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    Status of water & sanitation in gujarat ih&sg final Status of water & sanitation in gujarat ih&sg final Presentation Transcript

    • Understanding Status of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Gujarat Indira Hirway & Subhrangsu Goswami CEPT University Ahmedabad
    • Introduction
    • Introduction
      • One major limitation of the statistics on drinking water and sanitation in Gujarat is that they do not provide any comprehensive information on
      • The status of drinking water and sanitation in the state
      • Different sources of water supply and their sustainability
      • Caste and gender dimension of water supply
    • Objectives of the Study
      • To understand comprehensively and systematically the status of drinking water and sanitation in rural Gujarat and in its different geo-hydrological regions,
      • To study seasonal variations in the status in order to understand the impact of the seasonal factors on the status
      • To assess the strengths and weaknesses of the different government schemes and programmes related to drinking water and sanitation in the process,
      • To examine the sustainability of the sources of drinking water, to assess the quality of the water; and to study the different technologies used in providing water supply,
      • To study the different methods of providing sanitation in the state in the process and to understand the constraints behind the limited spread of sanitation in the state, and
      • To make recommendations to ensure complete coverage of sanitation and to provide potable water to all within a foreseeable future (i.e. 3-5 years) in the state.
    • Approach & Methodology
      • Secondary Data Collection :
      • To start with, the available secondary data has been analyzed and information about the major schemes and programmes has been collected to get a preliminary understanding of the state level status of drinking water and sanitation.
      • Primary Data Collection :
      • Sampling
      • Questionnaire Survey
      • Focused Group Discussion (FGD)
    • Approach & Methodology ……..contn…
      • Sampling:
      • For sampling purpose, the entire state of Gujarat has been divided into five geo-climatic regions namely, 1) Dry areas 2) Plains Northern 3)Plains Southern 4) Saurashtra, and 5) South-eastern.
      • All 30 districts in the state distributed in these geo-climatic regions has been covered under the study.
      • A multi-stage stratified random sampling method has been used in drawing a representative sample of villages for the study.
      • Each district has been divided into blocks, and each block is given a score based on (1) the status of water supply as reflected in the percentage of area irrigated, and (2) level of development based on infrastructure and non-agricultural development.
      •  
    • Approach & Methodology ……..contn…
      • Two blocks are selected from each district, one from the blocks with high score and the other from the blocks with low score. In all 54 blocks have been selected.
      • All the villages in each of the selected blocks were ranked on the basis of (1) infrastructure, (2) percentage of area irrigated and (3) the size of the population. 10 villages are selected from each block randomly. In all, 540 villages are selected for the primary survey.
    • Approach & Methodology ……..contn…
      • A team of two investigators spent 3 days in each village to conduct the survey. The team collected data from each Falia (ward) of the village in the fallowing manner:
      • To start with, discussions was organized with the village Talati, Sarpanch, Members of the Pani Samiti, other local organizations and other concerned knowledgeable persons in each selected village to understand the local issues, schemes and programmes implemented in the scheme etc.
      • Two questionnaires was canvassed to collect information: (1) on the status of drinking water and (2) on the status of sanitation in the village and in each ward of the village.
      • Focus group discussions were organized in each ward to understand the status including the achievements as well as problems relating to water and sanitation.
    • Status of Drinking Water in Gujarat Overview and Emerging Issues
    • Status of Drinking Water in the State : Retrospection
      • Probably the first acute shortage of water in the state was noted during the droughts of 1960-61.
      • The first survey on drinking water was conducted in 1963-64 to study the problem.
      • The survey reported that about 1043 villages had no dependable facility for drinking water and 3219 villages had inadequate supply of drinking water
      • The estimates of NSVs fluctuated widely overtime, from 5086 in 1980, 4833 in 1985, 16351 in 1987-88 to 186 in 1990 and 416 in 1992. This indicated the fluctuating nature of the problem.
    • Regional Dimension of Availability Source: IRMA, 2001
    • Arid and Semi Arid Zones of Gujarat Source: Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur Arid Region Semi-Arid Region
    • Severity of Scarcity
      • Amarasinghe et.al.(2005), used data disaggregated at the river basin level
      • According to the study Saurashtra, Kachchh and North Gujarat falls under the river basin named as westerly flowing river group 1 (WFR 1).
