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  • 1. CANCER Dr Raymond Arhin 2007
  • 2.
    • Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name.
  • 3. What is CANCER?
    • Cancer is a disease characterized by cells that
    • grow and divide without respect to normal limits,
    • invade and destroy adjacent tissues,
    • and may spread to distant sites by metastasis
  • 4. Epidemiology
    • Cancer affects 1 in 3 of us in our lifetime.
    • Over 70% of cancers happen to people who are over the age of 60
    • Cancer can affect people of all ages
    • Cancer causes about 13% of all death
  • 5. Pancreatic ca (6%) Lymphoma(4%) Leukaemia(5%) Melanoma(4%) Ovarian cance(6%) Endometrial cancer(6%) Pancreatic cancer(7%) Bladder cancer(5%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(11%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Breast Cancer (15%) Lung Cancer(15%) prostate cancer (10%) prostate cancer (10%) lung cancer (27%) breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (31%) prostate cancer (33%) Cause of death Most common Cause of death Most common Female Male
  • 6. SYMPTOMS- Local symptoms :
    • unusual lumps or swelling ( tumor ),
    • hemorrhage (bleeding),
    • pain and/or ulceration.
    • Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice.
  • 7. Symptoms of metastasis (spreading) :
    • Enlarged lymph nodes,
    • Cough, especially blood in cough,
    • enlarged liver,
    • bone pain, fracture of affected bones.
    • Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom.
  • 8. Systemic symptoms :
    • weight loss,
    • poor appetite and severe weight loss,
    • excessive sweating especially at night,
    • anemia
  • 9. Diagnosis
    • Cancers are recognized either because-
    • signs or symptoms appear,
    • screening.
    • Biopsy
    • A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist.
  • 10. Investigation
    • .
    • These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and a camera test(endoscopy).
    • Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung.
  • 11. Treatment
    • Cancer can be treated by
    • surgery,
    • chemotherapy,
    • radiation therapy,
    • immunotherapy,
    • other methods.
  • 12. Prognosis
    • Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease.
    • With modern treatment the peognosis is improving and actually much better than heart attack or stroke in some cases.
  • 13. Causes
    • Chemical carcinogens
    • Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, or carcinogens.
    • Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer.
    • Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma.
    • Alcohol is associated with stomach, oesophageal, liver,mouth cancer.
  • 14.
    • Radiation
    • Infectious diseases
    • Hormonal imbalances
    • Immune system imbalances
    • Heriditary
  • 15. Prevention
    • Modifiable ("lifestyle") risk factors
    • Alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers),
    • smoking
    • physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers),
    • overweight (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers).
  • 16. Diet
    • Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer.
    • Diet- Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g. gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States).
    • Reduced red meat consumption is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer.
    • Studies have linked consumption of grilled meat to an increased risk of stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer, a phenomenon which could be due to the presence of carcinogens such as benzopyrene in foods cooked at high temperatures.
    • Consumption of a plant-based diet and lifestyle changes resulted in a reduction in cancer
    • Vitamins
  • 17. screening
    • Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination, ot mammograms Colorectal cancer -fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy,
    • Cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. Testicular self-examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer.
    • Prostate cancer -digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing.