need to be accompanied byinformed discussion of the real needs for analysis in different countries. ITUhosts an annual World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting (WTIM)to generate discussion and provide training on ICT statistics and statisticalissues (http://itu.int/ITU-D/ict/wtim12/index.html).Sources: ITU, World Bank IC4D Report 2012, Cisco VNI 2012; Voice of Broadband, Vol. 7, Issue2; Deloitte TMT Predictions. 17
    • Chapter 2 Endnotes 1. “Information and Communication for Development Report 2012: Maximizing Mobile”, World Bank (2012), available at: www.worldbank.org/ ict/IC4D2012. 2. Boston Consulting Group press release, 27 January 2012, available at: www.marketwire.com/press-release/g-20s-internet-economy-is-set- reach-42-trillion-2016-up-from-23-trillion-2010-as-nearly-1611718.htm, citing from “The Connected World: The Internet Economy in the G20”, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Report, March 2012. 3. “Internet Matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs, and prosperity”, McKinsey Global Institute (2011) found the Internet accounts for 3.4% GDP & 21% of GDP growth in G8 plus S. Korea, Sweden, Brazil, China & India: www.eg8forum.com/fr/documents/actualites/McKinsey_ and_Company-internet_matters.pdf. 4. For example, Booz & Company (2009) found that a 10% increase in broadband penetration in any year is correlated with a 1.5% increase in labour productivity over the following five years. “Digital Highways: The Role of Government in 21st-Century Infrastructure”, co-authored by Roman Friedrich, Karim Sabbagh, Bahjat El-Darwiche and Milind Singh. 5. For example, Ericsson and Arthur D. Little have looked at the benefits of broadband and connectivity and found that for every 1,000 broadband connections, 80 new net jobs are created. See: www.ericsson.com/res/ thecompany/docs/comp_facts/background_networkedsociety_final. pdf. The McKinsey Global Institute (2011) study found that 2.4 jobs are created through Internet industry for every job lost. 6. “The Employment Effects of Advances in Internet and Wireless Technology: Evaluating the Transitions from 2G to 3G and 3G to 4G”, Shapiro & Hassett (2012), New Policy Institute, Washington. Their analysis estimates that under the current transition, every 10% increase in the adoption of 3G and 4G wireless technologies could add more than231,000 new jobs to the U.S. economy in less than a year. 7. Information & Communication for Development Report (2009), World Bank, Washington, available from: www. web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/ EXTINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLOGIES/EXTIC4D /0,,contentMDK:22229759~menuPK:5870649~pagePK:64168445~piPK: 64168309~theSitePK:5870636,00.html. See Qiang & Rossotto (2009). 8. Fixed broadband is estimated to have positively impacted the GDP of Panama, accounting for 0.82% of GDP and representing 11.3% of all economic growth on average since 2005, according to the Broadband Commission’s case study of Panama, carried out by Dr. Raul Katz – see: www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/broadband/BB_MDG_Panama_BBCOM.pdf 9. Mobile broadband adoption was found to contribute an annual 0.32% of GDP. Given the importance of mobile in the economy of the Philippines, this would account for 6.9% of all GDP growth for the economy during the past decade, , according to the Broadband Commission’s case study of the Philippines, carried out by Dr. Raul Katz – see: www.itu.int/ITU-D/ treg/broadband/BB_MDG_Philippines_BBCOM.pdf 10. “Could These Start-Ups Become the Next Big Thing?”, Jenna Wortham & Nicole Perlroth, 6 May 2012, at: www.nytimes.com/ interactive/2012/05/07/technology/start-ups-next-big-thing. html?ref=technology 18
    • Chapter 2 Chapter11. “We firmly believe that today, the social and economic development of every country on earth will depend on accessible and affordable access to broadband networks, based on a multilingual approach, as the basis of human opportunity for all citizens – wherever they live and whatever their circumstances”, Report of the Broadband Commission, “A 2010 Leadership Imperative: The Future Built on Broadband”, published in September 2010.12. IDC, 2012 and “Internet Trends 2011”, presentation by M. Meeker, Web 2.0 Summit, 18/10/2011, available from: www.slideshare.net/ marketingfacts/internet-trends-2011-by-mary-meeker13. Ericsson Traffic & Market report, June 2012, at: www.ericsson.com/ res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_report_june_2012.pdf.14. Ericsson Traffic & Market report, June 2012, at: www.ericsson.com/ res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_report_june_2012.pdf.15. Pyramid Research Smartphone Forecast 2012, available from: www.pyramidresearch.com/SmartphoneForecasts. htm?sc=GL060712_AMESMTFC.16. Pyramid Research, Operators and Vendors Aim Smartphones at the Mass Market, Latin America Telecom Insider, Vol. 3, No 6 (November 2011).17. Nielsen Smartphone Insights Study, June 2012.18. Pyramid Research Smartphone Forecast 2012, available from: www.pyramidresearch.com/SmartphoneForecasts. htm?sc=GL060712_AMESMTFC.19. Survey by Ericsson ConsumerLabs, published in June 2012 and quoted at www.news.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/ Science%2Band%2BTech/Story/A1Story20120619-353711.html.20. Based on a survey using a sample of 21 countries with the median for individual use, which was extrapolated to 4.2 billion of the world’s population, the Pew Internet Centre (2011) estimated a mobile household penetration of 77% in 2010, with some 74% of people owning a mobile cellular phone in March 2011. By 2012, this figure is undoubtedly higher. www.pewglobal.org/2011/12/20/ global-digital-communication-texting-social-networking-popular- worldwide/21. The World Bank Information and Communications For Development Report 2012: Maximizing Mobile (Data Appendix) estimated that around 75% of the world’s households had a mobile in 2010.22. Deloitte Technology, Media & Telecommunications (TMT) Predictions 2012, available at: www.deloitte.com/tmtpredictions2012.23. www.venturebeat.com/2012/06/12/verizon-share-everything-plans/24. “AT&T’s Stephenson: Verizon’s shared data pricing ‘not a surprise’”, Fierce Wireless, 12 June 2012, available at : AT&T’s Stephenson: Verizon’s shared data pricing ‘not a surprise’ - FierceWireless www.fiercewireless.com/story/atts-stephenson-verizons-shared- data-pricing-not-surprise/2012-06-12?utm_medium=rss&utm_ source=rss#ixzz1xf2gsL9I25. Voice of Broadband, Volume 7, Issue 2 at: www.broadbandtrends. com/ 19
    • 3 Broadband for Driving Development and Achieving the MDGs The real power of broadband Broadband technologies offer lies in its potential to improve major opportunities to advance development outcomes around socio-economic development, the world. There is today growing from providing access to education evidence that broadband is making or health information to making a tangible difference in the lives electronic payments enabling people of people around the world and to set aside valuable savings and accelerating progress towards the survive economic shocks. Mobile Millennium Development Goals phones are increasingly powerful (MDGs). The Rio+20 Conference portals to the online world, making advanced Sustainable Development people more informed and enabling Goals (SDGs) recognizing that “it is them to exercise choice and make essential to work toward improved better decisions. Featured Insight access to ICT, especially broadband 3 and Table 2 outline the ways in networks and services, and bridge which broadband, and especially the digital divide, recognizing mobile broadband, is making a the contribution of international difference in the lives of people cooperation in this regard”1. around the world and accelerating progress in achieving the MDGs.20
    • Chapter 3Featured Insight 3: Enabling financial mainstream – for example,sustainable, economic by facilitating money transfers, whichwell-being through mobile would otherwise be impossible ortechnology prohibitively expensive.Mobile networks are increasingly With 0.6 doctors for every 1000pervasive, transforming our lives in people, access to affordable,numerous ways. This phenomenon quality healthcare is a distant hopeis most compelling in emerging for a vast majority of the Indianand developing markets where the population. Airtel’s m-Health service,impact of resource deficiencies ‘Mediphone’, is a doctor-on-callare amplified due to information service, providing customers withasymmetries. Technological quality health advice over mobileplatforms – first mobile, and now phones – anytime, anywhere.broadband – are unprecedented Launched in November 2011,levelers for society, enabling access Mediphone has already helpedto economic opportunities and social nearly 100,000 people. With morewelfare earlier out of reach. than 900 million mobile subscribers in the country, the potential to bridgeIn India, farmers are among the the gap for medical support ismajor beneficiaries of the mobile tremendous.revolution. Bharti Airtel reaches outto more than one million farmers, The power to progress well-beingcontributing significantly to their through the mobile phone is,productivity and incomes. Through its perhaps, best exemplified in a pilotjoint venture with IFFCO, the world’s led by The Earth Institute. In thislargest fertilizer cooperative, farmers initiative, Airtel is supporting a hostare provided with vital information of innovative programmes in villageson weather, commodity prices, across six countries in Africa. Underagronomy, horticulture, government this programme, Airtel enablesschemes, etc., helping them make citizens to access education, healthtimely, informed decisions. With more and solar energy through mobilethan two-thirds of India’s population connectivity.dependent on agriculture for theirlivelihoods, the scope is significant. As the data revolution transforms mobile, the opportunities forMobile money is another revolution enhancing economic well-beingwhich has steadily emerged as a through mobile broadband arepotent driver of inclusive growth in endless. Smartphones and featureIndia and Africa, driven by their large phones are already becomingpopulations and vast geographies cheaper. A nurturing regulatoryneeding coverage. According to the landscape will be the catalytic forceBoston Consulting Group, US$ 350 for realizing the transformativebillion is expected to be channeled impact of the broadband revolution.through this medium by 2015 inIndia alone. Airtel Money, present Source: Sunil Bharti Mittal, Chairman &in eight African countries and India, Managing Director, Bharti Airtel Ltd.enables unbanked citizens to join the 21
    • Chapter 3 There is today no doubt that even health support and education are low-speed connectivity and Short delivered where they are most Message Service (SMS) systems needed (Featured Insights 5, 6 and such as RapidSMS are improving 7). This has been accomplished development outcomes – concrete by the Azim Premji Foundation in proof of the benefits of connecting education. ICT connectivity is not remote and rural communities is a panacea, but when integrated found every day. effectively with existing systems, it can facilitate new services and help The experience of the Praekelt deliver the best results (Table 2). Foundation shows just how powerful simple text messages can be - the But what does growth in mobile Praekelt Foundation in Africa is broadband mean practically for sending out a million SMS per day, development? Some have argued such as (for example): “HIV positive that, from a demand perspective, and scared to tell your partner? For low-income consumers may spend help, please call the AIDS helpline valuable money on ICT services – 1-800-123-232”. The foundation money which they need urgently sent 2 billion messages in seven for basics such as food and shelter. languages over the last two years Others argue that money spent and generated 2.5 million calls to on ICTs reflects people’s changing the National AIDS helpline. needs and that choice should remain with individuals as the Even more could be achieved best judges of their own needs. with broadband connectivity – Connectivity can enable people to not simply due to higher speed take on new forms of work and earn connectivity, but due to a raft of more money (Box 4). Decades of new opportunities arising from the experience of development work integration of communications into suggests that empowering women existing or improved health systems. through access to ICTs could result For example, using information in optimal decisions over income systems in conjunction with health and work for their families (Featured databases and Global Information Insight 4). Systems (GIS) can help ensure 22
    • Chapter 3Table 2: Broadband and the MDGs Chapter A growing body of evidence suggests that broadband can boost GDP and income, helping combat poverty and hunger. Research by the World Bank suggests that a 10% increase in broadband penetration could boost GDP by 1.38% in low- and middle-income countries. Country case studies suggest a strong impact of fixed and/ or mobile broadband in individual countries, depending on their economic structure – End Poverty & e.g., in the Philippines (see Annex 1). Hunger Governments and NGOs are providing schools with PCs to foster a sound primary education2. In Senegal, a survey found 27.8% of school pupils reported they had acquired better knowledge, and 6.5% understood lessons better with content from ICTs3. High-quality electronic content curricula can improve educational outcomes4. Portugal and Uruguay have launched programmes to provide students and teachers Universal with laptops as a basic tool for improved education. The Jokko m-education program Education builds literacy for women and girls through SMS in Senegal. In India, the Azim Premji Foundation works using computers as an inducement to keep children in schools5, particularly girls, whom they find have 20% lower literacy6. Various studies have reported that men and women use ICTs differently, e.g., in Senegal, women use ICTs to access information while men prefer communication with friends and family members7. For mobile telephony, GSMA has estimated that closing the mobile gender gap would increase revenues for mobile operators by US$ Gender Equality 13 billion (Chapter 5)8. ChildCount+ is a community health reporting and alerts platform aimed at empowering communities to improve child survival and maternal health9. It helps community health extension workers register children under five to monitor their health status, including screening for malnutrition every 90 days, as well as monitoring immunizations, malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia10. It integrates with existing health information systems to help experts analyze data on child health more Child Health rapidly to improve treatment. ChildCount+ registers pregnant mothers and provides support for antenatal care, such as the launch of a software module in Ghana in August 2011 aspiring to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV11. Hospitals connected via broadband networks are also enabling remote diagnosis and support for maternal health. WE CARE Solar in Nigeria provides healthcare workers and midwives with mobile phones and reliable Maternal health lighting using solar electricity to facilitate safer deliveries of babies. Bozza is an online platform which shares content (music, video, poetry etc.) from across Africa. This app uses data-intensive mobile services to raise awareness about AIDS and condom use and create job opportunities in South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya and Tanzania12. In South Africa, the Praekelt Foundation uses an open source SMS TxtAlert system to remind HIV patients about appointments and track which patients miss them or ART medication pick-ups. However, the project faces challenges in HIV/AIDS expanding to clinics without digitized electronic databases outside Johannesburg13. Smart grids can significantly reduce energy consumption through improved heating, cooling and monitoring technologies14. Broadband can reduce energy and water consumption through a range of technologies such as smart transportation and logistics, smart grids and meters, smart buildings, use of video conferencing and dematerialization. Smart use of ICTs can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Environment up to 25%15. Mobile technology alone could lower GHGs by 2% by 202016. The benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs, should be made available in cooperation with the private sector17. In conjunction with public sector policy leadership, the private sector has driven expansion in the markets for fixed and mobile broadband. The market for mobile broadband has been driven by competition and private sector investment in many countries. Partnership
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    • Chapter 3 Featured Insight 4: ICTs and broadband can also Broadband for Improving improve the delivery of education, the Lives of Women – and enhancing educational outcomes. their Families Current figures show that despite Empowering women through the objective in MDG 2 of achieving ICTs can help generate social and Universal Primary Education (UPE) economic development. Experience by 2015, 69 million children still from development work over recent lack formal education18. Moreover, decades shows that empowering 774 million adults cannot read or women leads to positive economic write19; the majority of whom live in and social change – for women and for their families. Some of the developing countries. most powerful ways to advance development focus on increasing Whereas serious attention has been women’s access to education, devoted to mHealth, mAgriculture healthcare and financial services, and mPayments, mEducation or which in turn allow them to improve mLearning is taking a little longer their quality of life and that of their to come to fruition. National families. Evidence for the importance investments in education are a of women as socio-economic change solid and consistent predictor of agents includes: economic growth (Rodrik, 2000). • A 2008 OECD report cited One report concludes that one evidence that women spend up to 90% of their income directly on additional year of school can be their families and communities. directly associated with a 30% • The FAO underlined in 2009 increase in per capita income20. that women are critical for food With the advent of cheaper tablets security, as they cultivate up to and smartphones, the world is 80% of all food in many low- and realizing the potential of broadband middle-income countries. to enable access to education • IDB has found that children of from anywhere and anytime via employed mothers have 5% better mobile devices. Cloud technology educational attainment than other also promises to offer even greater children in 13 out of 15 Latin opportunities for mLearning and American countries. improving educational outcomes The conclusions are clear – if policy- (Featured Insights 5 and 6). makers wish to improve standards of living over the long-term, they need Meanwhile, ITU, its Members and to ensure that mothers, aunts, and NGOs are experimenting with sisters have access to mobile phones concepts of m-learning and digital and broadband, as women often literacy. ITU and telecentre.org make choices with the best interest of Foundation launched the Telecentre the family and the future generation at heart. Women Digital Literacy Campaign in April 2011 with the goal of Source: H.E. Jasna Matic, Former State training 1 million women to become Secretary for the Digital Agenda, digitally literate. Open to all Government of the Republic of Serbia. stakeholders, nearly 240,000 poor and marginalized women have already been empowered through this initiative (see www.women. telecentre.org/). 24
    • Chapter 3 Chapter Box 4: Practical Uses of Mobile Communications in Low-income CountriesUsing even a basic mobile phone, people in remote, rural and/or low-incomeareas can:Obtain better-paid work with more stable and/or increased income by:• becoming contactable and working on a flexible basis (e.g. in hotels, bars, nursing or childcare);• saving, borrowing or transferring seasonal and/or variable income, enabling them to withstand external shocks (e.g., floods, drought or a collapse in commodity prices).Help farmers in agriculture and food chain intermediaries by:• finding the best market price for their crops, increasing their income;• tracking the latest weather information to protect crops and raise yields;• tracking the movement of important food sources (e.g., fish stocks or herds of wild deer or horses).Improve health outcomes:• checking the nutritional value of food or allergens to improve nutritional outcomes;• receiving diagnoses and/or treatment reminders, helping limit and contain disease outbreaks; and• monitoring and analyzing vital symptoms for better preventative healthcare.Survive emergencies and natural disasters by:• summoning assistance, getting critical support and coordinating relief efforts;• finding and contacting the nearest relief centre, clinic, or field hospital; and• tracing, finding, or contacting relatives.Financial inclusion via mpayments and mbanking:• mPayments/mBanking can help transfer remittances;• mPayments could promote transparency and combat corruption;• the ability to transfer money can improve lower income workers’ ability to contract micro-loans, enabling them to better withstand financial shocks.Help create a low-carbon economy by:• Introducing more energy-efficient infrastructure;• improving crop yields and reducing food wastage;• reducing carbon consumption through more efficient communications;• cutting down or avoiding travel through improved communications.Source: ITU. 25