      • The study revealed that WFR 1 is the only basin of the country having physical water scarcity with an highest degree of Ground water abstraction ratio (194%)
    • Reflections of Scarcity
      • This water crisis was reflected in innumerable incidents of public rallies and demonstrations (some times resulting in violence) taken out to protest against water shortage in the different towns and cities
      • The first major violent water riots were witnessed in Falla village of Jamnagar district (Saurashtra) in 1999.
    • Quality Problem
      • As on February 2005 there are 2508 villages in the state affected by salinity in ground water and it is not potable as per WHO standards (GWSSB, 2005).
      • Salinity Problem in Coastal Saurashtra
      Source: Salinity Ingress Prevention Circle, Rajkot (2005) District Coastal Villages Number of villages % Villages categorized as Partially Saline Fully Saline Partially Saline Fully Saline Amreli 92 23 22 25 23.9 Bhavnagar 198 35 50 17.7 25.3 Jamnagar 250 49 127 19.6 50.8 Junagadh 302 53 92 17.5 30.5 Porbandar 65 17 41 26.2 63.1 Rajkot 47 0 47 0.0 100.0 Total 954 177 379 18.6 39.7
    • Multiple Contaminants Source: http://cgwb.gov.in/gw_profiles/st_Gujarat.htm (viewed on 20th October 2010) Contaminants Districts affected (in part) Salinity  (EC > 3000 µS/cm at 25 ° C) Ahmdabad, Amreli, Anand, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Banaskantha, Dohad, Porbandar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kachchh,  Mehsana, Navsari, Patan, Panchmahals, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surendranagar, Surat, Vadodara (20 Districts) Fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) Ahemdabad, Amreli, Anand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dohad, Junagadh, Kachchh,  Mehsana, Narmada, Panchmahals, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar,Vadodara (18 Districts) Chloride   (> 1000 mg/l) Ahmedabad, Amreli, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Banaskantha,  Porbandar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kachchh,  Dohad,  Patan, Panchmahals, Sabarkantha, Surendranagar, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot (17 Districts) Nitrate  (>45 mg/l) Ahemdabad, Amreli, Anand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dohad, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kachchh,  Kheda, Mehsana, Narmada, Navsari, Panchmahals, Patan, Porbandar, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar,Vadodara, (22 Districts)
    • Impacts of Quality Problem
      • Salinity affected villages have high incidence of kidney stone compare to non-salinity affected villages.
      • There is typical resistance regarding marriages between the families of “salinity affected” and “non salinity affected” villages.
      • The resistance is not only for poor quality water and afraid of “pathri” (kidney stone) but also for fetching drinking water from a long distance, which girls would like to stay away from. This social impact is difficult to quantify (Indu & Rawal, 2007).
      • Incidences of Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis in the state is well dcumented too.
    • State Government Policies & Schemes
      • Sector Reforms
      • Swajaldhara
      • Sardar Patel Participatory Sahbhagi Jal
      • Sanchay Yojana (SPPWCP)
      • Watershed Development Programme
      • Formation of Pani Samitis
    • Coping Mechanism of State Government
      • In the late seventies and the early eighties the state government introduced large regional water supply schemes (RWSS) to transfer bulk water supply to problem villages.
      • The number of regional schemes was very small till about 1980 (there were 9 schemes in 1970 and 43 in 1980) and each of the schemes covered 3 to 7 villages each.
      • The number of schemes jumped to 209 in 1990 and to 444 in 2000
    • Regional Share of RWSS Source: GWSSB,2000
    • Scarcity Master Plan
      • Almost in every scarcity year state government prepare a scarcity master plan. The major components of the crisis management are as follows:
      •  
      • Feeding new and old pipelines (where sources have dried up) by drilling emergency bores and tube wells, whenever possible
      • Transferring water to problem areas by water tankers, water trains
      • Drilling bores, tube wells etc. to access water from deeper aquifers for local population, whenever possible.
      •  
    • Scarcity Master Plan
      • To have a closer look, the scarcity master plan for the year 2004-05 is discussed in the paper.
      • During this period total 2737 villages were declared water scarce in the state, out of which 53 percent villages were from Saurashtra and Kachchh.
      • A sum of Rs. 40.24 crore was spent with about 60 percent share of Saurashtra and Kachchh.
      • It is important to note that about 48 percent of the total budget was spent for water supply through tankers alone . This figure is self explanatory of the fact that local sources during these scarcity period in many areas proved to be absolutely defunct.
    • Experience of Rainwater Harvesting
      • It is frequently claimed that rainwater-harvesting structures at the village level can collect enough water to take care of the local demand for water.
      • In this regard GO and NGO initiatives in the state are well documented
      • However with changing lifestyle and increasing demand, how far can these water harvesting structures help in resolving the problem of water supply in rural areas of Gujarat is a matter of concern.
    • Experience of Technological Options
      • Gujarat was perhaps the first State in the country to take lead in installing desalination plants for brackish water conversion in rural areas.
      • However these plants did not work to the expectations and could not supply potable water to the communities as expected.
      • Probably desalination technology being considerably new for providing drinking water to rural areas became less successful. Some of the factors responsible have been noted as improper site selection, improper plant design and problems pertaining to operation and maintenance (Shah et al, 1997).
      • As far as large-scale plants are concerned no considerable efforts has been made so far in the state in this direction for domestic water supply
    • Defluoridation Plant
      • Over the time the state government installed community defluoridation plants in Amreli, Bhavnagar, Mehsana and Kachchh on an experimental basis.
      • However, these plants are few and scattered, as it was not proved to be a long term permanent solution.
      • Committee in 1992 recommended the Nalgonda Technique usable at domestic and community levels for immediate relief, However the committee also suggested for setting up long distance pipelines to get potable waters to problem areas.
    • Emergence of Narmada Water
      • Initially the Sardar Sarovar Project did not have any component of drinking / domestic water supply.
      • In the year 1990-91 (9 th Plan) to use water Sardar Sarovar Canal water to provide dependable water supply to the regions of Kachchh, Saurashtra and North Gujarat.
      • Initially it was decided to cover 4000 villages under the project. The number increased to 8215 villages and 135 towns in the late 1990s.
      • In 2005 a revised Master plan for the project was prepared, which covers 9633 villages and 131 towns from 17 districts.
    • Project Coverage
      • As per the revised master plan this project will cover entire Saurashtra and Kachchh as well as parts of North Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha, and Panchmahal).
      • The capital cost of the project has been estimated to be Rs. 10,370.42 Crore (2010 prices)
      • It includes investments in trunk mains, water treatment plants, pumping machinery, civil works and water distribution.
      • The project includes 48 bulk schemes, 123 distribution groups and 3250 KM. long pipeline network.
    • Project Coverage
    • Progress so far
      • Till October 2010 it has covered 6513 villages (68%) against proposed coverage, and 114 towns (87%) against the proposed coverage.
      • 2170 KM pipeline has also been laid (which is about 67 % of proposed 3250 KM pipeline).
    • Progress so far
      • Cent percent towns are already covered in Ahmedabad, Amreli, Banaskantha, Bhavnagar, Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Kachch, Mahesana and Patan district.
      • Cent percent villages have been covered in Bhavnagar, Gandhinagar, Kheda and Mehsana.
    • Challenges in Achieving the Expected Benefits
      • This project is perhaps the world’s largest pipeline water supply project with the claim to have features like financial sustainability, an improved operational system and institutional sustainability.
      • However it is observed that there are some fundamental issues which can further delay the achievement of holistic objective of the project.
      • It has not been able to ensure adequate water supply in a regular and dependable manner in all the regions covered under the project (Hirway & Goswami, 2008).
    • Challenges in Achieving the Expected Benefits
      • It should be noted that Sardar Sarovar Canal based water supply project is primarily based on the principles of long distance water transfer and distribution
      • Weakness of long distance pipeline projects as explained by different studies in the state are
      • Tail end villages are usually deprived of water supply,
      • for the other villages also the water supply is frequently irregular and unreliable,
      • the quantity of water supply is many times far from adequate (less than 10 lpcd some times),
      • the quality of water is not potable either because of the problems with the source or because of contamination caused by leakages and breakages.
      Source: Sharma 1995; Haskoning 1999; DANIDA 1996; CAG Report 2001
    • Challenges in Achieving the Expected Benefits
      • Un-Reliability of Supply
      • Inadequacy of Supply
      • Unequal Inter-Village Distribution
      • Unequal Intra-village distribution
      • Inefficiency in Operation and Maintenance
      • Water Charges, Recovery and Financial Viability
      • Neglected Local Sources of Water Supply
      • Systematic Disposal of Used Water
      • Village level Water Management
    • Results of Primary Survey
    • Basic Facilities in Sample Villages   Region No. of Sample Villages All weather approach road in village (%) Bus facility (%) Electri city facility (%) Dry Areas 90 83.3 58.9 48.9 Plains Northern 120 95 77.5 65 Plains Southern 40 75 52.5 32.5 Saurashtra 149 87.2 69.8 45 South Eastern 137 86.1 60.6 22.6 Total   87.1 66 43.5 536
    • Sources of Water Supply for Drinking and Domestic Use
    • Distribution of Water Supply within Villages   Regions No. of Villages Villages with Sump as the main source % of villages with Sump as Main Source % of HH using Stand post % of HH using Household connection Dry Areas 90 19 21.11 11.40 59.75 Plains Northern 120 17 14.16 10.80 72.27 Plains Southern 40 10 25.00 10.31 68.88 Saurashtra 149 40 26.84 12.25 60.47 South Eastern 137 16 11.67 14.36 21.34 Total 536 103 19.21 12.24 53.06
    • Availability of Water Supply
      • Is the available water adequate to meet the needs of people?
