Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name.
What is CANCER?
Cancer is a disease characterized by cells that
grow and divide without respect to normal limits,
invade and destroy adjacent tissues,
and may spread to distant sites by metastasis
Cancer affects 1 in 3 of us in our lifetime.
Over 70% of cancers happen to people who are over the age of 60
Cancer can affect people of all ages
Cancer causes about 13% of all death
Pancreatic ca (6%) Lymphoma(4%) Leukaemia(5%) Melanoma(4%) Ovarian cance(6%) Endometrial cancer(6%) Pancreatic cancer(7%) Bladder cancer(5%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(11%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Breast Cancer (15%) Lung Cancer(15%) prostate cancer (10%) prostate cancer (10%) lung cancer (27%) breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (31%) prostate cancer (33%) Cause of death Most common Cause of death Most common Female Male
SYMPTOMS- Local symptoms :
unusual lumps or swelling ( tumor ),
pain and/or ulceration.
Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice.
Symptoms of metastasis (spreading) :
Enlarged lymph nodes,
Cough, especially blood in cough,
bone pain, fracture of affected bones.
Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom.
Systemic symptoms :
poor appetite and severe weight loss,
excessive sweating especially at night,
Cancers are recognized either because-
signs or symptoms appear,
A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist.
These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and a camera test(endoscopy).
Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung.
Cancer can be treated by
Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease.
With modern treatment the peognosis is improving and actually much better than heart attack or stroke in some cases.
Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, or carcinogens.
Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer.
Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma.
Alcohol is associated with stomach, oesophageal, liver,mouth cancer.
Immune system imbalances
Modifiable ("lifestyle") risk factors
Alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers),
physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers),
overweight (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers).
Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer.
Diet- Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g. gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States).
Reduced red meat consumption is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer.
Studies have linked consumption of grilled meat to an increased risk of stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer, a phenomenon which could be due to the presence of carcinogens such as benzopyrene in foods cooked at high temperatures.
Consumption of a plant-based diet and lifestyle changes resulted in a reduction in cancer
Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination, ot mammograms Colorectal cancer -fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy,
Cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. Testicular self-examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer.
Prostate cancer -digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing.