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  • 1. The only guide you need for A+ exam success . . . 100% “A comprehensive map to this fast-growing certification.”You’re holding in your hands the most comprehensive and effective guide available for the CompTIA A+ exam.Ed Tetz, Glen Clarke, and Joseph Phillips, who have taught the A+ certification curriculum to hundreds of people, 100% C O M P R E H E N S I V E ONE HUNDRED PERCENT — Tim Sosbe, Editorial Director, Certification Magazinedeliver incisive, comprehensive explanations of every A+ hardware and operating system topic, highlighting Covers the Core COMPREHENSIVEexam-critical concepts and offering hands-on tips that can help you in your real-world IT career. Throughout, they Hardware and AUTHORITATIVE OS Technology exams WHAT YOU NEEDprovide pre-tests, exam-style assessment questions, scenario exercises, and labs—everything you need to master ONE HUNDRED PERCENTthe material and pass the exam.Get complete coverage of Hardware and Master the materialOS exam objectives for CompTIA exams• Master hardware basics, from CPU chips, motherboards, and RAM 220-201 and to ports, cables,and printers 220-202 A+ A+• Get the scoop on installing and configuring drives, peripherals, and portable devices Test your knowledge• Discover all you need to know about hardware maintenance and with assessment troubleshooting questions, scenario Hundreds of unique,• Get up to speed on OS basics, from command prompt procedures to exam-like questions exercises, and labs managing files and directories give you a random set of questions each time Practice on state-• Find out how to install and configure you take the exam. Windows, device drivers, and applications of-the-art test-• Get a handle on OS troubleshooting, from preparation software A deciphering error codes to running utilities A customizable format +• Delve into networking, from cards, cables, and enables you to define topographies to configuring Internet access your own preferences for question presentation. About the Authors Test Prep Tools on CD-ROM: Ed Tetz, A+, MCSE, MCT, has written several guides to MCSE certification. He is an • Hungry Minds test engine instructor/IT Co-Coordinator at the Halifax, Nova Scotia branch of PBSC, an IBM powered by top-rated subsidiary that is one of Canada’s premier computer training companies. Glen E. Clarke, Boson Software A+, MCSE, MCSD, MCT, CIWCI, is a technical instructor at the Halifax, Nova Scotia branch of PBSC with over 4 years of certification teaching experience. Joseph Phillips, TETZ, CLARKE, & PHILLIPS • Searchable e-version of A+, Network+, MCSE, MCT, CTT, has written several books on the MCSE certification the book path. He is an independent trainer and consultant based in Indianapolis, Indiana. CertificationSystem Requirements:PC running Windows 95 or later, Windows NT 4or later. See the About the CD Appendix for $59.99 USA $89.99 Canada £44.99 UK incl. VAT Reader Level: Beginning to Advanced Shelving Category: Certification Bible Boson Software-details and complete system requirements. powered test ISBN 0-7645-4810-7 engine on Hungry Minds www.hungr yminds.com CD-ROM *85 5 -AHGIDj ,!7IA7G4-feibaj!:p;p;T;T;t Test Engine powered by Ed Tetz, A+, MCSE, MCT Glen Clarke, A+, MCSE, MCSD, MCT, CIWCI Joseph Phillips, A+, Network+, MCSE, MCT, CTT
  • 2. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page i A+ Certification Bible
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  • 4. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page iii A+ Certification Bible Ed Tetz, Glen E. Clarke, Joseph Phillips, Angshuman Chakraborti, Meeta Gupta, Mridula Parihar, Rashim Mogha Hungry Minds, Inc. Best-Selling Books • Digital Downloads • e-Books • Answer Networks • e-Newsletters • Branded Web Sites • e-Learning New York, NY ✦ Indianapolis, IN ✦ Cleveland, OH
  • 5. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page iv A+ Certification Bible Philippines; by Contemporanea de Ediciones for Published by Venezuela; by Express Computer Distributors for the Hungry Minds, Inc. Caribbean and West Indies; by Micronesia Media 909 Third Avenue Distributor, Inc. for Micronesia; by Chips New York, NY 10022 Computadoras S.A. de C.V. for Mexico; by Editorial www.hungryminds.com Norma de Panama S.A. for Panama; by American Bookshops for Finland. Copyright © 2001 Hungry Minds, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including interior For general information on Hungry Minds’ products design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced and services please contact our Customer Care or transmitted in any form, by any means (electronic, department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. prior written permission of the publisher. For sales inquiries and reseller information, including Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 2001090749 discounts, premium and bulk quantity sales, and foreign-language translations, please contact our ISBN: 0-7645-4810-7 Customer Care department at 800-434-3422, fax Printed in the United States of America 317-572-4002 or write to Hungry Minds, Inc., Attn: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Customer Care Department, 10475 Crosspoint 1P/RS/QX/QR/IN Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46256. Distributed in the United States by Hungry Minds, For information on licensing foreign or domestic Inc. rights, please contact our Sub-Rights Customer Care Distributed by CDG Books Canada Inc. for Canada; by department at 212-884-5000. Transworld Publishers Limited in the United For information on using Hungry Minds’ products Kingdom; by IDG Norge Books for Norway; by IDG and services in the classroom or for ordering Sweden Books for Sweden; by IDG Books Australia examination copies, please contact our Educational Publishing Corporation Pty. Ltd. for Australia and Sales department at 800-434-2086 or fax 317-572-4005. New Zealand; by TransQuest Publishers Pte Ltd. for For press review copies, author interviews, or other Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Hong publicity information, please contact our Public Kong; by Gotop Information Inc. for Taiwan; by ICG Relations department at 317-572-3168 or fax Muse, Inc. for Japan; by Intersoft for South Africa; by 317-572-4168. Eyrolles for France; by International Thomson For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, Publishing for Germany, Austria, and Switzerland; by personal, or educational use, please contact Distribuidora Cuspide for Argentina; by LR Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, International for Brazil; by Galileo Libros for Chile; by Danvers, MA 01923, or fax 978-750-4470. Ediciones ZETA S.C.R. Ltda. for Peru; by WS Computer Publishing Corporation, Inc., for the LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR HAVE USED THEIR BEST EFFORTS IN PREPARING THIS BOOK. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND THE DESCRIPTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS PARAGRAPH. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES REPRESENTATIVES OR WRITTEN SALES MATERIALS. THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS STATED HEREIN ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WARRANTED TO PRODUCE ANY PARTICULAR RESULTS, AND THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY INDIVIDUAL. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES. Trademarks: are trademarks or registered trademarks of Hungry Minds, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Hungry Minds, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. is a trademark of Hungry Minds, Inc.
  • 6. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page v About the Authors Edward Tetz graduated from Saint Lawrence College in Cornwall, Ontario with a degree in Business Administration in 1990. He spent a short time in computer sales, which eventually led to a computer support position. He has spent the last eight years performing system and LAN support for small and large organizations. In 1994 he added training to his repertoire. He holds the following certifications: A+, Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT), Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), and Chauncey Group’s Certified Technical Trainer (CTT). Over his years of work experience, he has supported Apple Macintosh, IBM OS/2, Linux, Novell NetWare, and all Microsoft operating systems from MS-DOS to Windows 2000. He is currently an Information Technology Coordinator and an Instructor for PBSC, a national train- ing company in Canada. Most of the training that he delivers is Microsoft-certified, but he also delivers technical training outside of that product line. He welcomes comments from his readers and can be contacted at ed_tetz@hotmail.com. Glen E. Clarke is a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD), and Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT). Glen is also an A+ certified technician and holds Prosoft’s Certified Internet Webmaster- Certified Instructor certification (CIWCI). Glen currently works as a technical trainer for PBSC, one of Canada’s largest technical training centers, where he deliv- ers the A+ courses and Microsoft Certified Curriculum for the MCSE and MCSD pro- grams. When he’s not working, Glen loves to spend quality time with his wife, Tanya, and their two children, Sara and Brendon. He is an active member of the martial arts community, where he currently holds his first-degree black belt in Tae Kwon Do. You can contact Glen at gleneclarke@hotmail.com. Joseph Phillips is an MCSE, MCT, and CTT, as well as a CompTIA A+ and Network+ Certified Technician. Joseph has taught, consulted on, and written about computer technologies since 1993. When he’s not working with computers, you can find Joseph on the golf course, behind a camera, or on the working end of a fly rod. Sometimes you can catch him at www.josephphillips.com. Angshuman Chakraborti is an MCSD and an MCSE. He is currently employed with NIIT Ltd. as a consultant. He has been with NIIT for the last 4 years. He spent the first two years training career students and professionals in technologies, including C, C++, Visual C++, Windows NT, TCP/IP, SQL, Sybase, HTML, JAVA, Visual Basic, and JavaScript. The second two years has been spent leading teams to create instruc- tor-led training material for various clients. During this period, he has also worked as a subject matter expert in various technologies, including Linux, Mac OS, Cisco Networking (CCNA), Windows 2000, JavaScript, and DHTML, among others. His responsibilities also include training development executives, managing projects, and instructionally and technically reviewing training material.
  • 7. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page vi Meeta Gupta is certified in C++, JAVA, JFC/Swing, Java Script, Visual Basic 5.0–6.0, VBA, HTML, DHTML, SQL, Sybase, MS Access, UML, Windows NT 4.0, Novell NetWare 4.x, UNIX SCO, and MAC OS 9. She is presently employed as a development executive with NIIT Ltd., with one year of experience in planning, organizing, writ- ing, and maintaining technical documentation. Meeta also possesses 11⁄ 2 years of experience as a trainer at NIIT Ltd., where she was responsible for conducting inter- active training modules for varied audiences and maintaining hardware and soft- ware including LAN (Novell NetWare). Mridula Parihar is a Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD). She has worked with NIIT Ltd. for two years. In her first year, she worked as a technical instructor in the Career Education Group (CEG) division of NIIT Ltd. She has been working with the Knowledge Solutions Business (KSB) group for the last 12 months. Here, Mridula has had the opportunity to work on many technical projects. Her work involves design, development, testing, and implementation of instructor-led training courses. Also, she handles the additional responsibility of ensuring ISO compliance. Rashim Mogha is a Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD). She has worked for two years at NIIT Ltd. Her first year was spent in the Career Education Group (CEG), where she taught NIIT students, handled computer installation and maintenance, and managed resources. For the past year, she has been working in the Knowledge Solutions Business (KSB) division of NIIT. In the KSB division, Rashim has had the opportunity to work on varied technical assignments. Her work involves design, development, testing, and implementation of instructor-led training courses. Her primary responsibilities include training development executives, project management, instructional review, technical review, and ensuring ISO compliance.
  • 8. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page vii Credits Acquisitions Editors Graphics and Production Specialists Nancy Maragioglio Amy Adrian Katie Feltman LeAndra Johnson Heather Pope Project Editors Kendra Span Amanda Munz Brian Torwelle Keith Cline Jeremey Unger Erin Zeltner Technical Editors Brian McCann Quality Control Technicians Trevor Kay Laura Albert John Greenough Question Writer Andy Hollandbeck Joseph Phillips David Faust Susan Moritz Copy Editors Luisa Perez Gabrielle Chosney Carl Pierce Maryann Steinhart Nancy Price Kyle Looper Marianne Santy Pat O’Brien Charles Spencer James Russell Barry Childs-Helton Permissions Editor Rebekah Mancilla Laura Moss Editorial Managers Media Development Specialist Ami Frank Sullivan Brock Bigard Kyle Looper Media Development Coordinator Project Coordinators Marisa Pearman Regina Snyder Emily Wichlinski Proofreading and Indexing Joe Shines TECHBOOKS Production Services, Inc.
  • 9. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page viii I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Sharon, and my children, Emily and Mackenzie. They have put up with a lot during the writing of this book, especially the loss of my time, which is now gone forever. — Ed This book is dedicated to my beautiful wife, Tanya, who has shown amazing support throughout the long nights and early mornings of this book. If it were not for your love and understanding, I would not have had the inspiration to write. — Glen This book is dedicated to my many friends: Mary Jane, Don, Mick, Linda Linda, Mark and Antonietta of Il Gargona, Kenny, Greg, Stacey, Mary, Nancy, Derek, Jason, Lila, and so many others. Thank you all for your friendship. — Joe
  • 10. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page ix Preface W elcome to the A+ Certification Bible. This book is intended to help people who are interested in pursuing their A+ Certification. It covers material that will be found on both of the required A+ Certification Exams (A+ Core Hardware Exam and A+ OS Technologies Exam). The layout of this book has been designed to make the material easy to digest and navigate. We hope that you enjoy your experience with this book. Once you have attained your A+ Certification, you may want to pursue another major industry certification, such as CompTIA’s Network+, CompTIA’s Server+, CompTIA’s Linux+, Microsoft’s MCSE, Novell’s CNE, or Cisco’s CCNA. Any of these certifications will make you more valuable to your current employer or future employers. Good luck on your path to certification. Who Should Read this Book? This book is designed as a study aid for people who plan to write their A+ certifica- tion exams from CompTIA. If you are interested in the A+ certification, this book is the only study guide that you will need. And because it provides more detailed information than is required for the exam, it can be used as a reference at a later date. What is CompTIA? CompTIA (Computer Technology Industry Association) is an association whose members come from all areas of the computing industry. It has corporate member- ships, which include more than 10,000 companies; the IT professionals in its mem- bership come from more than 50 countries. Its main goal is to act as a unifying force to create vendor neutral certifications. You can find more information about CompTIA at http://www.comptia.org. What is A+? From 1999 to 2000, CompTIA saw a 40 percent increase in the number of people tak- ing the A+ certification exam. Over 116,000 people passed this certification in 2000, bringing the number of certified professionals to over 260,000. The A+ certification is clearly one of the fastest growing certifications in the industry.
  • 11. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page x x A+ Certification Bible Structure of this Book This book is broken down into eight parts. Each part focuses on a different set of components from either the A+ Core Hardware exam or the A+ OS Technologies exam. The only exception to this rule is Part VII, which covers the networking com- ponents from both exams. Part I: A+ Core Hardware Exam — Hardware Basics Part I covers the basics of all the hardware components that make up your com- puter. The first chapter provides an overview of some of the basic components that will then be examined in subsequent chapters. Components that will be examined include: CPUs, motherboards, RAM, CMOS, ports, cables, and printers. Part I con- cludes with a review of major system resources, such as IRQs, that are used by the major types of devices. Part II: A+ Core Hardware Exam — Installing and Configuring Hardware Part II focuses on installation of various devices. It includes an examination of inter- nal hard drives, modems, USB peripherals, FireWire, and components that are included in portable devices. Part III: A+ Core Hardware Exam — Maintenance and Troubleshooting Part III provides information about maintaining computer devices, including pre- ventive maintenance and safety procedures, how to handle and care for computer components, and maintenance specifically related to printers. Part III ends with a chapter that covers basic troubleshooting of each of the major components that make up your computer. Part IV: A+ Operating System (OS) Technologies Exam — Operating System Basics Part IV introduces the different operating systems, providing a comparison of Windows 9x systems and Windows 2000, a description of different commands that can be used from command prompt, and a discussion of graphical operating sys- tems that carry out major system functions. These system functions include rout- ing disk maintenance procedures. Part IV also discusses memory management and configuration for MS-DOS and Windows 9x.
  • 12. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xi Preface xi Part V: A+ Operating System (OS) Technologies Exam — Installing and Configuring Operating Systems Part V of the book discusses how to get the OS going. It includes chapters on installing and upgrading Windows, how to control the boot process, and how to work with devices and applications. When working with applications, the differ- ences between 16-bit, 32-bit and MS-DOS based applications are discussed. Part VI: A+ Operating System (OS) Technologies Exam — Troubleshooting Operating Systems The focus of Part VI is how to troubleshoot problems from the OS perspective. This part examines different tools that can be used to troubleshoot aspects of your oper- ating system and common problems that may arise in day-to-day use of the operat- ing system. Since many computer problems arise from viruses, there is a section that deals with defining and dealing with viruses. Part VII: A+ Exams — Networking Part VII deals with networking. An overview of underlying network hardware — including cabling, network cards, and protocols — is provided, as well as a discus- sion about networking from the OS level and Internet access methods. Appendixes This book has four appendixes. The appendixes include a description of what is found on the accompanying CD-ROM, an objective mapping table to let you know which chapters cover which exam objectives, a sample exam, and some exam- taking tips. Chapter Structure Each chapter in this book follows a common structure: ✦ Objectives: A bulleted list that states the specific exam objectives that will be covered in the chapter. ✦ Pre-Test: A short test that assesses your knowledge of the material in the chapter. The pre-test questions will help you identify areas to focus on. ✦ The body of the chapter follows the Pre-Test. ✦ Key Point Summary: A summary of the crucial facts in the chapter.