    • Chapter 3 Featured Insight 5: 2010, this service had reached over Broadband and mLearning 4,000 students. mLearning is especially meaningful BBC World Service Trust in in developing countries and in Bangladesh – Janala: This ground- rural areas, where infrastructure breaking multi-platform project uses is poor and access to resources mobile phones, Internet and TV to may prove a challenge. mLearning provide English lessons to millions provides anytime, anywhere of people in Bangladesh. Students educational content delivered via dial 3000 to access hundreds of 3 mobile technology. Mobile phones minute audio lessons and can assess are truly unique in their ubiquity, progress with interactive audio accessibility and affordability. quizzes. Nine months after launch, mLearning differentiates itself this service had attracted some 3 from e-learning in the sense that million calls with many repeat users. it is independent from any fixed infrastructure. mLearning can range Source: Alcatel Lucent. from simple SMS messaging, MMS live classroom sessions, web and podcasting to audio-to-text or text- Featured Insight 6: to-audio applications. It provides rich Integrating ICT into learning experiences via educational Education – the Millennium video, logical reasoning and Village Project problem solving games, and even To leverage the power of ICT to help mobile whiteboards for interactive improve the quality of education for discussions. students everywhere through access In developing countries, only 25% to teaching and learning resources, of homes have computers21, so Connect To Learn was launched perhaps the most important benefit in 2010 as a collaborative effort of mLearning is its potential to reach between the Earth Institute providing people through devices which, advice on development, education, before long, will be in the pockets of and evaluation; Ericsson as lead every person on the planet. The most technology partner; and Millennium up-to-date content can be accessed Promise, a non-profit organization. immediately and from anywhere and repeatedly reviewed for better The Millennium Village Project understanding. Although most places education at the core of mLearning happens today via feature integrated rural development across phones, our imaginations are inspired sub-Saharan Africa. Building on the by the greater possibilities of higher expertise of each partner, Connect bandwidth (e.g., live tutoring via To Learn identifies strategies to a mobile device). Examples of integrate teacher professional successful mLearning projects and development with 21st century ICT- initiatives already underway include: based teaching, tools and practices in classrooms. Ayala Foundation - Text2Teach in the Philippines: This programme Connect To Learn combines a cloud- offers complementary classroom- based ICT solution developed by based learning and teacher support. Ericsson and other partners for It allows teachers to download short schools with the on-the-ground videos to a mobile device and screen experience of partner NGOs. By them in the classroom. Over 57 000 using cloud technology, it aims students already benefit from this to remove ICT support tasks from program22. teachers and provides them with technology that is simpler to manage, MoMaths (mLearning for so teachers can focus on improving Mathematics Project) in South the quality of education. The solution Africa: Nokia has partnered with is provided as a service, and is several global and South African designed for users with little or no organizations so teenagers can IT competence. Improved access, access short math courses and energy efficiency and reduced a database of 10,000 questions. costs are possible because users Students receive immediate feedback do not have to worry about virus on multiple choice practice tests. By protection, software updates, content- 26
    • Chapter 3 Chaptercontrol capabilities for safe Internet health service model which allowsbrowsing, application installation or users to access a wealth of real-timemaintenance – all tasks which are remote health services at affordablemanaged in the cloud. cost. The e-Health service greatly eases social and medical supplyTechnology improves educational shortage in the context of population-opportunities by enabling ageing, and significantly reducespersonalized study, while enhancing chronic disease costs to society, inthe potential for learning through some cases, by a decline of up tocommunity-based education and 50%.access to educational resources, evenin remote rural schools. Connect The core component of this eHealthTo Learn partners recognize the solution is its health managementtransformational role that broadband platform complementary to existingand other ICT solutions can play medical information systems. Itin scaling up access to quality integrates regional health informationeducation through innovative systems, and hospital informationprograms. systems, combining health solutions and communications solutions. TheSource: Ericsson and the Earth Institute. health management solution includes medical terminals, communication terminals, call centers and a cloud-Featured Insight 7: based service platform.E-health in China Source: Huawei.In 2010, China Mobile’s JiangsuBranch worked with Huawei toestablish a health managementplatform, co-operating withadjacent cities’ government healthdepartments, to offer an innovative 27
    • Chapter 3 The good news is broadband surpassed in Q1 201223. Growth deployments are accelerating in fixed broadband is spiking, due rapidly around the world. By the to new active markets coming end of 2011, fixed broadband online and standards-based services were commercially available deployments on the rise24. In terms in 206 economies (including of technologies, Digital Subscriber broadband access through satellite Lines (DSL) account for six out of and leased lines), compared with ten fixed broadband lines, with fibre 166 economies five years earlier. optic FTTx and FTTH accounting Mobile broadband (3G and 4G) for 16.7% of the market (Point services are now commercially Topic, Figure 5c). According to available in 160 economies, up the research consultancy iDATE, from just 80 economies five years there were 220 million FTTH/B earlier (Figure 4). Globally, mobile subscriptions in the world at the end broadband penetration overtook of 2011 (iDATE, 201225). fixed broadband penetration in 2008 (Figure 4). Nevertheless, the role of mobile communications for developing ITU data show that that there countries needs to be coupled were 589 million fixed (or wired) with adequate investment in robust broadband subscriptions by the backbone networks, since as mobile end of 2011, up 11.5% from 2010 broadband usage increases, the (Figure 5a, top). Point Topic puts pressure on the access networks this estimate slightly higher, at will also increase. The next chapter 597 million fixed broadband lines, considers the vital importance of with total annual additions for policy leadership, while Chapter 5 2011 the strongest since 2006, examines the key considerations at 65.5 million new additions over driving network investment to 2011. The milestone of 600 million connect the next billion people. fixed broadband subscribers was Figure 4: Growth in broadband worldwide, 2001-2011 220 18 200 Fixed broadband 16 180 Number of countries Mobile broadband 14 160 12 % Penetration 140 120 10 Sources: ITU, Trends in Telecommunication 100 8 Reform 2012; World Telecommunication/ICT 80 6 Regulatory Database. 60 4 40 Note: lines refer to per 2 capita penetration (right 20 y-axis); bars refer to number 0 0 of countries with service 05 01 02 03 04 06 07 08 09 10 11 available (left y-axis). 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 28
    • Figure 5: Global broadband subscriptions, end 2011 Chapter 3 Chapter Figure 5a: Africa Arab states Global Fixed Broadband 1m; 0.2% 8m; 1.2% Subscriptions, 2011 Americas 145m; 24.9% Asia-Pacific 243m; 41.6% Europe 160m; 27.5% CIS 27m; 4.6% Africa 31m; 2.7% Arab states Figure 5b: 48m; 4.1% Global Mobile Broadband Americas Subscriptions, 2011 286m; 24.6% Asia-Pacific 421m; 36.1% Europe 336m; 28.9% CIS 42m; 3.6% Satellite/mobile Other 1.9% 1.3% FTTx (inc. VDSL,FTTx+LAN etc.) Figure 5c: Global 14.1% Fixed (wired)-Broadband FTTH Users by technology, Q4 2011 2.6% DSL 60.8% Sources: ITU (top, middle); Cable Modem Point Topic (bottom). 19.4% 29
    • Chapter 3 Featured Insight 8: How can broadband help spur new A Talent for Innovation talents? – Why Broadband is the Question & the Response The Broadband Commission has repeatedly emphasized that To maximize its benefits for growth, education will benefit tremendously employment and development, from broadband. Although the MDGs broadband needs new skills and have focused on alphabetization and talents; the good news is that primary education, it is now clear that broadband will also generate such secondary and vocational education talents on a global basis. play a vital role in generating growth, employment and development Why does broadband need new through affordable broadband skills? access. The possibility of upgrading workers’ skills through online, on- Obviously, fresh technical skills are the-job and on-demand training needed to master the technologies, could significantly improve firms’ networks, and applications associated performance for all types of firms with broadband. Today, we are in the and organizations, especially SMEs. early days of broadband deployment in many parts of the world, so such New tools and concepts can be skills are mainly to be found in applied to learning, through the the firms involved in deploying development of a largely virtual broadband networks and services. ‘augmented classroom’ through In-house training will play a vital role which students can interface with over the coming 3 to 5 years. educators, as well as others. The More innovative are the fresh recent success of the Khan Academy skills needed to capitalize on the (where volunteers post short videos new opportunities broadband will to illustrate or explain basic concepts generate – for example, high-speed in mathematics, physics, economics high-quality transmissions will impact or other subjects) is an example of the commercial and strategic value how social media, online webcasts of various forms of digital content and education can educate and (video, multi-lingual, interactive). inform large populations. The impact Generic skills (in business, finance, of such approaches would grow management and strategy) need to exponentially with broadband. Open be combined with e-skills (digital courseware and models (e.g., those content production, network pioneered by OCW at Harvard) can management, cybersecurity). increase the number of students around the world and help promote Finally, global broadband will multilingual and localized versions drive new types of global and local of the same content. Interactive environments and ecosystems, education can become a reality (e.g. needing a new type of skills-mix. the growing use of tablets in primary For example, regulatory challenges and secondary schools in Singapore), call for a new mindset in terms of fostering local talent bases. convergence, content regulation and ‘open collaboration’. Innovation through collaboration (crowd-sourcing and crowd creativity, Faced with the need to attract for example) can generate an and provide such new skills, unprecedented environment for many countries (especially in ‘Globally Engineered Serendipity’ the developing world) may find (GES). As confirmed by recent themselves in a delicate situation innovation benchmarks (such as the whereby they need to depend on WIPO-INSEAD Global Innovation external know-how to foster the Index released in July 2012), the deployment of their own broadband ability of experts in different areas networks and services. The good to interact is key to innovation, news is that broadband can especially in its early stages. Until play a critical role in bridging recently, ‘cross-fertilization’ of ideas the skills gap. would typically happen in a 30
    • Chapter 3 Chapterserendipitous fashion, on university connectivity for their operatingcampuses. Broadband offers a companies abroad, enabling effectivebrand new way to engineer and provision of multimedia and cloudsystematize such an approach at the computing services to fast-growingglobal level. Hence the phrase of Eurasian markets.‘Globally Engineered Serendipity’.In conclusion, broadband is both the Azerbaijan proposed thesource of need for new skills, and the establishment of TASIM in Novemberpotential producer of many of those 2008. In December 2009, the 64thskills. The Broadband Commission Session of the UN General Assemblyhas made a recommendation in adopted a Resolution on theChapter 7 to support virtuous circles Transnational Eurasian Informationof education, skills and talents in Super Highway (A/res/64/186).countries around the world. Major regional telecom operators, representing Azerbaijan, China,Source: Professor Bruno Lanvin, Executive Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkey and theDirector of INSEAD eLab. EU have been in talks on establishing a commercial TASIM consortium since 2010, with several milestoneFeatured Insight 9: framework documents having beenThe Trans-Eurasian signed.Information Super HighwayProject (TASIM) The TASIM project benefits from the support and collaborationThe Trans-Eurasian Information Super of governments, businesses andHighway Project (TASIM) aims to international organizations alikeimprove the international Internet (including ITU, UNDP, UNDESA, UNconnectivity of central Eurasia and SPECA, UN ESCATO, BSEC, RCC, OIC,to establish a major new transit route and the EC/Eastern Partnership).between Europe (Frankfurt) and Asia The Eurasian Connectivity Alliance,(Hong-Kong). TASIM will provide a coordinated by the ITU, will helpregional Tier 1 backbone network, realize the synergies of governments,improving the global topology for private sector and internationalTier 1 backbone networks. This organizations in expandinginternational infrastructure project broadband backbone and accesswill improve connection speeds and networks.reduce access costs, delivering long-term economic and social benefits Source: H.E. Minister Professor Dr. Abbasov,for the whole region and remote, Minister of Communications and Informationunderdeveloped areas of Eurasia Technologies of the Government of the Rep.in particular. Developed countries of Azerbaijan.will benefit through improved 31
    • Chapter 3 Endnotes 1. Outcome Document of the Rio+20 Summit, available from: www.uncsd2012.org/ 2. Jyotsna Puri et al. (n.d.) A Study of Connectivity in Millennium Villages in Africa available at: www.mobileactive.org/files/file_ uploads/ICTD2010%20Puri%20et%20al.pdf. 3. P.34, Thioune, R., Information and communication technologies for development in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2003, available at: www.omec.uab.cat/Documentos/TIC_ desenvolupament/0002.pdf. 4. Hugh G. Jagger, “Education Empowered by ICT - The World’s Best Investment?”, p.263, in Harnessing the potential of ICT for education a multi-stakeholder approach ; proceedings from the Dublin Global Forum of the United Nations ICT Task Force. 2005, available at: www.tcpdpodcast.org/briefings/ict4education_ebook. pdf 5. M. Madhavan Nambiar, “ICT for Education: The Experience of India”, P. 20, in Harnessing the potential of ICT for education a multi-stakeholder approach ; proceedings from the Dublin Global Forum of the United Nations ICT Task Force. 2005, available at: www.tcpdpodcast.org/briefings/ict4education_ebook.pdf 6. Azim Premji Foundation, vision statement, available at: www.azimpremjifoundation.org/Our_Vision 7. P.34, Thioune, R., Information and communication technologies for development in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2003, available at: www.omec.uab.cat/Documentos/TIC_ desenvolupament/0002.pdf. 8. GSM Association. 2010. Women & Mobile: A Global Opportunity. www.vitalwaveconsulting.com/pdf/Women-Mobile.pdf). 9. www.childcount.org/about/ 10. “Scaling up Mobile Health: Elements Necessary for the Successful Scale up of mHealth in Developing Countries”, White Paper for Advanced Development for Africa, prepared by Actevis Consulting Group, authored by Jeannine Lemaire. 11. www.childcount.org/about/ 12. www.bozza.mobi/ 13. “Scaling up Mobile Health: Elements Necessary for the Successful Scale up of mHealth in Developing Countries”, White Paper for Advanced Development for Africa, prepared by Actevis Consulting Group, authored by Jeannine Lemaire. 14. “Smart 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age” The Climate Group on behalf of the Global eSustainability Initiative (GeSI), 2008, available at: www.gesi.org/LinkClick.aspx?file ticket=tbp5WRTHUoY%3d&tabid=60. 15. “The Broadband Bridge: Linking ICT with Climate Action for a Low-Carbon Economy”, a report by the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, available at: www.broadbandcommission.org 16. GSMA. 2009. Mobile’s Green Manifesto. November. 32
    • Chapter 3 Chapter www.gsmworld.com/our-work/mobile_planet/mobile_environment/ green_manifesto.htm.17. MDG Target 8F, as quoted at: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/global. shtml.18. Global Campaign for Education.19. Global Campaign for Education.20. “Education Last Century, and Economic Growth Today” by Edward Glaeser, October 20, 2009 at: www.economix.blogs.nytimes. com/2009/10/20/education-last-century-and-economic-growth- today/.21. ITU Facts and Figures 2011.22. “Text2Teach connects students to a more interactive learning environment”, Sunstar-Manila,15 March 2012.23. “Report: More than 600 Million Broadband Subscribers Worldwide”, Telecom competitor quoting the Broadband Forum and Point Topic, 20 June 2012, available at: www.telecompetitor.com/report-more-600-million-broadband- subscribers-worldwide/24. “2011 Broadband Growth Fastest in Five Years”, Broadband Forum, available at: www.broadband-forum.org/news/download/ pressreleeases/2012/BBF_IPTV2012.pdf25. “Le Marché Mondial du Très Haut-Débit” or “The Worldwide Ultrafast-Broadband Market”, 9 July 2012, Roland Montagne, iDATE, see: www.blog.idate.fr/?p=2871. 33
    • 4 Evaluating Global Growth in Broadband: The Need for Policy Leadership How can the benefits of broadband U.S. all recently reviewed their be extended to the world’s telecommunication frameworks. The population? One answer lies in European Commission adopted a policy leadership (Featured Insight Communication outlining common 10). Action and investment to boost rules within which EU and national access to broadband are more likely policies should be developed to when they are based on clear policy meet broadband targets, and today leadership, comprising a national almost all EU Member States have broadband plan1 or project investing broadband strategies which they in the national roll-out of broadband2 are actively implementing. The EU and/or the inclusion of broadband Communication was adopted along in countries’ Universal Access with a Recommendation on Next- and Service (UAS) definitions. The Generation Access Networks to clear statement of policy objectives encourage investment through clear and/or targets may often (but not regulatory measures, together with always) take the form of a National a proposal for a Radio Spectrum Broadband Plan. Policy Programme3. Switzerland has concluded no change was Broadband policies are sometimes necessary to its own forward framed in the context of a national looking telecom policy objectives4. vision document or broader Information Society strategy (this National broadband strategies can was often the case for earlier be used as a vehicle for cross- policy objectives set out between sector collaboration and cross- 2000 and 2007). The advantage ministry coordination supporting of these broad plans is that they a common vision and enabling often consider linkages between broadband applications and broadband and other sectors. services to develop most effectively. Regardless of form, policy However, many current regulatory objectives should be consistent and policy institutions often still over all national territory and work in a ‘silo’ approach, making ensure coordination at the regional decisions in isolation without regard and local levels and be updated to other sectors. Policy-makers regularly, to better guarantee must come together to formulate successful outcomes. common strategies on a converged ICT policy aligned with other policy For example, the European areas such as energy, health, Commission, Australia, New education and climate to maximize Zealand, Switzerland and the the impact of ICTs.34
    • Chapter 4Featured Insight 10: for private investment to flourish.The Need for PolicyLeadership Policy leadership provides the structure to identify constraints,Over the last few years, country opportunity gaps and actions aroundleaders, communications ministries the supply and demand of broadbandand national regulators have made deployment and adoption, wherebroadband a policy imperative. the components of networkThis rising trend in strategic infrastructure, user skills, governmentbroadband policies is driven by use and promotion, applicationsgrowing recognition of the impact and content creation all play rolesof broadband on national goals. in a mutually reinforcing system. ForEmpirical evidence demonstrates example, in 2010, the U.S. Federalthe effects of broadband on Communications Commissionincreasing economic growth (through introduced the National Broadbandproductivity gains and employment), Plan6. At the time, it was one of thefostering social inclusion and first comprehensive country levelengagement, positively impacting attempts to spur broadband adoptionenvironmental sustainability (as by focusing on both supply andhighlighted in the recent report, demand issues and by identifying“The Broadband Bridge: Linking ICT challenges, opportunities andwith Climate Action”5). The number actions at the local, regional andof broadband plans and policies, national levels. In the same year,as tracked by the ITU, has steadily the UN Broadband Commission wasincreased since 2008. formed to boost the importance of broadband on the international119 Governments have now policy agenda and leverageadopted broadband plans (Figure connectivity to help meet the MDGs.6a) and have taken a range of rolesleading to the question: what is the Governments play a crucial role inappropriate role of governments in enabling a business environmentdriving deployment and adoption? where broadband deploymentGovernments play a critical role and adoption can grow rapidly. Byin convening the private sector, ensuring a fair and dynamic marketpublic institutions, civil society where barriers to entry are low andand individual citizens to outline a competition is healthy, governmentsvision for a connected nation. Policy can encourage private sectorleadership is necessary to: investment. And by implementing• Highlight the role of broadband in demand-driven programs such as national development; e-government platforms, digital literacy initiatives and connected• Establish a forum for dialogue and public institutions, governments encouraging work across Ministries enable the broadband environment and sectors; by both stimulating investment and• Set an agenda that outlines policy spurring Internet adoption. goals and targets; and• Provide an enabling environment 35
    • Chapter 4 Strong policy leadership to catalyze Featured Insight 11: broadband adoption through Designing National orchestrating plans and enabling Broadband Plans investment does not have to mean active government build out and The design of national broadband operation. In most cases, private programmes should focus on three firms build and operate networks components: more efficiently. Governments should consider direct investment only in 1. Developing human skills to cases of market failure such as in increase demand for broadband rural areas where financial returns are services: Countries should low or non-existent. While national undertake comprehensive strategies broadband policies are critical best suited to national conditions components of country development and requirements. In Latin America, strategies and the structures of countries can commit to digital national broadband plans can vary literacy along the lines of the Plan widely, a common crucial element Inter-Americano promoting basic is government involvement and literacy, connecting schools, training leadership. Governments play key teachers and getting laptops to roles in convening, enabling and schoolchildren. Governments can orchestrating policy. also look to adopt other initiatives that have proved successful in Source: Dr. Robert Pepper, Cisco. expanding digital literacy, such as linking national e-gov portals to existing government services, Broadband strategies, whether programmes to increase the business designed by policy-makers use of digital applications by SMEs and integrating e-health into or public institutions, must government services. Incentivizing consider the market dynamics content creation, innovation through of supply and demand. Better application development and broadband infrastructure and services, and bringing content access are inherently spurred by closer to end-users (e.g., localizing advances in, and the availability information) are also key. of, digital services, education 2. Deploying telecom and e-government access. All infrastructure in coordination with stakeholders in the ICT value chain private industry: Governments can must be taken into consideration, promote broadband deployment by: if the benefits of broadband are to (1) reducing taxes and import duties be fully realized. A policy focusing on broadband services and terminals; (2) carrying out auctions or beauty solely on one side of the market is contests of spectrum suitable for 2G, unlikely to prove successful. 3G and 4G (where available) quickly, and not waiting for completion of the Similarly, market conditions differ, digital TV switchover to auction the and must be taken into account. 700 MHz band for mobile broadband; A “one size fits all” approach is and (3) using Universal Service Funds ill-advised for the communications (USFs) to finance critical broadband sector, where inappropriate national infrastructure. policies can foster or undermine 3. Improving legal and regulatory crucial private investment in frameworks to improve the enabling broadband infrastructure. An environment for accelerated extensive and detailed cost-benefit broadband deployment and to vastly approach should be adopted expand coverage among individuals, before implementing any legal and households and businesses. Increasing regulatory changes in this dynamic regulatory certainty and lowering barriers to market entry are also key. and evolving sector. Featured Insight 11 considers key factors to Source: Inter-American Development Bank. be taken into account in designing national broadband strategy. 36
    • Chapter 44.1 Chapter Advocacy Target 1: Making broadband policy universal – by 2015, all countries should have anational broadband plan or strategy or include broadbandin Universal Access/Service (UAS) Definitions.The importance of national Featured Insight 12:policy leadership is now clearly U.S. Executive Order to “Digunderstood by policy-makers Once”and Governments around the In the U.S., President Obamaworld. Today, some 119 or 62% issued an Executive Order in 2012of all countries have developed a aimed at lowering governmentalnational plan, strategy, or policy to barriers to broadband infrastructurepromote broadband; and a further deployment on federal lands and along U.S. highways. The “Dig Once”12 countries or 6% are planning initiative is designed to help rapidto introduce such measures in the deployment of broadband throughoutnear future (Figure 6a). However, the U.S. by requiring Federal62 countries do not have any form agencies to facilitate broadbandof broadband plan, strategy or deployment activities where roadspolicy in place. Further, of those or other property are already undercountries with plans, achieving construction. Federal agencies will also be required to develop aprogress in implementation may consistent federal contracts processbe more challenging or slower for the leasing of property andthan envisaged. The U.S. launched uniform steps for broadband firms toits National Broadband Plan in follow that will eliminate bureaucratic2010, and in an effort to speed hurdles and make submission andbroadband deployment further, approval of infrastructure projectsPresident Obama recently issued much easier. The Executive Order also requires that Federal assetsan Executive Order7 to accelerate and lease requirements be listedthe construction of broadband on departmental websites and thatinfrastructure throughout the U.S. regional broadband deploymentby implementing a “dig once” policy projects be listed and trackedfor the U.S. Federal government on the U.S. Government’s Federal(Featured Insight 12). Infrastructure Projects Dashboard (http://permits.performance.gov). The order affects all properties managed by the Federal Government, and includes tracts of land, roadways, and more than 10,000 buildings across the U.S. Source: U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). 37
    • Chapter 4 Progress on policy leadership 36 out of the 99 countries included is relatively recent. Today, a broadband in their definition of UAS. small but growing number of This is a dramatic improvement countries are including broadband on the situation five years earlier, in their definitions of universal when just 21 developing countries service (Figure 6b). For example, included Internet dial-up in their Singapore’s USO for its next UAS definitions and only one generation fibre broadband services included broadband. Including will start on 1 January 2013. In broadband in definitions of universal 2010, 99 or two-thirds of the 144 access and universal service developing countries had a universal implies a degree of maturity in access/service (UAS) definition. Of communications policy and signals those, 49 had included Internet dial- a policy commitment to digital up within their definition, but only inclusion for all. Figure 6: Policy Leadership in Broadband Figure 6a: No; Countries with National 62; 32% Broadband Plans, World, 2011 Source: ITU. Yes 119; 62% Planning to; 12; 6% Figure 6b: 140 Countries with Policy Instruments to 120 None Promote Broadband National broadband plans Source: ITU. 100 Number of countries Note: Left chart based on data Both a plan and a UAS for 185 countries. including broadband 80 UAS definition includes broadband 60 40 20 0 Developed countries Developing countries 38
    • Chapter 4 Chapter To date, national broadband plans establishing advanced and modern often provide targets for rolling out infrastructure. National targets may broadband to populations or priority also include a type of universal groups and communities – often service obligation (USO), embodying in phases with rolling targets for social and public policy objectives specified years; often with specified within commercial and competitive speeds; sometimes with specified markets. In this regard, countries technologies. Countries have varied should take care to ensure that in the boldness of their targets. A national targets do not become a number of countries have specified blunt tool that can fail to take into universal service as a national policy account the needs and geography priority – for example, Denmark and of certain areas (e.g. for remote or Finland (Figure 7). Finland went even rural areas). Targets also need to further and made broadband a legal remain relevant and realistic, rather right for its citizens in 2010. than abstract and overly ambitious. Featured Insight 13 considers the The advantage of setting national specific experience of Australia in targets for coverage and broadband introducing its National Broadband speed is that they provide clear Network (NBN) as part of a broader signals by Governments and review of policies in its National regulators of their commitment to Digital Economy Strategy. Figure 7: Targets set by National Broadband plans SPAIN 2011 SLOVAK FIN 2016, DEN 2020 REP 2020 100 UK, FRA EU 2010 Austria 2013 AUSTRALIA, US 90 SWE 2020Coverage (% population or households) 80 geR 2014 (h-h) 70 nZ 2019 60 50 SPAIN 2015 eu 2020(h-h) Source: ITU. 40 Note: Australia’s targets specify SWE 2015 100% coverage, with 93% at 100 30 Mbps and 7% at 12 Mbps. EU 2020 The EU has a dual objective for 20 2020 of 30 MB for all households & 100 MB for 50% of households. 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 broadband Speed (Mbps) 39
    • Chapter 4 Featured Insight 13: unprecedented opportunities for Australia’s National growth. The NBN is the biggest Digital Economy Strategy telecommunication reform in & National Broadband Australia’s history, because it delivers Network separation between wholesale and retail service providers. NBN Today’s communications rely Limited (NBN Co) is the company the increasingly upon broadband. Like Australian Government established water, roads, rail and electricity, to design, build and operate the Governments around the world network, which is offering wholesale now recognize that broadband is services to providers on an open fundamentally important for the access, equivalent basis. In turn, economic growth of all nations. these service providers are offering The formation and implementation retail services to consumers. A of Australia’s telecommunications uniform national wholesale access and infrastructure policy is partly price has been established across all defined by our unique geography. technologies for the basic service. Australia is vast in distance and This means fairer infrastructure sparsely populated, but Australians access for service providers, greater pride themselves on overcoming retail competition and better services the challenge of isolation for for Australians whether located in the communications service delivery city or in regional Australia or more with determination, tenacity, and remote areas. innovation. Our landscape means Australians are often forced to think The NBN optic fibre roll-out is big and make it work. well underway, with commercial services already available in twelve So in meeting the communications communities. More than 3.5 million challenges of today, we again aimed homes, schools and businesses will high, building a world-class National be or are underway to receiving NBN Broadband Network (NBN) that will optic fibre services by mid-2015. By provide all Australian premises with the end of its 10 year roll-out, the NBN access to high-speed broadband. will provide access to high-speed Australia’s NBN will use optic fibre broadband for all premises. We have capable of providing broadband also launched an interim satellite speeds of up to 1 Gbps to 93% of service before the launch of a premises, and a combination of dedicated, long-term satellite service next-generation fixed wireless and in 2015. The first fixed wireless satellite technologies providing peak services are now available in regional speeds of 12 Mbps to 7% of premises. areas and the network will be fully Every home, school, medical facility, completed in 2015. business, and government service in Australia will have access to the NBN. In parallel to the build-out of NBN, the Australian Government has We announced the NBN in 2009 for pursued significant legislative and a number of reasons. Australia was regulatory reforms to ensure the falling behind other developed telecommunication sector provides countries in terms of broadband competitive and innovative services penetration – a critical concern given to consumers. Landmark reforms the competitiveness of our region. have been achieved in the structure Our broadband was delivered over of the industry, the access regime, an ageing copper-based network and the strengthening of consumer and was not uniformly available. safeguards. Crucially, the incumbent The benefits of competition in the carrier, Telstra, will separate its telecommunication market were not fixed line monopoly through an being fully realized. enforceable undertaking, approved by the competition regulator, and will The Australian Government identified no longer be a vertically-integrated nationwide, reliable, and affordable supplier. high-speed broadband as key to our future, so the NBN was launched as an ambitious project transforming how services are delivered and offering 40
    • Chapter 4In short, the telecommunication As Minister for Broadband, Chaptersector in Australia has undergone Communications and the Digitalan extensive overhaul in tandem Economy, I have no doubt thatwith the roll-out of the NBN. To fully the NBN will render the transitionunlock the potential of a broadband- between our digital and physicalenabled economy, the Australian lives seamless. The AustralianGovernment has initiated reform Government is proud of the NBN. Andof the policy framework for our the implications for Australia, bothmedia and communications sector. economically and socially, will beThe Convergence Review of the profound. The huge tracts of land andeffectiveness of existing policy oceans that separate us from eachrecently concluded, which provides other and from the region and theclear guidance for new arrangements rest of the world will no longer be theas the basis of necessary reforms. So impediment of the past. With all thatAustralia can maximize the potential behind us, we can now concentrateof the NBN, the Government has on the possibilities the NBN will soonalso released the National Digital deliver as we enter a new era in ourEconomy Strategy, which lays out telecommunications history. Yes, iteight goals for Australia to become is ambitious... but our history hasa world-leading digital economy proven we are at our most innovativeby 2020. The Strategy outlines when we aim high.initiatives that will assist progresstowards the goals, including several Source: Senator the Hon Stephen Conroy,demonstrating the potential of the Minister for Broadband, Communications & the Digital Economy, Government ofNBN. Australia. 41
    • Chapter 4 4.2 Advocacy Target 2: Making broadband affordable – by 2015, entry-level broadband services should be made affordable in developing countries through adequate regulation and market forces (amounting to less than 5% of average monthly income). The price of broadband access Progress towards this target has plays a critical role driving been encouraging. For example, broadband diffusion and is a key between 2008 and 2009, 125 barrier to extending access to countries saw reductions in access broadband in developing countries. prices, some by as much as 80%. While broadband is becoming more Over the last two years, prices for affordable around the world – prices fixed broadband have dropped have fallen by over 50% over the by 52.2% on average and mobile last two years in some countries – it broadband prices by 22%9. In nonetheless remains unaffordable in Africa, where a number of undersea many parts of the developing world. cables are due to, or have already, come online between 2010–2012, Huge discrepancies in affordability prices have dropped significantly, persist. In 2011, the price of fixed and are expected to continue falling. broadband access cost less than 2% of average monthly income Policy-makers can address in 49 economies in the world, affordability in a number of ways, mostly in the industrialized world. including regular monitoring, Meanwhile, broadband access cost regulation, the introduction of more than half of average national subsidies, increased competition, income in 30 economies; in 19 of and tiered services. A number of the LDCs, the price of broadband national plans recognize affordability exceeds average monthly income as a key policy priority, including (ITU, 20128). By 2011, there were Hungary’s National Broadband 48 developing economies where Strategy, Nigeria’s National ICT entry-level broadband access cost Policy, and the U.S. National less than 5% of average monthly Broadband Plan. Nevertheless, income, up from just 35 the year genuine competition is widely before (Figure 8). recognized as the most effective means of lowering prices to date. Figure 8: Fixed broadband sub-basket for Developing Countries, 2011 35 30 5% threshold. By 2015, most Number of developing countries developing countries should 25 have reached the threshold. 20 15 30 22 10 18 15 Source: ITU. 5 9 6 0 42 0 to <2 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50 Fixed-broadband sub-basket as a % of monthly GNI per capita >50
    • Chapter 4 Chapter4.3 Advocacy Target 3: Connecting homes to broadband – by 2015, 40% of households indeveloping countries should have Internet access (eitherfixed or mobile).Access to broadband or the Internet households in the developing worldat home is one of the more inclusive (Figure 9). Yet this proportion is likelyways of bringing people online. At to increase significantly by 2015,home, all household members can especially with the rise of mobilehave access – no matter whether Internet. Private investment is vitalthey have jobs, go to school, are to driving growth in this area, andmale or female, children, adults, or needs to be supported by publicelderly. Research has shown that policies. Interestingly, the strongerchildren with Internet access at growth in household access neededhome perform better in school. to achieve this target by 2015 is seen over the period 2010-11. ForIn developed countries, more than national rankings in this target, seetwo thirds of households already Annex 5.had Internet access at the end of2011, compared to around 20.5% ofFigure 9: Proportion of households with Internet access indeveloping countries, 2002-2015 45 By 2015, 40% of 40% households should 40 be connected to the internet 35 30 25% 20.5% 20 15 10 5 0 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Source: ITU. 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 43
    • Chapter 4 4.4 Advocacy Target 4: Getting people online - by 2015, Internet user penetration should reach 60% worldwide, 50% in developing countries and 15% in LDCs. By the end of 2011, some 2.26 24% in 2011 and at just under 6% billion people were using the in the world’s LDCs (Figure 10). At Internet, a figure which suggests current growth rates, Internet user that around a third of the world’s penetration is unlikely to achieve population is now online. The this target, but further impetus is Boston Consulting Group (BCG) required to achieve it. The question predicts that global Internet is whether mobile broadband will users will reach 3 billion in 2016, deliver the extra growth in access significantly boosting the proportion needed. For national rankings in this to around 40%10. In the developing target, see Annex 6. world, Internet penetration stood at Figure 10: Internet user penetration, 2000-2015 100 90 80 World 70 60% of global Developing Per 100 inhabitants population should 60% 60 LDCs be online 50% 50 40 32.5% 30 24.4% 20 15% 10 6% 0 Source: ITU. 00 01 02 07 03 05 06 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 04 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 44
    • Chapter 4 ChapterEndnotes1. See GSR 2011 Discussion Paper on Setting National Broadband Policies, Strategies and Plans, by Robert Horton, Senior Telecommunications Expert, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/ GSR11/documents/03-Broadband%20Policies-E.pdf.2. National broadband plans referring to high-level policy leadership are distinct from national broadband projects, where countries may make specific or operational investments in national broadband backbones. To date, over fifty countries have announced public sector investments in national infrastructure (ITU Confronting the Crisis, 2009).3. See http://ec.europa.eu/competition/consultations/2012_broadband_ guidelines/index_en.html4. OECD (2011), “National Broadband Plans”, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 181, OECD Publishing, available at: http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/5kg9sr5fmqwd-en.5. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/Documents/Climate/BD-bbcomm- climate.pdf6. http://www.broadband.gov/plan/7. “We Can’t Wait: President Obama Signs Executive Order to Make Broadband Construction Faster and Cheaper”, 13 June 2012, White House press release, available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/2012/06/13/we-can-t-wait-president-obama-signs-executive-order- make-broadband-const?goback=%2Egde_135547_member_1248456138. “Measuring the Information Society”, ITU, Geneva, 2011.9. “ICT Facts and Figures”, ITU, Geneva, 2011.10. “The Connected World: The Internet Economy in the G20”, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Report, March 2012. 45
    • 5 ACHIEVING DIGITAL INCLUSION FOR ALL: Investing in Infrastructure Given the economic benefits of Connecting new subscribers and broadband, making broadband handling the data explosion can be services available and affordable for achieved by: regulatory flexibility all has become vital for economic leaving operators greater freedom growth and social welfare. This of choice; improved and more chapter explores the factors advanced technology; better usage creating a positive environment for of spectrum; the introduction of broadband investments. In order small cells (Featured Insight 15); to foster broadband deployments, and new and improved network regardless of the source of configurations; among other factors. financing, operators must invest in infrastructure efficiently and Investing in broadband is a complex optimally to make best use of challenge. National priorities for available resources in the current broadband availability tend to be challenging economic climate. long-term in focus, but the needs and returns of short-term capital Different infrastructure layers need investments also need to be to be addressed separately from a taken into account. A network is policy and financing perspective, composed of three distinct layers rather than using a “one size fits all” with very different characteristics approach. Indeed, new investment in respect to their cost and return models are needed to connect new on investment. The first layer, the subscribers, and to drive expansion passive layer (civil works and dark in capacity in order to handle the fiber), can account for up to 80% anticipated explosion in data over of the cost and has a payback the years to come. period of approximately 15 years To date, the private sector has had (Table 3). The second is the considerable success in providing active infrastructure layer, where efficient broadband infrastructure in the intelligence of the network many countries, and is well-placed concentrates, with a 5 to 7 year to drive (or follow) technological rate of return. The service layer evolution and evaluate the most has a very different cost structure appropriate mix of broadband and a much shorter rate of return. technologies. Private investments Different sources of financing are need to be facilitated by public best suited to different types of authorities to ensure that a vibrant, investment in different network sustainable private ICT sector exists layers, characterized by different with a long-term perspective. payback periods.46
    • Chapter 5Table 3: Investing in Different Network Layers Order of Costs Payback Period Examples 70-80% of Trenches, ducts, Passive layer 15 years network costs dark fibre Active Electronic 20-30% of 5-7 year rate of infrastructure equipment, network costs return layer OSS, BSS Content, Few months-3 Service layer N/A services and years applicationsSource: ITU, Alcatel-Lucent.The passive layer underpins the needs to be evaluated carefully onother layers, with longer term rates a case-by-case basis, in order toof return. Depending on market avoid discouraging investment orconditions, it may make sense in undermining competition betweensome cases to share it voluntarily, different platforms. Today, openco-finance it and make it open. access (opening up networkPassive infrastructure sharing can facilities to service providers on fairlower the cost of civil engineering and equivalent terms) is gainingwork by sharing network segments momentum as one way of curbingand ducts (the terminals may not market dominance, while protectingneed to be replicated). Active incentives to invest (see Featuredinfrastructure sharing – where Insight 14). When establishingequipment and IT platforms for public policies on broadbandbusiness and operations support deployment, public authoritiesare shared – may be optimal where have to take into account thethere is no viable business case. competitive consequences for other platforms (e.g., cable or mobile).For mobile networks, sharing Innovative radio-frequency licensinginfrastructure (e.g., sharing schemes, passive infrastructurecivil works, passive to active sharing and wholesaling capacityinfrastructure, and in some cases, are also important trendseven wavelengths or spectrum) to consider. 47
    • Chapter 5 Featured Insight 14: Different regulatory practices across Open access in the regions illustrate that there is an digital economy emerging regulatory consensus on the requirement for open access to Recently, legacy networks are national broadband infrastructure. proving incapable of supporting Even in the most developed markets, the insatiable growth of bandwidth- the scale and scope of investment hungry applications. New required for broadband networks investments are needed, and on tend to limit the market to one a grand scale, but liberalization dominant provider. Except in the and competition have created most densely populated geographic a fragmented market lacking markets, fibre access pipes remain the economies of scale and the an essential facility or bottleneck, regulatory certainty needed for which duplication is neither to underpin such large-scale commercially nor economically investments in many countries. viable. Together, these characteristics This is not to deny the evident support a thesis of natural monopoly, benefits of competition, but a thesis even stronger in rural fresh regulatory thinking is areas and developing countries. now required for a successful Consequently, regulatory action for transition to the digital economy. broadband networks should seek to ensure access on fair, reasonable Open access is critical in the case of and non-discriminatory terms. publicly-funded national broadband networks and generally needed Open access is especially critical wherever there are actual or potential where broadband and NGA roll-out is economic bottlenecks preventing supported, at least in part, by public competitive supply. However, funding. In such circumstances, open access is progressively less mandated open access can important moving up the layers play a pivotal role in promoting (see Figure below), provided that network investment, in preventing open access is available at the uneconomic duplication of resources, lower layers and there are sufficient and in strengthening competition. incentives in the regulation of open European State Aid rules make this access to encourage investment particularly clear, so the provision in infrastructure. Regulatory and of public funding to broadband policy objectives for services infrastructure projects is dependent and applications in the digital on a commitment to open access. economy should focus mostly on demand leadership, the protection of public interest, and curbing abuse of market dominance. Open access and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model Levels in OSI Layers in Open Access model model 7. Application Layer 3: Services and Competition Content 6. Presentation - Competitive supply with little need of open access rules 5. Session Source: ITU, Trends in Layer 2: Transport Telecommunication 4. Transport - Open access debatable Reform 2012, Open Access Regulation in the Digital Economy. 3. Network Layer 1: Infrastructure - Open access generally 2. Data link required, especially where state funded Regulation 1. Physical 48
    • Chapter 5However, it is equally important that other end of the spectrum, where Chapteropen access be established in such a fully and effectively competitivea way as to retain incentives for market develops, there is no needinfrastructure investment. Care must for regulatory intervention tobe taken, for example, when open enforce open access rules. Theaccess is mandated as a condition only regulatory intervention that isof receiving state subsidies for required in such circumstances mayinfrastructure investment. The EU occur ex-post using competitionRecommendations are particularly law principles, e.g. to prevent anti-concerned with this issue, as strict competitive mergers or acquisitionsEU State Aid rules prohibit subsidy or to prevent collusion.of any infrastructure that could beprovided under competitive supply Whichever regulatory strategyconditions. In other words, state is adopted, open access is key toaid must not distort the markets. success. Open access means thatThis means that subsidies should all suppliers, whether in horizontalbe provided up to, but not beyond, or vertical markets, are able tothe point at which the broadband obtain access to the new networkinvestment becomes commercially facilities on fair and equivalentviable. The means of identifying this terms. The precise definition of opentipping point is typically through an access may vary depending on theauction. regulatory model adopted, and the terms and conditions of access mostRegulators need to be wary of certainly will vary. Nevertheless,imposing terms for open access open access is paramount, if thethat are overly onerous, such as new digital economy is not to restlow access prices that squeeze the on network infrastructure provisionpotential returns on investment. Such that has folded back into a purelyonerous terms are a disincentive for monopolistic framework.potential investors in infrastructure.Moreover, to the extent that these ITU hosts an annual Globalterms reduce ROIs, they increase Symposium for Regulators (GSR, at:the costs of network infrastructure www.itu.int/gsr/) at which emergingfor private investors; this, in turn, regulatory issues are debated toultimately increases the amount of evaluate key regulatory trends andpublic funds needed to subsidize forge best practice guidelines to helpthe national broadband network. the global regulatory community inIn this regard, onerous terms also their decision-making.reduce expected payback on thepublic investment. Given the proven Source: ITU Trends in Telecom Reform 2012,economic benefits of broadband Chapter 3: Open Access Regulation in the Digital Economy, see www.itu.int/trends12.penetration, policy should aim tomaximize investment in order tomaximize the economic multipliereffects. In these circumstances, it islikely to be counterproductive for theregulator to drive too hard a bargainon the terms of open access.If the goal of open access regulationis maximizing competition at alllayers of the network, then regulatoryauthorities need to realize thatopen access itself may not alwaysbe the right solution. As describedabove, where network investmentrequirements are beyond thecapabilities of the private capital,the desire for open access has to betempered by the need to supportinvestors (including the State). At the 49
    • Chapter 5 How can we go about connecting In second-tier metropolitan areas, new subscribers? Broadband broadband can be provided through services are usually provided mobile, high-capacity microwave, through a mix of technologies, passive optical networks, metro- depending on geography and aggregation optical networks, or IP/ market analysis. In urban areas MPLS. Third-tier “no broadband” with high population density, area is the area that can often private companies are likely to be be served (either in isolation or willing to invest in commercially additionally) by satellite ISPs, viable markets which may be easy particularly under universal service to serve. Infrastructure-based policies. Although fibre backbone competition may also be feasible infrastructure might be preferred for (area 1 in Figure 11). urban areas with high population technologies, satellite technology In some countries, broadband can can play an important role in be provided to densely populated serving remote areas, rural areas major cities and urban areas by or sparsely populated areas, where laying a national fibre backbone the expansion of terrestrial fibre is infrastructure, for example. Many unlikely. countries, including Australia, have government policies about Getting the mix right ensures an extending broadband networks to economical balance to meeting the premises or work with a mix of connectivity targets. Service technologies to suit requirements. convergence around IP-based The use of optical technologies can technologies can support multiple help ensure scalability, reliability, and services, as well as multiple service security in some cases. Leveraging providers sharing the same network. existing infrastructure deployments Such alternatives need to be (such as roads or electricity lines) evaluated case-by-case, taking into can also help create backbone and account competition and market backhaul networks through sharing conditions and cost-benefit analysis, and/or public/private collaboration. to avoid discouraging investment. Figure 11: Market Analysis for Broadband Provision private: Areas of high 1 population density, where infrastructure - based competition is feasible. The main problems are related to 100% the regulatory framework and 3 competition. 90% 2 private/public: Areas where 2 mobile infrastructure is the best 80% Households technological option for voice 1 mobile broadband No broadband and data services. Competition is feasible on mobile network 70% infrastructures. There are regulatory and infrastructure problems. Public intervention 60% may accelerate broadband development. >25,000 hh./mun 50% >10,000 hh./mun > 2,500 hh./mun public: Areas for Service 3 / Universal Access, which 40% require a public intervention for developing broadband. The 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% main problem is the lack of infrastructures. Municipalities Source: IDB. 50
    • Chapter 5 Leveraging existing passive assets However, there are growing Chapter as much as possible can lower challenges associated with strong costs and avoid replication of growth in broadband and high- infrastructure. Open application speed services, leading some to development platforms, Content question whether the industry may Distribution Networks (CDNs), fall victim to its own success. The and distributed data centers can worldwide mobile data market also help meet the demands and will see a tenfold increase in expectations of end-users, taking consumption by 2016, with mobile into account long-term needs, phone users consuming six-and- broadband goals and target a-half times as much video, eight objectives, as well as the all- times as much music, and nearly important user experience. Studies ten times as much gaming than they suggest that 7-8 seconds or less did in 2011, according to Informa is the average tolerance time after Telecoms and Media4.  While the which a typical web-user may mobile data market would normally become frustrated and quit (Figure welcome such dramatic growth in 12, compiled on the basis of Bouch, consumption rates, Informa notes Kuchinsky & Bhatti 20001, King that the increase in data traffic will 20032, Akamai/Forrester 20063). far outstrip revenue growth. Figure 12: Functionality & User Experience Maximum speed 16s ADSL 1 Mbit/s 18hrs 89hrs 5s FIXED ADSL 6 Mbit/s 3hrs 15hrs 0.3s Ethernet 100 Mbit/s 11min 1hrs 0.03s Gigabit ethernet 1000 Mbit/s 1min 5min 16s 3G Cellular 2 Mbit/s 9hrs 44hrsWIRELESS 2s 3.5G Cellular 14 Mbit/s 1hrs 6hrs 0.3s WLAN 108 Mbit/s 10min 1hrs 1s 10s 1min 1hrs 10hrs Download time 7s = valuable time for person to wait Transfer picture 5.0 Mpixel Download DVD movie Download HDTV movie (jpeg) 4 Mbytes 8 GBytes 40 GBytes Source: Intel. 51
    • Chapter 5 The rapid growth of Internet traffic is Featured Insight 15: not new – Internet traffic has been The Importance of continually accelerating since the Small Cells for Wireless Broadband Internet was launched. Even if the strong growth in mobile data traffic Recent advances in wireless is sustained (Box 2), the majority of broadband technologies offer a data will still have to be transferred variety of solutions for deployment over a fixed-line backbone network, where wired solutions are too making fixed-line backbone expensive or difficult to install, slow to deploy, or not well-adapted to and mobile access networks usage requirements. Small cells complementary. Technology-based offer a cost-effective alternative to developments such as Content macro-only deployments for meeting Distribution Networks (CDNs) and coverage and capacity demands. new Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) They will not replace macro base have resulted in some economic stations, but complement them by efficiencies and have generally optimizing network performances. Due to their size, they can be self- proven helpful, where the regulatory installed (home and enterprise environment has been favorable. cells) or installed by a single person Continuing to meet the challenge of (metro cells). When small cells are traffic growth successfully requires added, they offload traffic from policy-makers to promote regulatory macro networks, increasing available certainty and lower barriers to entry. network capacity without deploying new macro sites. Metro small cells are Accelerating the deployment of a cost-efficient alternative in areas optical fiber networks would help where new macro sites are needed. to solve the increasing challenge of A new priority for policy-makers ensuring the transport capacity of and operators, small cells are raising mobile networks. Currently, mobile some challenges, but provide many networks are based on macro and potential benefits to meet political micro cell layers allowing transport and environmental objectives, capacities of up to 42 Mbit/s per including: cell. The small cell layer could • Small cells allow for superior offer throughput capacities easily network capacity, reduce the footprint of the macro layer in exceeding 100 Mbit/s in radius of crowded urban environments circa 50-200 meters, assuming they and can help improve Quality of are connected to the network via Service (QoS). optical fiber. Featured Insight 15 • Small cell deployments can help describes the potential impact of achieve broadband goals like those small cells on wireless broadband set by the European Commission’s service delivery. Digital Agenda or by President Obama for the U.S. • Smaller equipment installed “invisibly” in dense urban environments can reduce visual pollution and can improve public perception and acceptance. • Small cells can contribute to targets set by the EU Energy Law 2020. Metro cells ensure better capacity where required and better radio links, reducing the output power of user devices, as well as the power radiated by the macro layer. As such, the network provides coverage and capacity in a more efficient and greener manner, with better performance and reduced energy consumption. 52
    • Chapter 5Governments and regulators need capacity to support the future growth Chapterto consider the speed and changing of data traffic:focus of the mobile industry from a. Lay-out of the W-CDMA macroplain coverage towards coverage layer only;and capacity and reflect this trend b. Deployment of W-CDMA macroin regulatory frameworks to ensure and metro layer; andthat mobile broadband servicesare deployed to match citizens’ c. Deployment of LTE macro layerexpectations. and a mix of W-CDMA/LTE metro layers.Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs researchdemonstrates the benefits of small- The study suggested that using a mixcell deployments and latest state-of- of technologies (WCDMA and LTE)art technology. Assuming an 18-fold and a heterogeneous network withincrease in data traffic over five years macro and metro cells layers couldfor an operator with good W-CDMA reduce total cost of ownership (TCO)coverage, Bell Labs ran simulations by up to 45%.for a densely populated WesternEuropean city for three different Source: Alcatel Lucent.scenarios for increasing network18x Traffic increase over 5 years in a Western European Dense Urban City 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 3005 1000 1876 500 793 343 221 0 W-CDMA W-CDMA LTE & W-CDMA macro layer only macro + metro + LTE macro Additional sites required to support a 18x increase in traffic over 5 years 120 TCO Savings 100 80 38% 45% 60 112 40 69 62 20 0 W-CDMA W-CDMA LTE & W-CDMA macro layer only macro + metro + LTE macro Five-year TCO (in M€) for the 3 deployment scenariosSource: Alcatel Lucent. 53
    • Chapter 5 Different technologies offer different Featured Insight 16: advantages, but it is clear that The Role of Satellite satellite communications offer in Connecting the Next Billion major potential for deploying ‘universal’ broadband services Satellite technologies offer rapidly to large numbers of people opportunities for achieving universal (Featured Insight 16). Satellite broadband coverage through the broadband can prove an ideal large coverage achievable via solution in remote areas, rural a single footprint, and the fact that satellite technologies can be areas or large, sparsely populated deployed as soon as the satellite is areas, while satellite technology operational, regardless of terrain, can also provide full coverage in distance or ‘last mile’ infrastructure. rural, as well as metropolitan, areas. Satellite broadband connections Satellite has a major role to play can be deployed rapidly without in achieving universal broadband coverage either in its own right or large investment in terrestrial as a complementary technology, infrastructure – users only need a following these best practices: satellite antenna and a modem to • Including satellite technologies in obtain broadband access. It is also National Broadband Plans. a useful back-up if an undersea fibre • Adopting an ‘open skies’ policy connection goes down, although approach to facilitate competition comparative cost issues still persist and choice for end-users; in some cases. Hence, satellite • Promoting competition and technologies shall continue to play investment in satellite services; an important role in expanding • Avoiding discrimination between broadband access. foreign and national satellite systems, and ensuring that Despite its capital-intensive nature, licensing procedures are equitable the satellite industry maintained and transparent. steady growth rates throughout the • Ensuring full transparency in economic slowdown since 20085. licensing and oversight. This is partly because satellite • Harmonizing licensing frameworks communications can provide at the regional and global levels. broadband Internet connectivity at • Regularly reviewing spectrum virtually zero marginal cost, once availability to service the needs of the satellite is deployed and until satellite communications. the satellite reaches its capacity By addressing these, costs of service constraints, which has made could be significantly reduced in satellite operators good candidates future, with further reductions as for stimulus funding in some new technologies are brought into countries. Some observers perceive use. Capacity-building for policy- today’s satellite solutions as lagging makers, regulators, and operators is fibre and wireless technologies in also helpful in building awareness about satellite technologies. Today, latency, mass throughput, and cost numerous efforts are underway per bit delivered. However, today’s with training offered by various satellite technologies can be very partnerships (e.g., between ITSO/ advanced in terms of reliability, ITU), but more needs to be done. speed of deployment, and security, Resolution 11 (WRC-12) requires while the next generation will ITU-R to carry out studies regarding deliver higher transmission speeds possible regulatory measures competing with other broadband for the use of orbital slots for technologies in speed and costs delivery of international public (Featured Insight 17). telecommunications. This is an important development that could yield significant positive results and enhance the performance of the satellite industry even further. Source: Mr. José Manuel Do Rosario Toscano, 54 Director-General, ITSO.
    • Chapter 5 ChapterFeatured Insight 17: In the next 10-15 years of growthHow Broadband Satellite- in mobile, competition in mobilebased Services will broadband should help reduce pricesContribute to Meeting and increase market penetration andthe Global Broadband usage. Mobile broadband is enjoyingChallenge very high growth rates driven by growth in data services, traditionalMobile satellite communications are satellite terminals, VSATs andvital for ensuring the availability personal mobile devices, as well asof universal broadband access. improved spectrum efficiency.Consumers in all countries shouldhave access to affordable broadband Source: Dr. Esteban Pacha, FNI, FIMarEST,Internet services, requiring the FRGS, MIISL, Director-General, IMSO.industry to develop innovativebusiness models and governmentsto make broadband policy universal In addition to choices of the bestand develop stable and enabling technological infrastructure forpolicy and regulatory frameworks. providing broadband to different markets, operators and serviceBroadband also underpins the providers must also considercollection, sharing and analysis ofdata on the environment. Satellite optimal ways of marketing servicesbroadband provides a reliable to end-users. Inspirations for newplatform for public safety in the event business models abound; positiveof natural disasters, as terrestrial experiences with prepaid telephonycommunication networks may prove in driving growth in the mobilemore vulnerable to disasters and market have encouraged the privateattacks. VSATs and satellite-based sector to explore similar initiativesapplications provide cost-effectiveand reliable communications for for broadband (Featured Insight 18).government and humanitarian teamsto coordinate their operations. Onland, VSATs can be deployed to themost rugged and remote terrainsin just hours or days, allowing newusers to take advantage of broadbandservices immediately.Some commentators argue thattoday’s satellite solutions lag behindfibre and wireless technologies inlatency, mass throughput, and costper delivered bit. However, satellitescan be very advanced in terms ofreliability, speed of deployment, andsecurity. Indeed, the next generationof satellites is under procurementand will deliver higher transmissionspeeds, potentially competingwith other types of broadbandconnectivity both in terms of speedsand costs.New technologies are beingdeveloped to fully integrate theKu-band and L-band, offeringmaritime and aeronautical users acompelling combination of high-speed broadband with increasedbandwidth and speeds of up to50 Mbps delivered globally viacompact and affordable terminals atreasonable cost – e.g., via fixed feeunlimited data packages. VSATs andexisting compatible terminals couldbe upgraded. 55
    • Chapter 5 Featured Insight 18: added benefits. Students, small- Reaching the Third Billion business owners, and others want – Bringing the Prepaid larger screens, the ability to create Miracle to Broadband and store content, and other features not available on mobile phones. The Intel World Ahead Program makes 21st century technology In fast-growing developing countries more affordable and accessible for (such as Brazil, China, Indonesia, people worldwide. We work with Malaysia, Mexico and Russia), Governments to implement programs broadband access can account for 60- that increase access to technology 80% of the TCO of a PC. Often, only for all citizens, help improve about 20% of citizens could afford education quality, create local jobs the monthly plans. We decided to and spur economic growth, foster pick eight countries for a pilot study entrepreneurship, lower healthcare of prepaid broadband with entry- costs, and increase access to online level PCs. Working together with services for all citizens. Over two telecommunication companies, PC billion people worldwide now enjoy manufacturers and, in some cases, the economic and social benefits governments, Intel made available of PCs with Internet access. Our bundles of entry-level notebooks, next challenge is to bring similar compelling content, and prepaid access to more than 70% of the broadband, accompanied by exciting world’s population that have yet to advertising, branding and marketing. experience these benefits. The results were staggering! By To reach the next billion users, a the end of 2011, all eight pilots new approach was needed. Our were complete and had proved inspiration came from Sri Lanka and successful. We had delivered more Bangladesh, where we saw billboards than one million PCs plus prepaid advertising 300 MB of mobile broadband packages in the pilot broadband for extremely low prices phase. These large PC volumes of ~$0.45 USD along with inexpensive also encouraged the PC industry to mobile broadband prepaid vouchers. aggressively lower prices to as low The value proposition for customers as $200, and encouraged content was compelling and successful, providers to create exciting new resulting in many new sales. Sri content. For example, in Vietnam, PC Lanka and Bangladesh were utilizing and broadband subscriptions sales the “prepaid miracle” that has helped soared. The major telcos, Viettel make mobile phones ubiquitous and VNPT, offered 700 MB of data around the world. download for just $2 prepaid. At that price, broadband affordability Elsewhere, however, PCs were surged from 12% to 70% of citizens. typically sold with expensive monthly We launched the offer in June 2011 Internet contracts, even for entry- and had sold 150,000 packages in level PCs targeting lower income just three months. To put that in citizens. To calibrate, an entry-level perspective, sales of PCs in Vietnam PC might cost $350 but with a $25/ are typically about 140,000 per month broadband service, the Total month. The additional 150,000 over 3 Cost of Ownership (TCO) amounts to months represented a 30% increase. $1550 over 4 years, unaffordable for More importantly, this helped lower- most of the 3rd billion people. It also income citizens, who might otherwise requires them to commit to extended never have been able to afford a PC contracts, which may be less suitable, and broadband. since their cash flow and future revenues may be uncertain or erratic. Early results from the pilots have shown that boosting access to It was clear that we also have to broadband is about much more than increase the desire for a PC. We just price – it is about delivering found that many of the 3rd billion meaningful content and applications. citizens are not familiar with the In Kenya, entry-level prepaid advantages of PCs with broadband netbooks are delivered with valuable service. However, when presented content, including British Council with the greater capabilities and ‘Learn English’ software, education value of PCs compared to a mobile applications (e.g. Intel® Skoool phone, citizens often desired the and Encyclopedia Britannica) and 56
    • Chapter 5 ChapterMcAfee safety apps. In addition, Nigeria – The program launched innetbooks come with 1.5 GB of free April 2012 and is focused on studentdata download – a very compelling education. Key partners are MTN,offer that enhances learning, and runs the largest service provider in Africa,far better on a PC than over a phone and Intel. Early results show that theor tablet. offering has created a tremendous momentum in Nigeria, benefittingIn 2012, we moved into full many thousands of schoolchildren.deployment mode. Since the start of Partnering with a regional leader likethis year, we have launched Reaching MTN has made it easy to scale, withthe 3rd Billion in 30 countries, with 3 MTN Ghana launching a program onemillion packages already sold. With month later. Key drivers of successthe TCO often reduced to 2/3 of the include:previous cost (see Annex 2), over one • Local content, including Nigerianbillion people can afford to enjoy folk stories from Ajapa, a leadingtechnology benefits for the first time. online education company;We aim to have programs in fiftycountries by the end of this year. • Attractive broadband packages of 750 MB and 1.5 GB from MTN;Important examples of key learning • Comprehensive content packagepoints from Intel’s worldwide pre-loaded onto PCs addressingprograms include: education, security, and digital literacy: Encyclopaedias, IntelChina – The program was launched AppUpsm, Intel® PC Basics, Intel®in early 2012 with three main skoool™, and McAfee protection.telecommunication operators: ChinaMobile, China Telecom, and China • Additional online educationalUnicom. Focusing on students in content from Zinox card (www.tier 4-6 cities and rural areas, the zinoxcard.com)program is live in six provinces, with Reaching the third billion of theover 200,000 packages sold. Key world’s population that is closedrivers of success include: to being able to afford valuable• Program embraced by all major technology needs new ideas, and a carriers with attractive broadband new approach. We are pleased that package offerings; the innovative prepaid sales model• Focus on tier 4-6 cities and rural delivered by Intel and partners with 2 MB data package priced is making technology packages lower than in urban. of broadband service, PCs, and digital content more desirable andIndia – The program was launched affordable for new customers inin August 2011 to coincide with developing markets worldwide.India’s National Day. All majortelecommunication companies have Source: Mr. John Davies, Vice-President, Intel World Ahead Program.embraced the prepaid business Note: See also Annex 2, describing Intel’smodel and tied it with the launch of Reaching the 3rd Billion (R3B) program.their 3G service. Since launch, it hasgone viral across India. Aircel, Airtel,BSNL, MTNL, MTS, Reliance, TATA,and Vodafone offer different prepaidbroadband packages, starting fromas low as 100 MB for the equivalent of$1 USD. More than 500,000 packageshave been sold since the programwas launched. Key drivers of successinclude:• All 3G connections can be purchased prepaid, raising awareness of prepaid broadband;• Packages are low cost and memorable, with a simple price point of 100 MB prepaid for $1 USD. 57
    • Chapter 5 Are there any ‘hidden’ under- represented or potentially neglected Providing women with access to ICT markets? According to estimates tools such as mobile phones can lead from the GSMA and Cherie Blair 2 to a better quality of life and wider Foundation, women represent economic growth (World Bank World nearly two-thirds of the untapped Development Report 2012, UNCTAD market for mobile growth. Globally, Information Economy Report 2011). a woman is 21% less likely to own a Empowering more women with / mobile phone than a man (Featured mobile phones can accelerate social and economic development (Featured Insight 19). Closing this gender gap Insight 4). The ‘knowledge economy’ 3 would bring the benefits of mobile is now taking on new and unforeseen phones to an additional 300 million dimensions, as ICTs and broadband women6. Mobile operators looking become drivers of social change. to lead the market in five years’ time should excel at bringing in new Policy-makers need to pay attention to the gender digital divide in female subscribers. designing policies considering accessibility, affordability and digital Featured Insight 19: literacy. Incentives for content Broadband for Empowering development need to promote Women represent Women content catering to the interests and needs of women, including content nearly two-thirds Women have less access to focusing on education, health, jobs of the untapped technology than men. Despite the and economic empowerment, family, ubiquity of mobile phones, there and community life. Policy also market for mobile is a significant global gender gap needs to encourage women and growth. Mobile – a woman is 21% less likely to own a mobile phone than a man girls to embrace technology for their own empowerment, to study and operators aiming (GSMA, Cherie Blair Foundation and choose careers in this sector, and to to be market Vital Wave Consulting). Although technology does not perceive gender, engage passionately in the future of broadband. leader in five ICTs are not “gender neutral” as Source: H.E. Jasna Matic, Former State years time must they may be used in different ways by men and women and may take Secretary for the Digital Agenda, excel at bringing on the gender perspective of their Government of the Republic of Serbia, quoting the mWomen webpage at: http:// developer from basic content through on new female to use to functionality to beneficiaries. www.mwomen.org/Research. subscribers. More women need to be involved in the ICT industry to ensure that technology is shaped to include the needs of female consumers. Experience from international policy efforts suggests that gender biases in the information society will persist for the foreseeable future. However, ICTs may give women the opportunity to be agents of their own development. The mWomen report (2011) suggests that women feel safer and more independent and have more economic opportunities when owning a mobile phone. Women are not “waiting” for access to ICTs, but are using ICTs when they are available to get around the constraints they face in society, economy, and politics. Case studies on gender and ICTs from around the world highlight efforts by women and their communities and organizations to overcome the “digital divide” independently. 58
    • Chapter 5 ChapterEndnotes1. Bouch, A., Kuchinsky, A., and N. Bhatti, “Quality is in the Eye of the Beholder: Meeting Users’ Requirements for Internet Quality of Service,” in CHI 2000 (The Hague, The Netherlands: April 1-6, 2000), 297-304. Found that latency quality ratings drop off at around eight to 10 seconds.2. King, A., 2003, Speed Up Your Site: Web Site Optimization Indianapolis: New Riders, 2003, 25. Found an average of 8.6 seconds for tolerable wait time.3. Akamai. June 2006. “Retail Web Site Performance: Consumer Reaction to a Poor Online Shopping Experience.”Akamai Technologies, (accessed May 30, 2008). This is a JupiterResearch abandonment survey commissioned by Akamai.4. Informa Telecoms Report published 30 May 2012 – available from Satellite Today at: http://email.satellitetodayproducts.com/c.html?rtr=on&s= ecek,1gmvu,4tun,atp3,792b,lpxj,bqml&MLM_MID=2455770&MLM_ UNIQUEID=f768785b8d5. “Confronting the Crisis: Its Impact on the ICT Industry” (ITU, 2009) and “Confronting the Crisis: ICT Stimulus Plans for Economic Growth” (ITU, 2009), ITU, Geneva.6. Pages 6 & 7, “Women & Mobile: A Global Opportunity – A study on the mobile phone gender gap in low- and middle-income countries”, the GSMA Development Fund and the Cherie Blair Foundation, with Vital Wave Consulting, at: http://www.cherieblairfoundation.org/uploads/pdf/women_ and_mobile_a_global_opportunity.pdf. 59
    • 6 Multilingual Content as a Driver of Demand The vast majority of humanity lives content). Slow development of local in multilingual societies where technical skills and expertise has multilingualism is the norm. The also been reported, with low levels preservation and promotion of of digital literacy and emerging multilingualism are essential to info- and infrastructures creating preserve the vitality of human barriers for marginalized groups to societies, to strengthen dialogue access information and content on between cultures and between the Internet2. Appropriate policy peoples, and to develop openness, responses, structural changes, transparency, mutual understanding, and improved educational systems tolerance towards others, as well as are needed to create a favourable to combat violence and promoting environment for the creation peace. and access to information and knowledge online. As early as 2003, UNESCO adopted a Recommendation concerning There is growing evidence that the Promotion and Use of the creation of digital content and Multilingualism and Universal Access digitization of existing information to Cyberspace by the UNESCO are important drivers of the digital General Conference. In 2005, economy. It is not just about the General Conference further connecting individuals, but asked Member States to report on connectivity and services are driving measures taken by them. UNESCO’s a new digital ecosystem (Booz 2011 Consolidated Report notes & Company3). Digital content in progress in a number of areas, as different languages is an important well as several obstacles1. Globally, driver of demand. Research by Internet services in many Member OECD, ISOC, and UNESCO finds States often remain costly and a strong correlation between local limited in availability and speed. infrastructure and local content Consequently, a full range of (Featured Insight 20). online public services may only be provided to a limited proportion of the population. In addition, the importance of multilingualism is acknowledged in WSIS Action Line C8 (Cultural diversity and identity, linguistic diversity and local60
    • Chapter 6Featured Insight 20:The relationship between The societies primarily concernedlocal content and Internet by the MDGs are generally lower-development income societies where digitalA recent OECD, ISOC, and UNESCO culture is not yet fully embedded,study reveals a correlation between sustaining digital divides. Overthe development of network recent years, infrastructureinfrastructure and the growth of local development, growing levels ofcontent4. Local content is defined services and new applications haveas being in the users’ own language helped bridge the digital divide.and relevant to the communitiesin which they live and work. Thestudy identifies factors present in Without appropriate efforts toenvironments with high levels of local bridge language divides in onlinecontent: content, returns on investment in• Homogeneity in the local language infrastructure could be significantly and national population (e.g., reduced, due to more limited Korea, Egypt, and China), even a use of the Internet. Content and cultural insularity, explains why the broadband-enabled services in local volume of local content is ahead of languages, as well as the capacities foreign content. of local communities to create• The presence of local Internet Exchange Points (e.g., Kenya and and share content, are important Egypt). drivers of the use of broadband• Broadband penetration drives infrastructure by local population. lower costs of access and faster network performance (e.g., Rep. of In terms of users, English and Korea). Chinese dominate the Internet,• For Internet content, successful accounting for 27% and 24% local language adaptation of global of total global Internet users content solutions such as social respectively, with Spanish a distant networks, microblogging, and local third (8% of Internet users – Figure online services (e.g., Kenya, China, 13). Indeed, if current growth and Brazil). rates continue, the total number ofThe EURid/UNESCO World Report on Internet users accessing the InternetInternationalized Domain Name (IDN) in Chinese may overtake the numberDeployment (see Featured Insight of Internet users predominantly21) hypothesizes that these factors, using English in 2015.as well as the size of population, areamong those that affect the rate ofIDN uptake in a given country orregion.Source: UNESCO, OECD and ISOC. 61
    • Chapter 6 Another means of analyzing benefits of the digital world to as languages on the web is to examine many people as possible and offers the number of languages in which important and immeasurable side- popular portals or services are effects such as diversity and plurality offered (as opposed to used – of perspective, and opportunities many more language groups may to appreciate the cultures and use a service in their dialect). Of views of different communities. The a potential language universe of importance of multilingualism online over 6,000 languages (estimates cannot be underestimated (Featured differ, according to the stage of Insight 21). evolution at which a dialect may be considered a separate language), In addition to delivering content LinkedIn’s services are currently adapted to local cultures and available in 17 languages; Twitter’s context, ICTs and broadband can in 21 languages; Google Translate help to promote and eventually currently offers 63 languages; “safeguarding” endangered Facebook offers 70, and Wikipedia languages5 – see, for example, is available in 285 (Figure 14). the UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Maintaining popular services Languages in Danger.6 in as many different languages as possible clearly extends the Figure 13: Top Ten Languages on the Internet (May 2011) English 565.0 Chinese 510.0 Spanish 165.0 Japanese 99.2 Portuguese German 75.1 Arabic 65.1 French 59.8 Russian 59.7 Source for both graphs: Korean 39.4 % of total global Internet users, Rest 378.5 Internet World Statistics: http://www.internetworld 100 200 300 400 500 600 stats.com/stats7.htm Millions English Rest 565.0m; 27% 378.5; 18% Korean 39.4m; 2% Russian 59.7m; 3% French 59.8; 3% Arabic 65.1m; 3% German 75.1m; 3% Portuguese 82.6m; 4% 62 Chinese 510.0m; 24% Spanish Japanese 99.2m; 5% 165.0m; 8%
    • Chapter 6Figure 14: The Web of Many Languages, mid-2012 Chapter 17 languages on Linkedin Source: http://translate.twttr. com/cms/node/1810 16 21 May 2012; 35 in 2009 http:// languages used by Twitter searchenginewatch.com/ article/2051705/Google-Adds- 63 285-Languages-to-Translator- languages in Google Translate - June 2011 Toolkit 58 languages on 70 Google - http://translate. languages used by Facebook - mid 2012 google.com/about/intl/en_ALL/ plus 5 more: http://googleblog. 285 blogspot.com/2011/06/ languages recognized by Wikipedia google-translate-welcomes- you-to-indic.html#!/2011/06/ 345 google-translate-welcomes- languages supported by Google Search - June 2009 you-to-indic.html, 21 June 2011. 500 Estimated number of localized languages Note: Number of languages in which Twitter user portal is 6,000 available – not the number of languages still in use in world languages in which Twitter is used. Featured Insight 21: Broadband is a high priority for many Internationalized Domain countries, and IDNs can strengthen Names (IDNs) the potential of broadband as an enabler of local language content. In order to promote multilingualism IDNs should be seen as an important on the Internet, the role of IDNs prerequisite and can serve as as a vital part of the ecosystem a benchmark for the creation necessary to foster the growth of local of enabling environment and languages online needs to be more infrastructure. Since the introduction fully appreciated. Multilingualism of IDN in November 2009, 31 IDN on the Internet would facilitate and ccTLD have been introduced, increase access to linguistically representing 21 countries and and culturally diverse content territories and 23 different languages and provide new socio-economic (see https://charts.icann.org/public/ development opportunities. index-idn.html). For this to happen, it implies the However, registering and using following: IDNs is not always a satisfactory experience for Internet users in some Policy-makers must give attention countries. The EURid/UNESCO 2012 to developing strategies to promote World Report reviews the general the deployment and raise awareness challenges to achieving universality of IDNs in their country or region as for IDNs. Its findings include: an essential component of digital literacy. • Internet browsers do not provide a consistent user experience for The technical community, taking into IDNs. consideration decisions made at the • Lack of email functionality for policy level and local capacities, IDNs. Publication of relevant could implement the available technical standards occurred in Internet standards to hasten the 2012; implementation remains a adoption of email functionality challenge. for IDNs, and adopt inclusive, transparent processes to facilitate the • Poor support for IDNs in popular introduction of IDNs at the top level. applications and websites in the creation of user accounts. TLD registries should review their • Limited information to customers policies on registrars, pricing, and from local domain name registrars registration eligibility. about availability of local IDN domain names in their respective countries. 63
    • Chapter 6 Until these challenges are overcome, despite having strong infrastructure, IDN popularity will lag behind that of Qatar’s linguistically heterogeneous ASCII domain names. society means that English is used for many transactions, impacting the It is evident that the uptake of IDNs uptake of IDNs. Saudi Arabia has no in some regions (e.g. the Russian IXPs or local language adaptations of Federation and the Rep. of Korea) is content solutions. higher than in others. The EURid/ UNESCO 2012 World Report on IDN The Rep. of Korea and the Russian Deployment explores this disparity Federation score highly for ccTLD in deployment and concludes that indicators, with strong local registrar language, culture and infrastructure bases, liberal registration policies, factors on the one hand, and ccTLD low prices, and a long-established factors on the other, combine to ccTLD registry. In contrast, the Saudi impact IDN take up in a region. Arabia ccTLD has no registrars, and Country indicators include: Linguistic high retail prices. Qatar, despite and cultural homogeneity; local its liberal registration policies, has IXPs; overall broadband penetration; recently re-established its ccTLD Successful local language adaptation (brand), and 80% of its registrars of global content solutions; and size of are international rather than locally population. ccTLD indicators include: based. Egypt has a network of local a strong network of local registrars; registrars, but high prices limit the liberal registration policies; low ccTLD’s uptake. This analysis does prices; and how well-known the not intend to make any judgment ccTLD brand is. on registries, their policies, or operations. These factors are solely The Russian Federation, the Rep. of considered on the basis of their Korea, and China all have strong contribution to high volumes of IDN country indicators. In contrast, registrations, as shown in this matrix: IDN readiness matrix .cn .kr High .eg .ru Country / language factors Low ccTLD factors High country/language Favourable IDN rating .sa .qa Source: UNESCO, from the High ccTLD factors Low EURid/UNESCO 2012 World Low IDN rating Low country/language Report on IDN Deployment. Low High ccTLD factors 64
    • Chapter 6 ChapterEndnotes1. “Second Consolidated Report on the Measures taken by Member States for the Implementation of the Recommendation of the concerning the Promotion and use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace”, available at : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0021/002108/210804e.pdf.2. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002108/210804e.pdf3. “Maximizing the Impact of Digitization”, Booz & Company, available at: http://www.booz.com/media/uploads/BoozCo_Maximizing-the- Impact-of-Digitization.pdf4. “The relationship between local content, Internet development and access prices”, 2011, a collaboration between the Internet Society, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and UNESCO, presented at the IGF Nairobi, 2011, and available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/ HQ/CI/CI/pdf/local_content_study.pdf.5. Further information can be found at: http://www. endangeredlanguages.com/6. UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/endangered- languages/atlas-of-languages-in-danger/ 65
    • 7 Policy Recommendations to Maximize the Impact of Broadband Strategies to increase broadband actions or policies and their impact adoption and use must take into on the cost to consumers of account the full range of government services, devices and relevant apps. 7.1 Explore fresh approaches to spectrum management Delivering universal and affordable governments’ overall broadband broadband access can only be policy portfolio. fully achieved through a balance of technologies and policy approaches Defining joint coverage obligations appropriate to specific situations. can also help to fulfill coverage goals The growth rate in global mobile more efficiently. Depending on which data traffic is projected to reach spectrum bands have already been 60% annually from 2011-2017, assigned, simultaneous auctions of which will result in a 15-fold different bands (high and low bands) increase in traffic by 20171, mainly may be helpful, but are unlikely due to video traffic. Growth in data to be available in many countries. consumption will also be driven by Care must be taken to give auction growth in smartphones, tablets, winners the ability to meet coverage portable and mobile PCs. Such an requirements in alternative ways. explosion in data traffic requires more spectrum. In this regard, Today, policy-makers are also Note: This chapter has been contributed by Antonio García policy-makers and regulators considering fresh approaches to Zaballos, Lead Specialist in can help to create a supportive spectrum management, including Telecommunications and Dynamic Spectrum Access. environment and encourage Broadband Platform Coordinator at the Inter-American investment and ensure sufficient While exploring fresh approachesDevelopment Bank (IDB), and also availability of quality spectrum to spectrum management, it is draws on sources from the GSR (Featured Insight 22). Optimizing essential to take into accountBest Practice Guidelines available from: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ approaches to spectrum policy, the expected spectrum needs of treg/bestpractices.html/ allocation, and management different services (e.g. mobile and become an important aspect of satellite services, among others). 66
    • Chapter 74 ChapterFeatured Insight 22: • Require transparency in trafficPreparing for mobile management, and safeguardingbroadband competition; • Limit spectrum hoarding that couldWorldwide, the number of mobile distort competitive conditions inbroadband users already outnumbers the market;fixed broadband users by a ratioof two to one, and that imbalance • Foster the development of nationalwill only grow over time as more backbone broadband networks;developing country users upgrade andtheir mobile phones to smartphones • Foster infrastructure and spectrumand tablets. However, today’s mobile sharing.networks carry only a small fractionof the traffic that is carried over On the demand side:DSL, cable modem and fibre access • Ensure the availability andnetworks. A tidal wave of data affordability of broadband-enableddemand is on the way, and mobile devices;network operators need to invest • Enable increasing affordability ofheavily to prepare for this. broadband services; andAlthough the private sector will • Enable the development ofdrive investment, policy-makers broadband applications andand regulators can help to create content.a supportive environment and Source: World Bank (2012), “Information andencourage investment. The recent Communications for Development 2012:World Bank Report, “Information and Maximizing Mobile”, available at: www.Communications for Development: worldbank.org/ict/ICT4D2012.Maximizing Mobile”, sets out aseries of policy recommendations toconsider. On the supply side:• Ensure sufficient availability of quality spectrum to deploy cost- effective mobile broadband networks;• Eliminate technological or service restrictions on spectrum;• Focus on expansion of network coverage rather than on spectrum proceeds; 67
    • Chapter 7 Featured Insight 23: –– More than 99% for new tunnels built Keeping an eye on Quality of after April 2012 Service (QoS) standards –– More than 85% in-building coverage starting from April 2013 The mobile network is a key delivery platform for broadband to users on In crafting the enhanced 3G mobile the move, as well as to communities QoS standards, IDA has carefully in rural and remote areas. With considered factors such as the nature spectrum constraints and other of mobile and wireless technology in technical challenges involved in areas where it would be technically deploying mobile networks, it is difficult for mobile signals to important to keep an eye on ensuring penetrate as a result of location or an acceptable quality of service surrounding building structures. For (QoS) experience for users. A mobile buildings with limited coverage, broadband network with poor user mobile operators are required to experience will discourage adoption make reasonable efforts to address and usage of broadband. issues like installing dedicated equipment within units or building In March 2012, Singapore recorded premises. a mobile penetration rate of about 150% (IDA, 2012). With a population Since 2011, mobile operators in of over 5 million, Singaporeans have Singapore have begun deploying shown a strong appetite for smart- LTE services to meet the burgeoning phones, according to surveys which demand for mobile data. IDA rank Singapore one of the world’s is currently consulting on the highest in terms of smartphone framework for allocation of spectrum penetration (Netsize Guide, Informa, for 4G services, and intends to Google, Ipsos, Go Gulf, 2011; Ericsson auction off spectrum for 4G services Consumer Lab, 2012; Nielsen, by 2013. Part of this auction will see 2012). The proliferation of smart similar requirements on winning and data-intensive communication bidders to provide nationwide devices has inevitably raised coverage for 4G services possibly consumer expectations for a better with other QoS requirements, mobile experience, including better to ensure that consumers and coverage especially when indoors, businesses in Singapore benefit from and actual broadband speeds the next evolution of mobile services. experienced by users. Source: Leong Keng Thai, Deputy Chief Over a decade ago, in April 2001, Executive/Director-General (Telecoms and the telecom regulator, the Infocomm Post), Infocomm Development Authority of Development Authority of Singapore Singapore. (IDA), first auctioned spectrum for 3G mobile services. Then, IDA required the winning bidders to provide nationwide coverage of their 3G mobile services by December 2004. In 2007, Singapore introduced minimum QoS standards for 3G services. More stringent QoS standards were subsequently imposed in 2012 to ensure mobile operators continue to meet consumer expectations. The enhanced 3G QoS framework includes: –– More than 99% nationwide outdoor coverage –– More than 95% coverage in existing tunnels for roads and subway tunnels 68
    • Chapter 77.2 Chapter Implement “Dig Once” Policies & Expedite Rights of Way and Construction PermitsGovernments can use infrastructure Best Practice Guidelines 20082 andmaps as a tool to coordinate 20093). “Dig Once” policies are ainvestment projects in new roads, bold ideal, although policy-makersas well as power transmission, may need to be pragmatic, as theregas, oil, water, and sewer lines to are instances where such policiesinclude fiber optic cables or ducts to have contributed to delays in theprovide broadband (see GSR deployment of infrastructure.7.3 Use Univeral Service Funds (USFs) and other financial mechanisms to develop broadbandDepending on geography and of specific infrastructure, devices,population density, policy-makers and content, so universal adoptionand regulatory authorities face can be achieved. Several countriesdifferent challenges in the roll-out of have used public funds or USFs todifferent broadband technologies. develop broadband in areas where itUnderstanding population had not been commercially availabledistribution, socioeconomic (2011 GSR Discussion Paper onvariables (e.g., age, purchasing Strategies for Financing Universalpower) and market variables (e.g. Broadband Access4 & GSR Bestnumber of operators, prices, etc.) Practice Guidelines 20115). Oneis vital to reducing barriers to example is the Rep. of Korea, wherecompetition. Governments and the Government launched programsregulators carry out a detailed lasting 5-10 years to promoteanalysis to determine the types ofregulatory problems regulation can broadband development. Thesefix and identify the areas where programs have made the Rep. ofPPP may be undertaken to boost Korea the world leader in mobilethe take-up of broadband services. broadband, with 105% mobileIn areas where private firms may broadband penetration and morenot be initially willing to invest, the than half the population connectedpublic sector could use targeted to high-speed, all-fiber networks bysubsidies to foster the deployment the end of 2011.7.4 Consider Reviewing and Updating ICT RegulationsGiven the speed with which the necessary revisions need to beICT sector is evolving, countries managed carefully in order to avoidneed to update their legislative and radical changes to ICT regulatoryregulatory frameworks to provide frameworks, as sudden changesbusinesses and users with legal could affect the future evolution ofcertainty and allow for expanded the sector. A cost-benefit analysiselectronic commerce, as well as the must be applied, evaluating eachproper protection of personal data, market under review and adaptingcopyright, rights in user-generated regulation to the specific needs ofcontent, and other issues. However, the market. 69
    • Chapter 7 7.5 Consider a Unified Licensing Regime Service providers have struggled compete with the cable companies. with legacy inherited laws and More modern approaches to regulations that award licenses regulation may be needed – such as per service, and many companies converged regulation, simplifications have taken the issue to court – for to the licensing regime or unified example, cable TV companies licensing, where one unified license seeking to provide telephone can allow any telecommunication service over their networks, and company to provide any service, telephone companies wanting to as long as consumer rights are upgrade their networks to offer protected, and the competitiveness video programming services and of markets is not threatened. 7.6 Consider Converged Regulation Many countries have two regulators: create an important leadership role one for telecommunications and for policy-makers and regulators the other for radio and television in stimulating the demand for broadcasting. This arrangement broadband and in promoting was acceptable in the past when investment in infrastructure6. In spectrum and telecommunications some countries, ICT regulators are were clearly divided and regulation becoming converged and involved of content was a major focus of in many more spheres of influence, any broadcasting agency. However, reflecting the involvement of ICT with the proliferation of “triple play” in many more aspects of our daily offers, it is increasingly difficult to lives. In other countries, regulators regulate services separately. ITU are becoming more specialized. At notes that the advent of high-speed present, most regulators worldwide networks and new kinds of content are still sector-specific (Figure 15). Figure 15: Converged Regulation? The Mandates of Regulators, 2010 100% 80% 60% Source: ITU World 40% Telecommunication/ ICT Regulatory Database, Trends in Telecommunication 20% Reform Report 2010/2011. 0% Africa Americas Arab States CIS Europe 70 ICT/telecom only ICT & Post ICT & Utilities ICT & Broadcasting Other
    • Chapter 77.7 Chapter Reduce taxes and import duties on telecommunication/ICT equipment and servicesThere is significant evidence to who can afford broadband hassuggest that reducing taxes and grown from 3.5 million to over 13import duties on telecommunication/ million in 18 months. In Colombia,ICT equipment and services could VAT was reduced from 16% to zerosignificantly boost levels of uptake. for most PCs in 2007. This measureFor example, since 2009, when Sri has proven very successful, with PCLanka reduced its taxation of ICT unit sales significantly outpacing theproducts and services, broadband regional average, so it remains inadoption has been growing at 45% place today.annually, and the number of people7.8 Stimulate the creation of local content in local languagesThere is evidence that suggests Apart from the financial aspect, it isa positive economic impact from important to note that stimulationthe high volume of local content of local content creation can booston local Internet infrastructure local job creation. Investments in(Featured Insight 20). Local users local broadband infrastructure alsoconsume mainly local content, while contribute to the development ofthe cost of transmitting Internet knowledge and expertise in thetraffic locally is usually lower than broadband infrastructure sector.for international Internet traffic.7.9 Enhance demand for droadband through E-Gov initiativesE-Gov services are important for One key consideration forthe principles of good governance7, generating demand is to haveas well as an important driver governments take a more activeof demand in many developing role in helping to bridge the digitalcountries. Governments are literacy gap through e-gov portalsincreasingly recognizing this and and programs. For example, digitalexpanding their e–services for literacy programs in libraries canthe benefit of both citizens and help match citizens with the skillsgovernments. The UN Public and knowledge of e-gov programsAdministration Network (UNPAN) to enhance citizen participation andhas created an e-government portal inclusion9. Governments should lookwith hundreds of examples on how for ways to expand the participationgovernments are assisting their of citizens in E-Gov programscitizens through e-gov services8. through digital literacy training. 71
    • Chapter 7 7.10 Monitor ICT developments, based on statistical indicators Policy choices must be informed agreed standards and definitions, by reliable data and indicators on such as those developed by ITU ICT developments in countries. and the Partnership on Measuring Statistical indicators are also ICT for Development10. Data should essential to assess the impact of be collected to monitor broadband broadband policies and to track infrastructure and access, prices progress towards national and and affordability, and broadband international broadband goals and usage by individuals, businesses targets (including the targets set and public organizations such by the Broadband Commission). as Governments, schools and Data collected at the national level hospitals. should be based on internationally 7.11 Incorporate sustainability principles into ICT regulations and policies The outcome document of the 2012 leadership and long-term broadband UN Conference on Sustainable plans, coupled with a convergent Development (Rio+20)11, “The view for energy, health, educational future we want”12, recognized the and climate-related applications of contribution of ICTs to promote ICT services. Regulatory certainty, knowledge exchange, technical integrated decision-making and cooperation and capacity building cross-ministerial flexibility contribute for sustainable development, to overcoming the barriers that highlighting the need to work currently hinder the adoption of towards improved access to ICT, in ICT-enabled applications that particular to broadband network and can promote environmental services. sustainability. Public policy officials were encouraged to incentivize the In April 2012, the Broadband uptake of low carbon solutions, Commission published a report, fund or facilitate scalable pilots, “The Broadband Bridge, linking form partnerships among the private ICTs with climate action for a sector and government agencies, low carbon economy”13, which promote the dissemination of examined the role of broadband in findings and boost measurement driving the transformation towards and standardization. Implementing a low-carbon economy. The report these recommendations would be advances a set of recommendations a step in the direction given by the promoting the adoption and Rio+20 Conference to advance in a delivery of environmentally-focused fairer and more sustainable broadband policies. In particular, future for all. it highlights the need for visionary 72
    • Chapter 77.12 Chapter Promote the skills and talents necessary for broadbandBased on Featured Insight 8 on to drive knowledge and creativitythe need for skills, the Broadband (e.g., via online registries andCommission encourages all databases providing authoritative, reliable, and searchable information).countries to focus on Science, Broadband offers a solid and reliableTechnology, Engineering and infrastructure for IP and copyrightMathematics in primary/secondary infrastructure by enabling theeducation. Open education effective exercise and managementnetworks should be developed of rights. WIPO organized a Globalfor innovators and entrepreneurs, Meeting on emerging copyrightwith specially adapted curricula licensing modalities in 2010 to explore different approaches for theto reflect inter-disciplinary skills. licensing of creative content.Regulators can also help createthe conditions for the emergence 2) Intellectual Propertyof the right mindsets in the public Infrastructureand private sectors. Governments, The development of intellectualeducationalists and policy-makers property and innovation infrastructureshould address proactively the depends on the creation ofissue of gender/ICT, starting in early bandwidth-intensive broadband e-infrastructures and data banks.stages of education and encourage WIPO and ten partners have launchedmore girls to study ICT. Lastly, but a R&D networks and IP hubs projectnot least, talents must be viewed to foster scientific collaboration, andas real assets subject to constant reduce the costs of research and IPand growing global competition, so protection, and commercializationpolicy-makers must consider how for network members. This modelbroadband can help generate, grow, has been implemented in the healthattract and retain such talents. R&D sector of six African countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon andFeatured Insight 24: Republic of Congo) and Colombia.Intellectual Property (IP) In Colombia, the project resulted inand Broadband 18 patent applications since the start of the program in September 2004A myriad of competing technologies and was successfully expanded fromcan provide broadband services, the health sector to 3 other sectors ofeach having different bandwidth, the economy, namely: agro-business,reliability, cost, or coverage. energy and defense. WIPO hasIntellectual property (IP) is key to launched the “Pilot Project for thethe development of broadband Establishment of Technology Transfere-infrastructures irrespective of which Offices” to improve innovationtechnologies are used. The World infrastructure in 5 Arab countriesIntellectual Property Organization (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco(WIPO) is leading work in five areas and Tunisia), develop local skills,of impact: improve technology transfer and the creation of regional IP markets.1) Content and Copyright These innovation infrastructures andInfrastructure platforms are based on collaboration14Shared standards, practices, values and resource sharing, as well asand behaviors over protected repositories of data, simulation andcontent and multimedia are critical modeling, which depend on the fullfor the broadband revolution to deployment of broadband.succeed. Broadband and copyrightinfrastructure go hand-in-hand: on the 3) Raising Awareness and Educationone hand, copyright infrastructure about Intellectual Propertyservices need broadband to operate Raising awareness of IP can helpeffectively in the online environment. promote creativity and innovation.Conversely, broadband needs WIPO is putting together a Networkedeffective copyright infrastructure Innovation Initiative (or intelligent 73
