Unit 7 - leadership


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Unit 7 - leadership

  1. 1. Leadership UNIT 7 Source: Principle of Management By Tripathi and Reddy
  2. 2. Objective of Study <ul><li>Definition: Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between A Leader and A Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Function of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Forces determining Effective leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition: Leadership <ul><li>“ Leadership is the lifting of man’s vision to higher sights, the raising man’s performance to higher standard, building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitation.”-- Peter F Drucker. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers voluntarily without the use of coercion.”— Alford and beatty. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically”— Keith Davis </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership is the ability of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives”- G R Terry . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Difference between A Leader and A Manager <ul><li>A Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Manager assumes a position by appointment. </li></ul><ul><li>A Manager has some positional power. </li></ul><ul><li>(Right to command) </li></ul><ul><li>A Manager seeks those objectives which his subordinates do not regard as their own. </li></ul><ul><li>(Conflict of objectives) </li></ul><ul><li>A Leader </li></ul><ul><li>A person emerge as a leader based on a situational factor. </li></ul><ul><li>A Leader has some personal power. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ability to influence) </li></ul><ul><li>A Leader seeks those objectives which are objectives of his subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>(Mutuality of Objectives) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some of the important characteristics of leadership are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Leadership implies the existence of followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership involves the a community of interest between the leader and his follower. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership involves unequal distribution of authority among leaders and group members. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership implies that the leaders can influence their followers and give legitimate direction </li></ul>Characteristics of Leadership
  6. 6. <ul><li>The function of a leader is classified into THREE categories </li></ul><ul><li>1. Setting and achieving organisational goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setter, Planner , Executive . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Planning Operations of the organisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Expert, External group representative , Surrogate for individual responsibility, Controller of internal relationship within the organisation, Administrator of Rewards and Punishment, Arbitrator and Mediator </li></ul><ul><li>3. Symbolic Figure for the group: </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplar, Symbol of the group, Ideologist, Father figure, Scapegoat . </li></ul>Function of a Leader
  7. 7. Types of Leadership style <ul><li>Democratic Leadership style: </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian Leadership style: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of dependency on the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Laissez Faire Leadership Style: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on good team work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on good interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul>Types of Leadership style
  9. 9. Forces determining effective Leadership <ul><li>1. Forces in the leader himself </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X: Authoritarian Leadership approach </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y : Democratic OR Laissez Faire Leadership approach </li></ul><ul><li>2. Forces in his subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skill, need for independence, acceptance of management’s objectives, their tolerance for ambiguity and their expectation that they should share in Decision making </li></ul>
  10. 10. Forces determining effective Leadership <ul><li>3.Forces in the general situation: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership style of the leader’s supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Job demands </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure of Time </li></ul><ul><li>4.Forces in the organisational system </li></ul><ul><li>Division of work </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Production technology </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mentoring <ul><li>Definition: Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>When a young person joins the organisation he needs some senior person for emotional and moral support and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>The senior person is called the “ Mentor ” and the young person is called “ Protege ” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Task of Mentor <ul><li>To establish long-lasting personal and informal relationship of mutual trust and confidence with protege. </li></ul><ul><li>To present himself as a model of Behavioural norms which are admired and identified by Protege </li></ul><ul><li>To listen to the personal and job-related problems of the protege </li></ul><ul><li>To help protege in searching alternative solution of his problem. </li></ul><ul><li>To share relevant experience with the protege. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the development needs of the protege and to increase his/her effectiveness </li></ul>
  13. 13. Skill of a mentor <ul><li>Good Listening Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Sophistication in using different forms of question which can elicit more information, clarify matters and stimulate thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to give feedback in proper way so that the protégé is able to reduce his/her Blind area and increase his/her self-awareness and </li></ul><ul><li>Skills in promoting the protégé to develop effective strategies. </li></ul>