  • 13. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xii xii A+ Certification Bible ✦ Study Guide: The study guide in each chapter contains some or all of the fol- lowing elements. • Assessment Questions: Multiple-choice questions, similar to the ones you will see on the exam, that test your knowledge of material presented in the chapter. • Scenarios: Exercises that require you to apply your critical thinking skills and understanding of the chapter material to solve a hypothetical problem. • Labs: Hands-on or paper-based exercises that follow a step-by-step approach. Labs are designed to help you solidify the material that is in the chapter. • Answers to Pre-Test questions, Assessment Questions, Scenarios, and Labs. Icons Used in this Book In order to draw attention to content in the chapter, a number of icons are used. These icons and their uses include the following: Caution This icon is used when there is something that is discussed or being done in a lab that could have serious consequences to you or your computer. Cross- This icon is used to reference information that is found elsewhere in the book. Reference Exam Tip This icon is used to provide tips that may help you in the exam. It may also be used to stress points that are important to the exam. In the This icon is used to deliver material that discusses practices that are opposite to Real World those presented in the study material and the exam. Objective This icon denotes test objectives that are to be covered in a section. Tip This icon is used for tips or facts that are worth noting, but are not related specifi- cally to the exam.
  • 14. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xiii Preface xiii Exam Components The A+ Certification exams can be scheduled at Vue or Prometric testing centers. For more information about scheduling your exam, check the Testing Locations page on CompTIA’s Web site at http://www.comptia.org/certification/ test_locations.htm. Pricing As of January 1, 2001, the cost of taking the A+ exams is $82 US per exam for corpo- rate members and $132 US per exam for non-members. What’s on the exam? The objectives for the A+ Core Hardware exam are found in Table 1, and the objec- tives for the A+ OS Technologies exam are found in Table 2. Table 1 A+ Core Hardware Exam (220-201) Domain % of Examination 1.0 Installation, Configuration and Upgrading 30% 2.0 Diagnosing and Troubleshooting 30% 3.0 Preventive Maintenance 5% 4.0 Motherboard/Processors/Memory 15% 5.0 Printers 10% 6.0 Basic Networking 10% Total 100%
  • 15. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xiv xiv A+ Certification Bible Table 2 A+ OS Technologies Exam (220-202) Domain % of Examination 1.0 OS Fundamentals 30% 2.0 Installation, Configuration and Upgrading 15% 3.0 Diagnosing and Troubleshooting 40% 4.0 Networks 15% Total 100% Passing scores CompTIA uses a scale score to determine the total number of points that each question on the exam will be calculated out of. This scale score is between 100 and 900. In any case, the passing score (not a percentage due to the scale) is 683 or 76% for the A+ Core Hardware exam and 614 or 68% for the A+ OS Technologies exam. The scale score system allows the number of points assigned to questions to vary between each copy of the exam, which makes it harder for test candidates to com- pare scores across exams. The revised exams for A+ were released January 31, 2001. Each exam contains 70 questions, and you will have 90 minutes to complete each exam. In the third quar- ter of 2001, the exams are scheduled to become adaptive. Adaptive exams ask a minimal number of questions (usually about 15), and then will ask additional ques- tions based on any incorrect answers. Appendix D provides additional information about the differences between standard and adaptive exams.
