Who invented it? Lev Vygotsky a Soviet psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical physchology
When did it first gain attention? Most of his books and articles were suppressed under political grounds. After Stalin’s death in 1953, writings became public and Vygotsky became a major influence in psychology and education.
Firstly main focus was on language and its role in cognitive development then expanded to the general education.
Scaffolding, reciprocal teaching, and guided instruction are effective strategies that implement Vygotsky’s theory.
Reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy used to teach reading where students take turns being the teacher for a pair or small group. The teacher’s role may simply be to clarify or ask questions.
Guided instruction involves the teacher and students exploring math problems and then sharing their different problem solving strategies in an open dialogue
How was/ is it applied? - Vygotsky was very much involved in developing the education program for the Soviet Union - Has 2 parts: MKO and ZPD MKO- More Knowledgeable Other: teacher, coach, adult, peer, computer ZPD- Zone of Proximal Development: distance between a student’s ability to perform a task with others vs. independently EXAMPLE: instead of desks in a row, they are in groups!
Is it aligned with particular subjects? - No, however this theory focused on the connection between people and the sociocultural context (where they interact while sharing an experience) - The tools children develop (writing and speech) as social functions lead to higher thinking skills
Interaction between peers = use of social skills
Enhancement in human ability to dynamically engage in social interactions and share experiences
Development of a deeper understanding of the importance of past experiences and prior knowledge in making sense of present situations
Shortcomings? - Children could look to others for answers instead of figuring things out for themselves