    • Chapter 7-8 network) as an infrastructural effort (iv) creating a national/regional/ for the development of collaborative global university IP Forum. networks for innovation able to identify and connect multiple actors 5) Networked Innovation with complementary resources in Thanks to the digital revolution, the search for creative and mutually innovation is no longer an helpful solutions; an Interactive autonomous activity driven by Platform for Open Collaborative R&D experts, but the result of Projects to share experiences on networks of interaction. WIPO open innovation; and the Innovation works with its Member States to and Technology Transfer Support support the development of the Structure for National Institutions or structures, policies and expertise digital repository of training modules, necessary to nurture capacity for guides, tools, models of national IP local innovation. Through capacity- strategies, institutional IP policies, building, WIPO aims to connect best practices, case studies and a multiple actors in the search for database of standardized agreements mutually beneficial solutions. available via a one-stop-shop on Broadband can drive a “social” WIPO’s website. process of interactions among nodes in the interactive bandwidth- 4) Public Private Partnerships (PPP) intensive environment, including the Direct links between the public quadruple helix incorporating the and private sector facilitate faster government, academic universities end-to-end delivery of services & research institutes, the private across multiple domains, including sector (customers, suppliers and universities and research institutions. competitors), and individuals. The WIPO University Initiative connects ideas, technologies and WIPO is further exploring the partners from the public and private relationship between broadband sector by: and IP. From the open modalities of (i) promoting the effective use of IP, in IP licensing (such as CC and FOSS) particular, patents; which find their natural home in (ii) creating university/research a networked environment, to the institutions’ IP and technology development of new business models8 management infrastructure; for the distribution of music and films, (iii) developing skilled human capital the interactions of IP and broadband for IP/technology management and are bound to grow exponentially. dissemination of knowledge; Source: Mr. Francis Gurry, Director-General, World Intellectual Property Organization. conclusions This Report has summarized the social and economic development various policy options open to and prosperity, emphasizing both governments and policy-makers the supply and demand sides of to roll out the deployment of the market. Further, it is crucial to broadband networks and services adequately evaluate the potential and to position their country for future alternatives to be implemented in competitiveness in the growing digital order to encourage private sector economy. Broadband networks investment. A “one size fits all” policy and services are more than simple to broadband roll-out could have infrastructure – they represent a negative implications for the ICT set of transformative technologies market. Finally, a detailed cost-benefit that promise to change the way we approach should be adopted when communicate, work, play and do evaluating different public policies business. It is essential that every and regulatory options to promote country takes broadband policy into the growth and development of account to shape its future broadband in different countries around the world. 74
    • Chapter 7-8 ChapterENDNOTES1. Ericsson Traffic and Market Report, June 2012, available from:http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_ report_june_2012.pdf.2. GSR Best Practice Guidelines 2008, available from: http:// www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR08/PDF/ GSRguidelines08_E.pdf3. GSR Best Practice Guidelines 2009, available from: http://www. itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR09/consultation_ contributions/GSR09_BestPractice_E.pdf.4. Strategies for Financing Universal Broadband Access, GSR 2011 Discussion Paper by Mandla Msimang, Managing Director, Pygma Consulting, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/ Seminars/GSR/GSR11/documents/06-Universal-broabdand- access-E.pdf5. GSR Best Practice Guidelines 2011, available from: http://www.itu. int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR11/consultation/GSR11_ BPG_E.pdf6. http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2011/07.aspx.7. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/49/58/2484485.pdf.8. http://www.unpan.org/egovkb/global_reports/08report.htm9. http://ipac.umd.edu/sites/default/files/publications/ DigLitBrief2011_1.pdf.10. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/11. Held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) on 20-22 June 2012. Further information at http://www.uncsd2012.org/12. Available for download in http://www.uncsd2012.org/ thefuturewewant.html13. The Broadband Bridge: Linking ICT with climate action for a low carbon economy. Broadband Commission, ITU and UNESCO, April 2012. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/work/working-groups/ Bridge.aspx14. Ali Jazairy, “Open Innovation: Collective Solutions for Tomorrow,” WIPO Magazine, p.4, June 2010, available from: http://www.wipo. int/wipo_magazine/en/pdf/2010/wipo_pub_121_2010_03.pdf 75
    • Annex 1: Impact of Broadband on Various EconomiesAnnex 1 No region Result Source Date Title 1 Africa ICTs directly contribute around 7% of Africa’s GDP, which The World 2012 The Transformational is higher than the global average. That’s because, in Africa, Bank and Use of Information mobile phones give access to services that are available the African and Communication in traditional forms in more developed countries, such as Development Technologies in Africa financial credit, newspapers, games and entertainment. The Bank value of a mobile phone is higher in Africa than elsewhere. Now the rapid development of mobile broadband with smartphones and affordable tablets across Africa will bring greater social and economic impacts over the next decade. 2 Australia The economic benefits of broadband for Australia are Allen 2010 The Allen Consulting estimated at 0.44% of GDP for every 10% increase in Consulting Group: Economic broadband penetration. Group Gains of Getting more Australians Online (2010) 3 Brazil Broadband has become a priority, local applications Michael 2011 Broadband in Brazil: development continues to take place and access devices Jensen – The A Multipronged Public have switched to laptops, smartphone and tablets which are World Bank Sector Approach to a one-off cost and becoming increasingly affordable. As a Digital Inclusion result, lowering broadband costs and improving performance is a key priority to achieve digital inclusion and leverage the benefits of ICTs for development. In an effort to help to improve coverage and reduce the cost of broadband access, the Government has begun a major broadband infrastructure development initiative which has set ambitious targets to triple broadband uptake by 2014. The largest ICT infrastructure project ever carried out in Brazil, the National Broadband Plan (PNBL ), it aims to ensure that broadband access is available to low-income households, especially in areas so far poorly served. 4 Brazil 10% in broadband penetration could reduce the Katz et al 2012 The impact of unemployment rate by 0.06%. If broadband penetration broadband on the were to grow by 20%, the impact on the rate of change of economy: research unemployment would be a further 0.138. Deployment of to date and policy broadband could result in a reduction of unemployment from issues the original 3.89% to 4.03%. Impact on GDP growth for each 1% change in broadband penetration: 0.008. 5 Chile 10% increase in broadband penetration will result in an Katz et al 2012 The impact of increase of 0.09% in regional GDP of Chiles regions. broadband on the Broadband deployment, which reached a penetration of economy: research 9.8%, contributed 1.76% to the employment rate, which to date and policy amounts to the creation of 114,426 direct and indirect jobs. issues Impact on GDP growth for each 1% change in broadband penetration: 0.009. 6 Dominican Increase in broadband penetration of 1% would diminish Katz et al 2012 The impact of Republic unemployment by 0.29%. If the unemployment rate were to broadband on the be 14%, an increase of 1% in broadband penetration would economy: research contribute to a reduction of unemployment to 13.7%. to date and policy issues 7 European According to the model, process improvement, increased Micus 2008 Micus, (2008) The Union specialization in knowledge-intensive activities and impact of broadband broadband-based development of innovative markets resulted on growth and in a growth of the European Gross Value Added (GVA) of € productivity. 82.4 bn per year (+0.71%) in 2006. The same study estimated that broadband development would in the basic case contribute to the creation of 1,076,000 jobs in Europe and a broadband-related growth of the economic activity of € 849 Koutroumpis,(2009), bn between 2006 and 2015. The Economic Impact of Broadband on Growth: A In terms of productivity, Koutroumpis shows that for each 1% Koutrompis 2009 Simultaneous increase in broadband penetration, GDP increases by 0.025% Approach in the old EU-15 countries. 76
    • No region Result Source Date Title Annex 18 India Mobile broadband can generate a $71B incremental increase GSMA; Boston 2010 Socio-economic over the period from 2014 to 2020. The benefit from Consulting impact of allocating broadcasting would be just over one tenth of the mobile Group (BCG) 700 MHz band to dividend - $3.3B. Therefore, allocation to mobile would mobile in Asia Pacific generate an additional benefit of $68.1B, or $43.8B in net present value. Most of this, around 83%, will come from increased productivity across all sectors.9 India Direct impact on productivity and economic growth GSMA; 2010 India Wireless suggesting that an increase in broadband penetration of 1% Analysys Broadband Economic will contribute INR 162 bn, or 0.11% to Indian GDP in 2015 Mason Impact10 India Broadband has generated nearly 9 million jobs in direct and Katz et al 2012 The impact of indirect ways. This result becomes more important taking into broadband on the consideration the latest estimates provided by the Reserve economy: research Bank of India forecasting an increment of 220 million to India’s to date and policy workforce by 2030. 10% increase in penetration will result in issues an increase of 0.3128% points in regional GDP. Impact on GDP growth for each 1% change in broadband penetration: 0.03111 Indonesia The contribution of the broadband variable appears to be Katz et al 2012 The impact of an extremely contributor to the reduction of unemployment, broadband on the with a negative effect of -8.6%. This means that for each economy: research 1% increase in the penetration rate of the service among the to date and policy Indonesian households, the unemployment growth would be issues reduced it by 8.6% points.12 Indonesia In GDP terms, mobile broadband would generate an extra GSMA; Boston 2010 Socio-economic $22.6B. The incremental benefits over the period, on a net Consulting impact of allocating present value basis, would be 2.9% of Indonesia’s current Group (BCG) 700 MHz band to GDP. The bulk of the increase in GDP, 52% would come from mobile in Asia Pacific increased productivity in the service sector. 700 MHz band based mobile broadband will stimulate estimated additional productivity gains of 0.4% for service industries, and 0.2% for manufacturing. This would lead to the creation of about 327,000 jobs in 2020 – many of them in rural areas.13 Jordan The CAGR (economic growth) for the period of 2007 to Katz et al 2012 The impact of 2010 was 44%, which, when multiplied by the broadband broadband on the penetration growth coefficient yields an average annual economy: research increase of GDP per capita of 0.92%. to date and policy issues14 Korea, Rep. Korea’s annual GDP has already passed the trillion dollar GSMA; Boston 2010 Socio-economic barrier, and it can expect to add $68.3B in GDP in the six Consulting impact of allocating years to 2020 should it devote the 700 MHz band to mobile Group (BCG) 700 MHz band to (net present value of $59.8B), over and above the expected mobile in Asia Pacific contribution from broadcasting. More than 75% of this would come from improved productivity in existing companies, taking advantage of the greater speed and flexibility offered by mobile connections. Service sector is expected to enjoy a 0.8% increase in productivity directly attributable to 700 MHz band mobile broadband. Under a quarter of the GDP impact would come from the additional 19,600 new business activities that will be stimulated by the 700 MHz band. More than 37,800 jobs, many of them in Korea’s rural regions and varying from highly sophisticated technical posts to basic service functions such as distribution would be created by these new companies.15 Malaysia Increase of 10% in broadband penetration will contribute to Katz et al 2012 The impact of 0.7% to regional GDP growth. This result has to be put in a broadband on the context of an economy that has a service sector contributing economy: research more than 55% of the GDP. It should be noted that this to date and policy estimation, based on penetration per household, is lower than issues the 0.4% impact on GDP per 10% of broadband penetration per inhabitant estimated for Malaysia. Impact on GDP growth for each 1% change in penetration :0.077 77
    • No region Result Source Date TitleAnnex 1 16 Malaysia The economic opportunities created by improved access GSMA; Boston 2010 Socio-economic to mobile broadband would be expected to generate, at Consulting impact of allocating current prices, an extra $17.5 bn in GDP for the period Group (BCG) 700 MHz band to 2014-2020. Over 90% of the GDP benefits are generated by mobile in Asia Pacific increased productivity in existing businesses. The incremental productivity benefit to industry of deploying mobile broadband in the 700 MHz band is estimated at 0.6% for services, and 0.3% for manufacturing. Mobile broadband will generate a further $2.1 bn in revenues between 2014 and 2020, with the bulk from corporation tax on profits ($1.2 bn) 17 Nigeria Wireless broadband could potentially contribute over 1% of GSMA; 2011 Nigeria – Economic GDP –and 1.7% of non-oil GDP – in 2015. If positive policy Analysys impact of wireless actions are taken to remove barriers to broadband, the benefit Mason broadband to GDP in 2015 will be an additional NGN190 billion (USD1.1 billion) or 0.27% of GDP. 18 Panama Fixed broadband has positively impacted GDP of Panama, Katz et al 2012 The economic impact accounting for 0.82% of GDP and representing 11.3% of all of broadband in economic growth on average since 2005. Panama 19 The Mobile broadband adoption was found to contribute an Katz et al 2012 The economic impact Philippines annual 0.32% of GDP. This represents 6.9% of all GDP growth of broadband in the for the economy during the past decade. Philippines 20 Qatar Qatar surpassed the broadband penetration floor of 1% in Katz et al 2012 The impact of 2004; the CAGR of broadband penetration between that broadband on the year and 2010 was 35%. By multiplying that number by economy: research the broadband coefficient in the Arab States general model to date and policy (0.0186), it is estimated that broadband contributed an issues average 0.65% to annual GDP growth. 21 Saudi Arabia 10% increase in broadband penetration would decrease the Katz et al 2012 The impact of unemployment rate by 2.4% points. broadband on the economy: research to date and policy issues 22 South Africa Wireless broadband and related industries could generate GSMA; 2010 Assessment of 1.8% of GDP (ZAR 72 bn) by 2015 and about 28,000 jobs Analysys economic impact of – plus further jobs outside the industry. The direct impact Mason wireless broadband in on productivity and economic growth suggesting that an South Africa increase in broadband penetration of 1% could result in 0.1% productivity gain. 23 Sri Lanka According to the Ministry of Finance and Planning, the post Helani Galpaya 2011 Broadband in Sri and telecommunications sector accounted for 11.7% of Sri –The World Lanka Glass Half Full Lanka’s GDP growth in 2009 (down from 36% in 2005 and Bank or Half Empty? 21.5% in 2007). As an integrated, cross-sector ICT-enabled development program, e-Sri Lanka after Seven years its start, have a number of the projects which are still being implemented and others have been abandoned. 24 Sweden Economic effects of broadband-enabled ICTs in Sweden have Tim Kelly and 2012 Broadband Strategies been larger and surfaced faster. From 1998 to 2007, average Carlo Rossotto Handbook annual productivity grew much faster in Sweden than in other – The World peer countries (2.32% compared with 0.39% in Italy and an Bank average of 1.66% among OECD countries). 25 Turkey Broadband could boost economic growth (growth of GDP) by National 0.8-1.7% and potentially create 180,000-380,000 new jobs Broadband a year. Vision 26 Turkey According to the National Broadband Vision Study of Turkey, Cagatay Telli 2011 Broadband in Turkey: through fostering broadband development the Turkish – The World Compared To What? economy could gain US$ 4.9-10 billion extra value added Bank each year thereby boosting its economic growth by 0.8- 1.7%. This economic momentum enabled by an enhanced broadband ecosystem would bring 180,000-380,000 new jobs and provide new income opportunities. 27 United Arab The average annual contribution of broadband to per capita Katz et al 2012 The impact of Emirates GDP growth between 2004 and 2010 is 0.79%. broadband on the economy: research to date and policy issues 78
    • No region Result Source Date Title Annex 128 USA Broadband added 1.0–1.4% to the growth rate in the number U.S. 2006 Measuring of jobs during 1998–2002 Department Broadband’s of Commerce, Economic Impact Economic Development Administration29 USA Broadband added 0.5–1.2% to the growth rate in the number U.S. 2006 Measuring of firms during 1998–2002 Department Broadband’s of Commerce, Economic Impact Economic Development Administration30 USA Broadband added 0.3–0.6% to new business creations in U.S. 2006 Measuring IT-intensive sectors in 1998–2002. Broadband reduced the Department Broadband’s share of small business (those with fewer than 10 employees) of Commerce, Economic Impact by 1.3–1.6% in 1998–2002 Economic Development Administration31 Vietnam Solid economic growth in Vietnam has coincided with Tran Minh 2011 Broadband in increased broadband usage. Liberalization of the Truan – The Vietnam: Forging Its telecommunications sector has led to growing competition World Bank Own Path with 11 enterprises providing infrastructure. Service providers have developed modern IP-based networks with extensive fiber optic backbones. Incomes have risen so that more people can afford broadband.32 International 10% increase in broadband household penetration delivers a McKinsey & 2009 Mobile broadband for boost to a country’s GDP that ranges from 0.1% to 1.4%. Company the masses33 International Broadband alone has limited impact as a technological Tim Kelly and 2012 Broadband Strategies platform, but acts as an enabler. As such, it holds the Carlo Rossotto Handbook potential to have a significant impact on economic and social – The World progress and to transform the economy. However, for this Bank potential impact to be unleashed, broadband must be used by businesses, governments, and citizens in a way that increases productivity in the economy. This requires: (a) the creation and availability of broadband-enabled services and applications that increase efficiency and productivity and (b) the capacity of businesses, government, and citizens to use broadband-enabled services and applications in a productive and efficient way. These two requirements are critical for achieving the potential economic impact that broadband can produce.34 Emerging Bringing broadband penetration levels in emerging markets to McKinsey & 2009 Mobile broadband for markets today’s Western European levels could potentially add USD Company the masses 300-400 billion in GDP and generate 10 -14 million jobs35 Low - and Every 10% increase in broadband penetration accelerates The World 2009 Information and middle- economic growth by 1.38% — more than in high-income Bank Communications for income countries and more than for any other telecommunications Development 2009: countries service Extending Reach & Increasing Impact36 15 OECD An increase of 1 broadband line per 100 individuals in LECG 2009 Economic Impact nations, 14 “medium or high ICT” countries increases productivity by of Broadband: An European 0.1%. This productivity gain suggests an increase in GDP Empirical Study nations & the (holding number of hours worked constant) from an increase U.S. of 1%, 5% and 10% in broadband penetration 79
    • Annex 2: Examples of key countries with the “Reaching the third billion” programAnnex 2 Country Telcos Broadband Service Content solutions TCO Plan Options Reduction Albania AMC • USD 16 for 12 months British Council English Language Learning 41-50% • for 6 gbs and free 3G Modules*, Intel AppUpSM center, Intel® PC dongle Basics Bangladesh Qubee Prepaid USD 4 and USD 15 Champs 21 (local), Encyclopedia Britannica*, 1-10% credit for 3G dongle Intel AppUp center, Intel PC Basics, Intel® skoool™ content, Khan Academy, McAfee security software* Bosnia BH Telecom Free 3G modem and free 2G British Council English Language Learning 11-20% download Modules, Intel skoool content, voucher for local ESL classes Brazil TIM 3G prepaid broadband, British Council English Language Learning 71-80% unlimited Internet access Modules, Intel® Easy Steps, Intel PC package for USD 1.20 per Basics,Intel skoool content, other day entertainment and learning applications Bulgaria Globul, 3G dongle and unlimited British Council English Language Learning 31-40%** MaxTelekom, Internet access (with Modules, Encyclopedia Britannica, Intel Mobiltel, purchase of Intel®-based AppUp center, Intel Easy Steps, Intel PC Vivacom notebook or netbook) Basics, Intel skoool content, McAfee security software, Mobiltel antivirus software* Colombia Une 12 months contract for 1G, 21-30% first six months double speed for free Ecuador CNT 20% discount - USD 15 (was 31-40% USD 18) Egypt MobiNil • USD 8 unlimited British Council English Language Learning 31-40% • USD 4 prepaid for 110 MB Modules, Intel Easy Steps, Intel skoool (one month plus one month content, local content from MoE free) El Salvador Claro USD 10/month (was USD 25), none 2 year contract Georgia Georgian • USD 14 unlimited British Council English Language Learning 81-90%** (Republic of) Telecom • USD 4 for 1G prepaid for six Modules, Intel PC Basics, local (“Learn English months Kids”) Ghana MTN 2.5 GB for same price as 1G British Council English Language Learning 1-10% Modules, Encyclopedia Britannica, Intel AppUp center, Intel PC Basics, Intel skoool content India BSNL, MTS, • USD 10 unlimited Bluebird, Intel AppUp center, Mobiline (ebook 61-70% Reliance • USD 1 prepaid for 100 MB reader), NIIT Course, Twitter,* local digital (RCOM), TATA content Indonesia Axiata, Indosat, • USD 22 unlimited British Council English Language Learning 31-40% Telkom, XL, • USD 11 unlimited (subsidy) Modules, Intel AppUp center, local digital Telkomsel content Kenya Safaricom • USD 5 for 500 MB British Council English Language Learning 71-80% • USD 10 for 1.5 GB Modules, Encyclopedia Britannica, Intel AppUp center, Intel Easy Steps, Intel PC Basics, Intel skoool content, McAfee Family Pack*, local digital content Macedonia VIP Telecom 24 month contract, eight British Council English Language Learning 51-60% months free plus free 3G Modules, Intel skoool content, voucher for dongle local ESL classes Malaysia Celcom, USD 10 unlimited for 1.5 GB British Council English Language Learning 11-20% Packet One Modules, local digital content Networks, Telekom Malaysia, Yes from YTL 80
    • Country Telcos Broadband Service Content solutions TCO Plan Options Reduction Annex 2Mexico Compuapoyo USD 8 (was USD 16) Intel PC Basics, Intel Easy Steps, Intel skoool 61-70% financing at 12% (was 24%), content USD 80 PC subsidyNigeria MTN 1.5 GB for same price as 1G Intel PC Basics, local content, Intel AppUp 1-10% USD 25 (was USD 40/month center, Intel skoool content, Encyclopedia plus an increase to 1.5 GB) Britannica, McAfee security softwarePeru Telefonica 20% discount - USD 18 (was 41-50% USD 22)Philippines PLDT USD 9.99/month WiFi (5,000 Sing to Win 1-10% hotspots)PRC (China) CMCC, CTC, Reduced from USD 10/month 41-50% CUC to USD 6/monthRomania Orange Unlimited Internet access with British Council English Language Learning 61-70% free 3G dongle for EUR 20 Modules, Encyclopedia Britannica, Intel AppUp center, Intel Easy Steps, Intel® Education Help Guide, Intel PC Basics, Intel skoool contentSerbia BH Telekom, 3G dongle with two months British Council English Language Learning 41-50% MTS, Telenor, of usage; 10 Mbps download Modules, Intel skoool content, local VIP Telecom and 3 Mbps speed (with government content, voucher for local ESL purchase of Intel-based classes notebook, netbook, or desktop)Thailand i-mobile3Gx • USD 10 for 1 GB Local options 1-10% • USD 30 for 5 GBUganda Orange USD 10 per 500 MB (prepaid) British Council English Language Learning 21-30% Modules, Intel Easy Steps, Intel® Education Help Guide, Intel PC Basics, Intel skoool contentUnited States Comcast • USD 30 unlimited Digital literacy kits 31-40% • USD 10 for 1.5 GB (low- income families)Vietnam Viettel, VNPT • USD 10 unlimited British Council English Language Learning 51-60% • USD 5 unlimited (rural and Modules, Intel AppUp center, Intel PC Basics, teachers) Intel skoool content, LV Dictionary • USD 1.80 prepaid for 700 MB or USD 3 for 2 GB • Students (14-22) 500 MB/ month free (eight years max)**Reflects BB cost reduction only. 81
    • Annex 3: Fixed Broadband Penetration, worldwide, 2011Annex 3 Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2011 Rank Economy Fixed (wired)-broadband rank Economy Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions subscriptions per 100 inhabitants per 100 inhabitants 2011 2011 1 Liechtenstein 71.6 47 Uruguay 13.5 2 Monaco 44.2 48 TFYR Macedonia 13.2 3 Switzerland 39.2 49 St. Vincent & Grenadines 12.9 4 Netherlands 38.7 50 Russia 12.2 5 Denmark 38.2 51 St. Lucia 12.1 6 Korea (Rep.) 36.9 52 Chile 11.6 7 Norway 36.5 53 China 11.6 8 France 36.1 54 Trinidad & Tobago 11.5 9 Iceland 33.9 55 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11.5 10 Belgium 33.0 56 United Arab Emirates 11.0 11 Luxembourg 32.9 57 Serbia 10.8 12 United Kingdom 32.7 58 Azerbaijan 10.7 13 Germany 32.5 59 Mexico 10.6 14 Canada 32.0 60 Argentina 10.5 15 Sweden 31.8 61 Turkey 10.3 16 Malta 30.0 62 Moldova 9.9 17 Finland 29.5 63 Seychelles 8.9 18 United States 28.7 64 Mauritius 8.9 19 Andorra 28.7 65 Costa Rica 8.7 20 Japan 27.4 66 Qatar 8.7 21 Estonia 27.1 67 Brazil 8.6 22 Austria 26.5 68 Panama 7.9 23 New Zealand 25.8 69 Georgia 7.6 24 Singapore 25.5 70 Kazakhstan 7.5 25 Slovenia 24.8 71 Malaysia 7.4 26 Australia 23.9 72 Ukraine 7.0 27 Israel 23.8 73 Colombia 6.9 28 Spain 23.5 74 Antigua & Barbuda 6.7 29 Italy 22.8 75 Maldives 6.4 30 Hungary 22.2 76 Saudi Arabia 5.7 31 Barbados 22.1 77 Brunei Darussalam 5.5 32 Lithuania 22.1 78 Thailand 5.4 33 Ireland 22.1 79 Lebanon 5.2 34 Belarus 21.9 80 Tunisia 5.1 35 Greece 21.6 81 Armenia 5.0 36 Portugal 21.0 82 Tuvalu 4.6 37 San Marino 20.6 83 Suriname 4.5 38 Latvia 20.4 84 Bahamas 4.5 39 Croatia 19.5 85 Albania 4.3 40 Cyprus 18.1 86 Cape Verde 4.3 41 Czech Republic 15.7 87 Viet Nam 4.3 42 Bulgaria 15.5 88 Ecuador 4.2 43 Romania 15.4 89 Dominican Rep. 4.0 44 Poland 14.4 90 Jamaica 3.9 45 Bahrain 13.8 91 Peru 3.5 46 Slovak Republic 13.6 92 El Salvador 3.3 82
    • Annex 3Rank Economy Fixed (wired)-broadband rank Economy Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions subscriptions per 100 inhabitants per 100 inhabitants 2011 201193 Jordan 3.2 133 Swaziland 0.294 Belize 3.1 134 Mauritania 0.295 Mongolia 2.8 135 Cambodia 0.296 Algeria 2.8 136 Nigeria 0.197 Fiji 2.7 137 Angola 0.198 Guyana 2.5 138 Kenya 0.199 Iran (I.R.) 2.4 139 Papua New Guinea 0.1100 Egypt 2.2 140 Burkina Faso 0.1101 Philippines 1.9 141 Togo 0.1102 Oman 1.8 142 Côte dIvoire 0.1103 Morocco 1.8 143 Tajikistan 0.1104 South Africa 1.8 144 Mozambique 0.1105 Nicaragua 1.8 145 Malawi 0.1106 Bhutan 1.8 146 Myanmar 0.1107 Sri Lanka 1.7 147 Zambia 0.1108 Djibouti 1.2 148 Timor-Leste 0.0109 Tonga 1.2 149 Bangladesh 0.0110 Indonesia 1.1 150 Benin 0.0111 Libya 1.1 151 Cuba 0.0112 India 1.0 152 Sudan 0.0113 Paraguay 1.0 153 Rwanda 0.0114 Kiribati 0.9 154 Ethiopia 0.0115 Venezuela 0.9 155 Madagascar 0.0116 Namibia 0.8 156 Honduras 0.0117 Botswana 0.8 157 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 0.0118 Senegal 0.7 158 Turkmenistan 0.0119 Bolivia 0.7 159 Comoros 0.0120 Lao P.D.R. 0.7 160 Gambia 0.0121 Syria 0.6 161 Mali 0.0122 Uzbekistan 0.5 162 Niger 0.0123 Solomon Islands 0.4 163 Tanzania 0.0124 Yemen 0.4 164 Guinea 0.0125 S. Tomé & Principe 0.4 165 Cameroon 0.0126 Pakistan 0.4 166 Congo 0.0127 Nepal 0.3 167 Eritrea 0.0128 Kyrgyzstan 0.3 168 Liberia 0.0129 Gabon 0.3 169 Chad 0.0130 Zimbabwe 0.3 170 Central African Rep. 0.0131 Uganda 0.3 171 Nauru 0.0132 Ghana 0.3 172 Haiti 0.0Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.Data are unavailable for: Afghanistan, Burundi, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada,Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Korea D.P.R., Kuwait, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Montenegro,Micronesia, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, St. Kitts & Nevis, Vanuatu, Vatican.Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 83
    • Annex 4: Mobile Broadband Penetration, worldwide, 2011Annex 4 Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2011 Rank Economy Active mobile-broadband rank Economy Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 subscriptions inhabitants 2011 per 100 inhabitants 2011 1 Singapore 110.9 47 South Africa 19.8 2 Korea (Rep.) 105.1 48 Antigua & Barbuda 19.7 3 Japan 93.7 49 Belgium 19.4 4 Sweden 91.5 50 Belarus 18.9 5 Finland 87.1 51 TFYR Macedonia 18.7 6 Denmark 80.2 52 Uzbekistan 18.4 7 Luxembourg 66.7 53 Viet Nam 18.0 8 United States 65.5 54 Maldives 17.4 9 United Kingdom 62.3 55 Lithuania 17.2 10 Qatar 61.0 56 Chile 17.1 11 Iceland 60.7 57 Fiji 15.5 12 Ireland 59.4 58 Montenegro 15.3 13 New Zealand 53.0 59 Zimbabwe 14.9 14 Netherlands 49.2 60 Bulgaria 14.5 15 Poland 48.4 61 Panama 14.5 16 Russia 47.9 62 Romania 14.1 17 France 44.0 63 Hungary 13.2 18 Austria 43.3 64 Mongolia 12.7 19 Czech Republic 43.1 65 Mauritius 12.4 20 Australia 42.8 66 Malaysia 12.3 21 Estonia 42.0 67 Argentina 11.7 22 Israel 41.0 68 San Marino 10.6 23 Spain 40.9 69 Ecuador 10.3 24 Saudi Arabia 40.4 70 Bahrain 9.5 25 Kazakhstan 38.4 71 China 9.5 26 Oman 37.8 72 Bosnia & Herzegovina 9.2 27 Latvia 37.6 73 Uruguay 9.0 28 Switzerland 36.1 74 Albania 8.8 29 Germany 34.8 75 Turkey 8.8 30 Serbia 34.5 76 Morocco 8.0 31 Canada 32.9 77 Dominican Rep. 7.7 32 Malta 32.6 78 Nauru 6.8 33 Slovak Republic 31.9 79 Croatia 6.6 34 Greece 31.8 80 Rwanda 6.4 35 Italy 31.3 81 Brunei Darussalam 6.3 36 Slovenia 29.3 82 Jordan 4.9 37 Portugal 27.4 83 Seychelles 4.7 38 Norway 24.4 84 Mexico 4.6 39 Cyprus 24.1 85 Paraguay 4.5 40 Ghana 23.0 86 Ukraine 4.4 41 Indonesia 22.2 87 Venezuela 4.2 42 United Arab Emirates 21.7 88 Kyrgyzstan 4.1 43 Azerbaijan 21.5 89 Guatemala 4.1 44 Egypt 21.0 90 Solomon Islands 3.8 45 Brazil 20.9 91 Colombia 3.7 46 Georgia 20.5 92 Honduras 3.7 84
    • Annex 4Rank Economy Active mobile-broadband rank Economy Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 subscriptions inhabitants 2011 per 100 inhabitants 201193 Namibia 3.6 136 Benin 0.094 El Salvador 3.6 137 Burkina Faso 0.095 Moldova 3.5 138 Burundi 0.096 Philippines 3.4 139 Cameroon 0.097 Malawi 3.1 140 Central African Rep. 0.098 Cape Verde 3.0 141 Chad 0.099 Uganda 2.8 142 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 0.0100 Nigeria 2.8 143 Côte dIvoire 0.0101 Tunisia 2.4 144 Equatorial Guinea 0.0102 Sri Lanka 2.3 145 Eritrea 0.0103 Cambodia 2.2 146 Gabon 0.0104 Costa Rica 2.0 147 Guinea 0.0105 Bolivia 1.9 148 Guinea-Bissau 0.0106 India 1.9 149 Niger 0.0107 Jamaica 1.5 150 S. Tomé & Principe 0.0108 Botswana 1.5 151 Algeria 0.0109 Angola 1.5 152 Comoros 0.0110 Senegal 1.5 153 Djibouti 0.0111 Peru 1.4 154 Somalia 0.0112 Tanzania 1.2 155 Bangladesh 0.0113 Congo 1.2 156 Iran (I.R.) 0.0114 Trinidad & Tobago 1.2 157 Kiribati 0.0115 Mozambique 1.0 158 Marshall Islands 0.0116 Nicaragua 1.0 159 Micronesia 0.0117 Bhutan 1.0 160 Papua New Guinea 0.0118 Syria 1.0 161 Samoa 0.0119 Swaziland 0.7 162 Thailand 0.0120 Lao P.D.R. 0.6 163 Timor-Leste 0.0121 Mauritania 0.5 164 Tuvalu 0.0122 Gambia 0.5 165 Vanuatu 0.0123 Togo 0.4 166 Turkmenistan 0.0124 Zambia 0.4 167 Bahamas 0.0125 Mali 0.4 168 Barbados 0.0126 Kenya 0.3 169 Cuba 0.0127 Ethiopia 0.3 170 Dominica 0.0128 Pakistan 0.3 171 Grenada 0.0129 Liberia 0.2 172 Guyana 0.0130 Tonga 0.1 173 Haiti 0.0131 Yemen 0.1 174 St. Kitts and Nevis 0.0132 Madagascar 0.1 175 St. Lucia 0.0133 Lebanon 0.0 176 St. Vincent & Grenadines 0.0134 Myanmar 0.0 177 Suriname 0.0135 Nepal 0.0Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.Data are unavailable for: Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Belize, Iraq, Korea D.P.R., Kuwait,Lesotho, Libya, Lichtenstein, Monaco, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Vatican.Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 85
    • Annex 5: Target 3 – Percentage of Households with Internet, Developing EconomiesAnnex 5 Rank Economy 2011 Rank Economy 2011 1 Korea (Rep.) 97.2 41 Fiji 22.1 2 Singapore 85.0 42 Iran (I.R.) 22.0 3 Qatar 83.6 43 Panama 20.7 4 Hong Kong, China 79.6 44 Armenia 19.5 5 Macao, China 78.0 45 Paraguay 19.3 6 Bahrain 76.8 46 New Caledonia 18.5 7 Israel 71.0 47 Tuvalu 18.0 8 Brunei Darussalam 69.0 48 Jamaica 17.8 9 United Arab Emirates 67.0 49 Peru 17.7 10 Lebanon 61.8 50 Ecuador 16.9 11 Malaysia 61.4 51 Tunisia 16.0 12 Saudi Arabia 60.5 52 Venezuela 16.0 13 Kuwait 57.7 53 Algeria 15.0 14 Cyprus 57.4 54 Philippines 15.0 15 Barbados 54.6 55 Suriname 15.0 16 Kazakhstan 48.0 56 Viet Nam 14.0 17 Antigua & Barbuda 45.0 57 Thailand 13.4 18 St. Vincent & Grenadines 45.0 58 El Salvador 12.0 19 St. Lucia 44.0 59 Dominican Rep. 11.8 20 Turkey 42.9 60 Libya 11.4 21 Belarus 40.3 61 Tonga 10.6 22 Azerbaijan 39.5 62 Honduras 10.0 23 Uruguay 39.4 63 Namibia 10.0 24 Oman 38.9 64 South Africa 9.8 25 Chile 38.8 65 Swaziland 9.5 26 Argentina 38.0 66 Bolivia 9.4 27 Brazil 37.8 67 Mongolia 9.0 28 Mauritius 36.4 68 Cape Verde 8.5 29 Syria 36.0 69 Bhutan 8.1 30 Jordan 35.4 70 Sri Lanka 8.1 31 Morocco 35.0 71 Guyana 8.0 32 Trinidad & Tobago 35.0 72 Uzbekistan 7.8 33 Seychelles 34.0 73 Guatemala 7.0 34 Costa Rica 33.6 74 Indonesia 7.0 35 China 30.9 75 Gabon 7.0 36 Egypt 30.5 76 Kenya 6.9 37 Maldives 28.9 77 Pakistan 6.7 38 Mexico 27.5 78 Angola 6.4 39 Colombia 23.4 79 Botswana 6.4 40 Georgia 23.3 80 India 6.0 86
    • Annex 5Rank Economy 2011 Rank Economy 201181 Turkmenistan 6.0 105 Comoros 2.982 Nicaragua 5.6 106 Cambodia 2.883 Gambia 5.2 107 Malawi 2.584 Kyrgyzstan 5.0 108 Mauritania 2.585 Rwanda 5.0 109 Papua New Guinea 2.586 Senegal 5.0 110 Zambia 2.487 Nigeria 4.6 111 Burkina Faso 2.488 Tanzania 4.5 112 Madagascar 2.089 Uganda 4.5 113 Central African Rep. 1.990 Lao P.D.R. 4.2 114 Benin 1.891 Ghana 4.0 115 Afghanistan 1.792 Yemen 4.0 116 Eritrea 1.693 Djibouti 3.9 117 Chad 1.694 Sudan 3.8 118 Ethiopia 1.595 Mozambique 3.5 119 Guinea-Bissau 1.596 Solomon Islands 3.5 120 Myanmar 1.497 Bangladesh 3.3 121 Mali 1.498 Lesotho 3.1 122 Liberia 1.399 Nepal 3.1 123 Côte dIvoire 1.2100 Haiti 3.0 124 Guinea 1.1101 Cameroon 3.0 125 Congo 1.0102 Cuba 3.0 126 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 1.0103 Tajikistan 3.0 127 Niger 1.0104 Togo 3.0 World Average 20.5Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.Data are unavailable for: Bahamas, Belize, Burundi, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, French Polynesia,Grenada, Iraq, Kiribati, Korea D.P.R., Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Neth. Antilles, S. Tomé &Principe, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, St. Kitts & Nevis, Timor-Leste,Vanuatu.Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 87
    • Annex 6: Percentage of individuals using the Internet, worldwide, 2011Annex 6 Rank Economy Percentage Rank Economy Percentage of individuals using of individuals using the the Internet 2011 Internet 2011 1 Iceland 95.0 47 Italy 56.8 2 Norway 94.0 48 TFYR Macedonia 56.7 3 Netherlands 92.3 49 Brunei Darussalam 56.0 4 Sweden 91.0 50 Portugal 55.3 5 Luxembourg 90.9 51 Trinidad & Tobago 55.2 6 Denmark 90.0 52 Chile 53.9 7 Finland 89.4 53 Greece 53.0 8 Qatar 86.2 54 Lebanon 52.0 9 New Zealand 86.0 55 Uruguay 51.4 10 Switzerland 85.2 56 Dominica 51.3 11 Liechtenstein 85.0 57 Morocco 51.0 12 Korea (Rep.) 83.8 58 Bulgaria 51.0 13 Germany 83.0 59 Azerbaijan 50.0 14 Canada 83.0 60 San Marino 49.6 15 United Kingdom 82.0 61 Russia 49.0 16 Antigua & Barbuda 82.0 62 Albania 49.0 17 Andorra 81.0 63 Argentina 47.7 18 Austria 79.8 64 Saudi Arabia 47.5 19 France 79.6 65 Kazakhstan 45.0 20 Japan 79.5 66 Brazil 45.0 21 Australia 79.0 67 Romania 44.0 22 Belgium 78.0 68 Seychelles 43.2 23 United States 77.9 69 St. Vincent & Grenadines 43.0 24 Bahrain 77.0 70 Panama 42.7 25 Ireland 76.8 71 Serbia 42.2 26 Estonia 76.5 72 Costa Rica 42.1 27 Singapore 75.0 73 Turkey 42.1 28 Slovak Republic 74.4 74 St. Lucia 42.0 29 Kuwait 74.2 75 Colombia 40.4 30 Czech Republic 73.0 76 Venezuela 40.2 31 Slovenia 72.0 77 Montenegro 40.0 32 Barbados 71.8 78 Belarus 39.6 33 Latvia 71.7 79 Tunisia 39.1 34 Croatia 70.7 80 China 38.3 35 United Arab Emirates 70.0 81 Moldova 38.0 36 Israel 70.0 82 Georgia 36.6 37 Malta 69.2 83 Peru 36.5 38 Oman 68.0 84 Mexico 36.2 39 Spain 67.6 85 Egypt 35.6 40 Lithuania 65.1 86 Dominican Rep. 35.5 41 Bahamas 65.0 87 Viet Nam 35.1 42 Poland 64.9 88 Mauritius 35.0 43 Malaysia 61.0 89 Jordan 34.9 44 Bosnia & Herzegovina 60.0 90 Maldives 34.0 45 Hungary 59.0 91 Cape Verde 32.0 46 Cyprus 57.7 92 Guyana 32.0 88
    • Annex 6Rank Economy Percentage Rank Economy Percentage of individuals using of individuals using the the Internet 2011 Internet 201193 Suriname 32.0 136 India 10.194 Jamaica 31.5 137 Kiribati 10.095 Ecuador 31.4 138 Lao P.D.R. 9.096 Ukraine 30.6 139 Nepal 9.097 Uzbekistan 30.2 140 Pakistan 9.098 Tuvalu 30.0 141 Gabon 8.099 Bolivia 30.0 142 Botswana 7.0100 Philippines 29.0 143 Rwanda 7.0101 Nigeria 28.4 144 Djibouti 7.0102 Kenya 28.0 145 Eritrea 6.2103 Fiji 28.0 146 Solomon Islands 6.0104 Tonga 25.0 147 Congo 5.6105 Paraguay 23.9 148 Comoros 5.5106 Thailand 23.7 149 Cameroon 5.0107 Cuba 23.2 150 Iraq 5.0108 Syria 22.5 151 Afghanistan 5.0109 South Africa 21.0 152 Bangladesh 5.0110 Bhutan 21.0 153 Turkmenistan 5.0111 Iran (I.R.) 21.0 154 Mauritania 4.5112 S. Tomé & Principe 20.2 155 Mozambique 4.3113 Mongolia 20.0 156 Lesotho 4.2114 Kyrgyzstan 20.0 157 Benin 3.5115 Sudan 19.0 158 Togo 3.5116 Swaziland 18.1 159 Malawi 3.3117 Indonesia 18.0 160 Cambodia 3.1118 El Salvador 17.7 161 Burkina Faso 3.0119 Senegal 17.5 162 Liberia 3.0120 Libya 17.0 163 Guinea-Bissau 2.7121 Honduras 15.9 164 Central African Rep. 2.2122 Zimbabwe 15.7 165 Côte dIvoire 2.2123 Sri Lanka 15.0 166 Mali 2.0124 Yemen 14.9 167 Papua New Guinea 2.0125 Angola 14.8 168 Chad 1.9126 Ghana 14.1 169 Madagascar 1.9127 Algeria 14.0 170 Guinea 1.3128 Tajikistan 13.0 171 Niger 1.3129 Uganda 13.0 172 Somalia 1.3130 Namibia 12.0 173 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 1.2131 Tanzania 12.0 174 Burundi 1.1132 Guatemala 11.7 175 Ethiopia 1.1133 Zambia 11.5 176 Myanmar 1.0134 Gambia 10.9 177 Timor-Leste 0.9135 Nicaragua 10.6 World average 32.5Notes: The table includes ITU Member States.Data are unavailable for: Armenia, Belize, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Haiti, Korea D.P.R., MarshallIslands, Micronesia, Monaco, Nauru, Samoa, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, St. Kitts & Nevis,Vanuatu,Vatican.Data in italics refer to ITU estimates.Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 89
    • Annex 7: Target 4 – Percentage of individuals using the Internet (Least Developed Countries)Annex 7 Rank LDC 2011 Rank Economy 2011 1 Tuvalu 30.0 25 Benin 3.5 2 Bhutan 21.0 26 Togo 3.5 3 S. Tomé & Principe 20.2 27 Malawi 3.3 4 Sudan 19.0 28 Cambodia 3.1 5 Senegal 17.5 29 Burkina Faso 3.0 6 Yemen 14.9 30 Liberia 3.0 7 Angola 14.8 31 Guinea-Bissau 2.7 8 Uganda 13.0 32 Central African Rep. 2.2 9 Tanzania 12.0 33 Mali 2.0 10 Zambia 11.5 34 Chad 1.9 11 Gambia 10.9 35 Madagascar 1.9 12 Kiribati 10.0 36 Guinea 1.3 13 Lao P.D.R. 9.0 37 Niger 1.3 14 Nepal 9.0 38 Somalia 1.3 15 Djibouti 7.0 39 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 1.2 16 Rwanda 7.0 40 Burundi 1.1 17 Eritrea 6.2 41 Ethiopia 1.1 18 Solomon Islands 6.0 42 Myanmar 1.0 24 Lesotho 4.2 43 Timor-Leste 0.9 All LDCs 6.0 Notes: The table includes ITU Member States. Data are unavailable for: Equatorial Guinea, Haiti, Samoa, Sierra Leone,Vanuatu. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates. Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 90
    • Annex 8: Target 4 – Percentage of individuals using the Internet (Developing Countries) Annex 8rank economy 2011 rank Economy 20111 Qatar 86.2 48 Guyana 32.02 Korea (Rep.) 83.8 49 Suriname 32.03 Antigua & Barbuda 82.0 50 Jamaica 31.54 Bahrain 77.0 51 Ecuador 31.45 Singapore 75.0 52 Uzbekistan 30.26 Hong Kong, China 74.5 53 Bolivia 30.07 Kuwait 74.2 54 Tuvalu 30.08 Barbados 71.8 55 Philippines 29.09 Israel 70.0 56 Nigeria 28.410 United Arab Emirates 70.0 57 Fiji 28.011 Oman 68.0 58 Kenya 28.012 Bahamas 65.0 59 Tonga 25.013 Malaysia 61.0 60 Paraguay 23.914 Macao, China 58.0 61 Thailand 23.715 Cyprus 57.7 62 Cuba 23.216 Brunei Darussalam 56.0 63 Syria 22.517 Trinidad & Tobago 55.2 64 Bhutan 21.018 Chile 53.9 65 Iran (I.R.) 21.019 Lebanon 52.0 66 South Africa 21.020 Uruguay 51.4 67 S. Tomé & Principe 20.221 Dominica 51.3 68 Kyrgyzstan 20.022 Morocco 51.0 69 Mongolia 20.023 Azerbaijan 50.0 70 Sudan 19.024 Argentina 47.7 71 Swaziland 18.125 Saudi Arabia 47.5 72 Indonesia 18.026 Brazil 45.0 73 El Salvador 17.727 Kazakhstan 45.0 74 Senegal 17.528 Seychelles 43.2 75 Libya 17.029 St. Vincent & Grenadines 43.0 76 Honduras 15.930 Panama 42.7 77 Zimbabwe 15.731 Costa Rica 42.1 78 Sri Lanka 15.032 Turkey 42.1 79 Yemen 14.933 St. Lucia 42.0 80 Angola 14.834 Colombia 40.4 81 Ghana 14.135 Venezuela 40.2 82 Algeria 14.036 Tunisia 39.1 83 Tajikistan 13.037 China 38.3 84 Uganda 13.038 Georgia 36.6 85 Namibia 12.039 Peru 36.5 86 Tanzania 12.040 Mexico 36.2 87 Guatemala 11.741 Egypt 35.6 88 Zambia 11.542 Dominican Rep. 35.5 89 Gambia 10.943 Viet Nam 35.1 90 Nicaragua 10.644 Mauritius 35.0 91 India 10.145 Jordan 34.9 92 Kiribati 10.046 Maldives 34.0 93 Lao P.D.R. 9.047 Cape Verde 32.0 94 Nepal 9.0 91
    • Annex 8 rank economy 2011 rank Economy 2011 95 Pakistan 9.0 114 Malawi 3.3 96 Gabon 8.0 115 Cambodia 3.1 97 Botswana 7.0 116 Burkina Faso 3.0 98 Djibouti 7.0 117 Liberia 3.0 99 Rwanda 7.0 118 Guinea-Bissau 2.7 100 Eritrea 6.2 119 Central African Rep. 2.2 101 Solomon Islands 6.0 120 Côte dIvoire 2.2 102 Congo 5.6 121 Mali 2.0 103 Comoros 5.5 122 Papua New Guinea 2.0 104 Afghanistan 5.0 123 Chad 1.9 105 Bangladesh 5.0 124 Madagascar 1.9 106 Cameroon 5.0 125 Guinea 1.3 107 Iraq 5.0 126 Niger 1.3 108 Turkmenistan 5.0 127 Somalia 1.3 109 Mauritania 4.5 128 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 1.2 110 Mozambique 4.3 129 Burundi 1.1 111 Lesotho 4.2 130 Ethiopia 1.1 112 Benin 3.5 131 Myanmar 1.0 113 Togo 3.5 132 Timor-Leste 0.9 All developing economies 24.4 Notes: The table includes ITU Member States. Data are unavailable for: Armenia, Belize, Equitorial Guinea, Grenada, Guam, Haiti, Korea D.P.R., Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Neth. Antilles, Samoa, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, St. Kitts & Nevis,Vanuatu. Data in italics refer to ITU estimates. Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 92
    • List of acronyms and Abreviations Annex 82G Second-Generation mobile3G Third-Generation mobile4G Fourth-Generation mobileADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber LineART Anti-retroviral TherapyBCG Boston Consulting GroupCAGR Compound Annual Growth RateCC Creative CommonsccTLD Country Code Top Level DomainCDN Content Distribution NetworkDSL Digital Subscriber Line€ EuroEC European CommissionEURid European Registry for Internet DomainsFAO Food and Agricultural OrganizationFCC Federal Communications Commission of the United StatesFOSS Free and Open Source SoftwareFTTB Fibre-to-the-BuildingFTTH Fibre-to-the-HomeFTTx Fibre-to-the-XG8 Group of 8 Major EconomiesG20 Group of 20 Major EconomiesGB GigabyteGbps Gigabit per secondGDP Gross Domestic ProductGHG Greenhouse GasGIS Global Information SystemsGPS Global Positioning SystemGSMA Global Systems for Mobile Communications AssociationGSR Global Symposium for RegulatorsGVA Gross Value-AddedIC4D Information and Communications for DevelopmentICT Information and Communication TechnologyIDA Infocomm Development Authority of SingaporeIDB Inter-American Development BankIDN International Domain NameIFFCO Indian Farmers Fertilizers Co-operativeIMSO International Mobile Satellite OrganizationINSEAD Institut Européen d’Administration des Affaires (European Institute ofBusiness Administration)IP Internet ProtocolIP Intellectual Property (in Featured Insight 24))IP/MPLS Internet Protocol / Multi-protocol Label SwitchingISOC Internet SocietyIT Information TechnologyITSO International Telecommunications Satellite OrganizationITU International Telecommunication UnionITU – R International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication SectorIXP Internet Exchange Point 93
    • Annex 5 LAN Local Area Network LDC Least Developed Country LTE Long-Term Evolution M2M Machine to Machine MB Megabyte Mbps Megabit per second MDGs Millennium Development Goals MHz Megahertz MMS Multimedia Messaging Service Mpixel Megapixel NBN National Broadband Network NGA Next-Generation Access NGN Next-Generation Networks NGO Non-Governmental Organization OCW Open Courseware OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OSI Open Systems Interconnection PC Personal Computer PPP Public Private Partnership QoS Quality of Service R&D Research and Development ROI Return on Investment SDGs Sustainable Development Goals SIM Subscriber Identity Module SME Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise SMS Short Message Service TASIM Trans-Eurasian Information Super Highway Project TCO Total Cost of Ownership TLD Top-Level Domain TMT Technology, Media, Telecommunications UAS Universal Access and Service UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization UNPAN United Nations Public Administration Network UNSPECA United Nations Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia USD United States Dollar USF Universal Service Fund USO Universal Service Obligation VAT Value-Added Tax VDSL Very High Bit Digital Subscriber Line VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WLAN Wireless Local Area Network WRC World Radiocommunication Conference WSIS World Summit on the Information Society WTIM World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting 94