  • 16. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xv Acknowledgments I would like to thank Hungry Minds, Inc., especially Nancy Maragioglio, the acquisi- tions editor who got me involved with this project. It has always been great to work with her. That feeling of thanks also goes out to Amanda Munz, the project editor with whom I worked very closely. Both Nancy and Amanda made this process fulfill- ing. Not least, I want to thank the technical editors, copy editors, and other staff at Hungry Minds who helped bring this book to print. — Ed First, I would like to thank Ed Tetz for getting me involved in this project. I would also like to thank the staff at Hungry Minds, Inc., especially Nancy Maragioglio, Acquisitions Editor, and Amanda Munz, Project Editor. You all have made this expe- rience one of the most enjoyable of my career. — Glen Many thanks to Nancy Maragioglio for asking me to write this book and for her guidance and support. Thanks also to Amanda Munz for her incredible patience and leadership, and to Ed Tetz and Glen Clarke for their hard work and late nights invested in this book. Many thanks to the technical editors, copy editors, and countless other individuals who’ve made this book a success — Joe
  • 17. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xvi Contents at a Glance Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: Hardware Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: Basic Terms, Concepts, and Functions of System Modules . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2: Popular CPU Chips and their Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 3: Motherboards: Components and Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 4: RAM Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Chapter 5: CMOS Basic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter 6: Ports, Cables, and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Chapter 7: Printer Operations and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Chapter 8: System Resources Used By Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Part II: Installing and Configuring Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Chapter 9: Internal Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Chapter 10: Installing and Configuring Peripheral Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Chapter 11: Portable Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Part III: Maintenance and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Chapter 12: Preventive Maintenance and Safety Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Chapter 13: Managing Replaceable Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Chapter 14: Maintaining Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Chapter 15: Troubleshooting Procedures and Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Part IV: Operating System Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Chapter 16: Operating System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Chapter 17: Command Prompt Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Chapter 18: Major System Files and their Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Chapter 19: Managing Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 Chapter 20: Managing Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Part V: Installing and Configuring Operating Systems . . . . . . . . 663 Chapter 21: Installing and Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Chapter 22: Boot Sequences and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 Chapter 23: Loading and Configuring Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 Chapter 24: Working with Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
  • 18. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xvii Part VI: Troubleshooting Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827 Chapter 25: Managing Error Codes and Startup Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829 Chapter 26: Managing Common Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849 Chapter 27: Using Windows-Based Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 Part VII: Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933 Chapter 28: Basic Networking Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935 Chapter 29: Understanding Networking at the Operating System Level . . . . . 965 Chapter 30: Configuring Internet Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015 Appendix A: What’s on the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053 Appendix B: Objective Mapping Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057 Appendix C: Sample Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075 Appendix D: Exam-Taking Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107 Hungry Minds, Inc. End-User License Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141 CD-ROM Installation Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
  • 19. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xviii
  • 20. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xix Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: Hardware Basics 1 Chapter 1: Basic Terms, Concepts, and Functions of System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 System Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Processor/CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 LCD and Portable Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 2: Popular CPU Chips and their Characteristics . . . . . . . . 21 Processor Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Processor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Data bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Address bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Cache memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Math co-processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Chip types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Early Intel Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8086 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8088 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 80286 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
  • 21. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xx xx A+ Certification Bible 80386DX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 80386SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 80486DX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 80486SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Popular Intel Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CPU voltage and transistor integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Pentium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Pentium Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Pentium II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 SIMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Celeron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Pentium III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Physical size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Non-Intel Chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 K6-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 K6-III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Athlon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Increasing Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Chapter 3: Motherboards: Components and Architecture . . . . . . . 51 Motherboard Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 SIMM/DIMM sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Cache memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Expansion slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Communication ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Parallel port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Keyboard/mouse connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Power connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Video adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Hard disk controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Floppy disk controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 SCSI controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 BIOS chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Types Of Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Full AT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Baby AT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ATX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Bus Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 MCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 EISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
  • 22. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxi Contents xxi VESA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 PCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 PCMCIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 AGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Performance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Chapter 4: RAM Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Memory Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Types of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Read-only memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 EEPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Random access memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Types of DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Standard DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Fast Page Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Extended Data Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Burst Extended Data Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Synchronous DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 DRAM Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 SIMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 DIMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Parity versus non-parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Types of Cache Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 L1 cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 L2 cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Installation of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Parity/non-parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Installing memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Performance Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
  • 23. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxii xxii A+ Certification Bible Chapter 5: CMOS Basic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Basic CMOS Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Hard disk drive type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Floppy disk drive type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Parallel ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Serial ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Date/time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Boot sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Plug-and-Play BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Advanced CMOS Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Globally Unique Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 BIOS date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Universal Serial Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Built-in network adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Virus protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 On board cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Reserve resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Upgrading the System BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Chapter 6: Ports, Cables, and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Common Computer Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Serial versus parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Universal Serial Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 FireWire (IEEE-1394) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Cable Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Twisted pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Thick coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Thin coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Cable Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Pin connections for external cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Pin connections for internal cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Connector Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 DB-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 DB-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 DB-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
  • 24. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxiii Contents xxiii Centronics 36 and 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 RJ-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RJ-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 British Naval Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 PS/2 or MINI-DIN 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Universal Serial Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 IEEE-1394 (FireWire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Chapter 7: Printer Operations and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Paper Feeder Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Continuous form feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Friction feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Types of Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Laser printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 The laser printing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Inkjet printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Dot-matrix printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Types of Printer Connections and Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Parallel cable connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Serial cable connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Network cable connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Universal Serial Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Infrared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Chapter 8: System Resources Used By Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Understanding System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 I/O addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Interrupt request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Direct memory access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Memory addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Working with System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Viewing resources in use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Changing system resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
  • 25. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxiv xxiv A+ Certification Bible Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Part II Installing and Configuring Hardware 227 Chapter 9: Internal Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Hard Drive Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Disk geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Read/write process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Master boot record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 IDE Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 IDE overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Installing IDE devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Small Computer System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 SCSI overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Installing SCSI devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Chapter 10: Installing and Configuring Peripheral Devices . . . . . 263 Monitor/Video Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Installing a video card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Configuring the video card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Modem attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Installing a modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Configuring a modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Hard drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Configuring the hard drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 File systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Removable media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 USB Peripherals and Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 IEEE-1284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 FireWire (IEEE-1394) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
  • 26. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxv Contents xxv Portables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Docking stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Network Interface Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Chapter 11: Portable Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Portable Computer Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Handling batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Maximizing battery performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Changing batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 AC Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 AC adapter problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 AC adapter troubleshooting and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 DC Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 PC Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Adding a PC card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Removing a PC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Video Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Video board features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Video memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Video board installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Processor Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Processor board components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Power cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Selecting a processor board for a portable system . . . . . . . . . . 310 LCD Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Connecting an LCD panel to a computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Handling LCD panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Maintaining keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Handling keyboard problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Hard drive overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Hard drive characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Hard drive performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Hard drive installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
  • 27. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxvi xxvi A+ Certification Bible Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Removing memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Upgrading memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Part III: Maintenance and Troubleshooting 333 Chapter 12: Preventive Maintenance and Safety Procedures . . . . 335 Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Preventive Maintenance Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Materials and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Software utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Preventive Maintenance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 High-voltage equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Disposal of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 CRTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Toner kits/cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Chapter 13: Managing Replaceable Components . . . . . . . . . . . 363 CPU/Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Checking CPU compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Upgrading the CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Managing memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Managing cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Power Supply Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Identifying a failing PSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Choosing the right PSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Replacing a PSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
  • 28. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxvii Contents xxvii System Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Choosing the right system board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 Upgrading the system board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Hard disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Floppy disk drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 CD-ROM drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Replacing Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Chapter 14: Maintaining Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Feed and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Friction feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Troubleshooting friction feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Troubleshooting continuous form feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Troubleshooting paper output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Software-based errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Hardware-based errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Paper Jams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Laser printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Inkjet printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Dot matrix printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Print Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Laser printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Inkjet printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Dot matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
  • 29. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxviii xxviii A+ Certification Bible Chapter 15: Troubleshooting Procedures and Guidelines . . . . . . 423 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 POST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Processor/memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Floppy drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Hard drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 LBA, large mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Sound card/Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Monitor/Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Parallel ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 System covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Troubleshooting tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Troubleshooting Procedures and Good Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Troubleshooting and problem isolation procedures . . . . . . . . . 450 Determine whether it is a hardware or software problem . . . . . . 451 Gather information from users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Part IV: Operating System Basics 463 Chapter 16: Operating System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Major Operating System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Managing hardware devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Benefiting from the user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Understanding memory management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Working with folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Checking the OS version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Major Operating System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Getting into the architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Paging your memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Contrasts Between Windows 9x and Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Examining the architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Counting on the file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
  • 30. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxix Contents xxix Implementing security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Managing hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Which one is right for me? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Navigating Around Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 My Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Chapter 17: Command Prompt Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Managing Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 dir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 mkdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 chdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 rmdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Deltree.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Copying and Moving Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 xcopy.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Move.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 del . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Performing Diagnostics and Tuning Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Defrag.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 scandisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 mem.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Working with the Rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 attrib.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 fdisk.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Format.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 sys.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 mscdex.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 ver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 setver.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 scanreg.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Working with the Edit Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Opening files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Saving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 Searching and replacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 Closing the editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 Batch File Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Starting your file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Getting your directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Working with parameters or starting arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Making decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Locating commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
  • 31. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxx xxx A+ Certification Bible Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Chapter 18: Major System Files and their Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . 541 Examining Basic System and User Interface Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 io.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 msdos.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 config.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 autoexec.bat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 boot.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 win.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Command prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Utilizing Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Conventional memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Expanded memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Extended memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 High memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Upper memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Virtual memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 himem.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 emm386.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Touring Windows 9x System Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 io.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 command.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 system.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 win.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 regedit.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 system.dat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 user.dat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 sysedit.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 setver.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 smartdrv.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 msconfig.exe for Windows 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 dosstart.bat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 DriveSpace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 RUN command.com and the command-line prompt . . . . . . . . . . 566 Touring Windows 2000-Specific Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Computer Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 NTLDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 boot.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 ntdetect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 ntbootdd.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 regedt32.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 regedit.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 Run cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
  • 32. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxxi Contents xxxi Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Chapter 19: Managing Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 Filenaming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 Long file names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 File associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 File Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 Changing attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 The basic attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 Windows 2000 attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 Chapter 20: Managing Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Understanding File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 The FAT file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 The FAT32 file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 NTFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 NTFS 5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 HPFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Installing a Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Basic safeguards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 IDE versus SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Internal versus external . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Managing Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Creating partitions with Windows FDISK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Windows NT’s Disk Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 Disk Management in Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Formatting the partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Understanding Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Backup and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 Defragmentation utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649 ScanDisk Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Assessment questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
  • 33. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxxii xxxii A+ Certification Bible Part V: Installing and Configuring Operating Systems 663 Chapter 21: Installing and Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Preparing for Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Booting for Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Windows 95/98 startup disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 Windows NT/2000 setup disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 Understanding Partition Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 Understanding Formatting Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 Running the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 Windows 95 to Windows 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 Windows NT to Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699 Dual Booting Windows Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 Chapter 22: Boot Sequences and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 Standard Boot Process for Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 POST process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 io.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 msdos.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 config.sys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 command.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 autoexec.bat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 win.com and vmm32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Loading the shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 Standard Boot Process for Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 ntldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 boot.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 ARC pathnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
  • 34. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxxiii Contents xxxiii ntoskrnl.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 The device load process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 The service load process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Booting into Safe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Entering MS-DOS Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 Other F8 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729 Startup Disks for Windows 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Startup Disks for Windows 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 Setup Disks for Windows NT/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735 Emergency Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 Emergency repair disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 Emergency Repair Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Recovery Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 Chapter 23: Loading and Configuring Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . 749 Loading Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 Windows 9x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755 Working with Plug-and-Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Configuring Windows Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764 Installing a printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Adjusting your spooler settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771 The default printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 Network printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Chapter 24: Working with Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791 Installing and Removing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Getting the Most Out of Multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 Cooperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 Preemptive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Running 32-Bit Windows Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Benefits of 32-bit applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 Windows 9x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Running 16-Bit Windows Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 Windows 9x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 Incompatibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
  • 35. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxxiv xxxiv A+ Certification Bible Running MS-DOS-Based Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805 PIF settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 Incompatibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Part VI: Troubleshooting Operating Systems 827 Chapter 25: Managing Error Codes and Startup Messages . . . . . 829 Windows 9x Boot Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831 Error in CONFIG.SYS line XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831 HIMEM.SYS not loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 Missing or corrupt HIMEM.SYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 Bad or missing COMMAND.COM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 No operating system found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 Windows 2000 Boot Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 Windows NT and Windows 2000 boot issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 No operating system found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 Missing boot files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 Safe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 A device referenced in SYSTEM.INI, WIN.INI, Registry is not found . 838 Other Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838 Swap file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838 Dr. Watson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839 Failure to start GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840 Windows Protection Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841 Event Viewer — Event log is full . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 Chapter 26: Managing Common Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849 Solving Common Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 Eliciting information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 Reproducing the error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 Identifying any changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 Solving Windows-Specific Printing Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853 Stalled print spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853 Incorrect/incompatible driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 Incorrect parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
  • 36. 4810-7 FM.F 6/7/01 8:12 AM Page xxxv Preface xxxv Solving Other Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856 General protection faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856 Illegal operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856 Invalid working directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857