      • On the whole 48.60 percent households reported that the availability was satisfactory.
      • This percentage varied across the regions, with Saurashtra having only 30.5 percent households reporting “satisfactory” status, followed by Southern Eastern (tribal) region (45.60 percent) and Dry region (45.8 percent).
      • The season wise response to the question regarding the status of the availability of drinking water also suggests that the summers are problematic in most regions.
      • The level of satisfaction goes down to 40.42 percent in the summer season
    • Dependability of Sources
    • Quality of Water Supply
      • According to the filed survey 342 villages (63.90 percentage) reported that quality of water supply was tested in their villages.
      • The tests were carried out by Village Panchayat (139 villages), Pani Samiti (57 villages), GWSSB 73 villages), WASMO (54 villages) and by other organizations such as NGOs, CSOs etc.
      • The details, however, show that in 157 villages (29 percent) these tests are carried out only once in a year, in 82 villages (15.29 percent) the tests are done quarterly and only in 64 villages, 12 percent of the total villages the tests are conducted on monthly basis.
      • In 63 percent cases the reports are submitted to the Village Panchayat.
    • Sources (where quality tested) with quality problem
    • Water- borne Diseases
      • About 26.08 percent villages did not show any awareness about water-borne diseases and their links with the quality of water supply.
      • However, there was good awareness about the links in the rest of the villages.
      • About 44 percent villages reported heavy incidence of Jaundice which occurs due to biological contamination of drinking water;
      • 30 percent villages reported a high incidence of Malaria due to poor systems of storing and disposing used water,
      • while 17.35 percent villages reported a high incidence of Kidney stone due to excess fluoride as well as salinity in drinking water.
    • Percentage of villages reported health problem due to poor quality of water
    • Treatment Given to Water at HH level
      • The usual practice is to use cloth to screen water. About 73.7 percent households are reported to be doing this.
      • Some households who fear that screening may not be adequate use chlorine or alum.
      • About 6.5 percent households use alum while 2.9 percent use chlorine tablets ore similar stuff.
      • About 3.7 percent households boil water before drinking.
    • Payment of Water Charges
    • Reason for not paying Water bill and Electricity Charges
    • Payment of Water Charges by Households
    • Management of Water Supply at the Village Level
      • According to the 73 rd amendment of the Panchayat Act, Gram Panchayat is expected to take care of local water supply in its villages.
      • Our study shows that in one fifth of the villages Gram Panchayat holds the power and responsibility of managing water supply.
      • In 161 villages (30 percent) GWSSB still holds the power and control over the water supply.
      • In 217 villages (40.5 percent) a Water Committee has been set up and in 46 villages (8.6 percent) Water and Sanitation Committee has been set up.
    • Perception among villagers about Govt. water supply schemes
      • The overall view that came out of the villages was that the schemes are usually weak on technical side (i.e. the incidence of technical failure causing breakages, leakages for a long period).
      • About 29.3 percent villages feet that the schemes had technical problems.
      • Another weak point as identified by them was poor participation of people. About 61 percent village Panchayats felt this way.
    • Village level Action Plan
      • Preparation of village level action plan has been one of the major activity towards strengthening village level management of water supply.
      • Since not many villages have prepared these plans, the response to this question has been poor.
      • The study shows that in all, about 20 percent villages are involved in this task. 5-9 percent villages (32) have already prepared Village Action Plans,
      • another 5-9 percent villages (32) have even started implementing these plans, while 48 villages (8.9 percent) are considering preparing Village Action Plan.
      • Clearly the idea is spreading, though very slowly.
    • Role of NGOs
      • It is observed that the NGOs are primarily involved in
      • augmenting water resources through innovative water harvesting structures ,
      • distribution of water, particularly to weaker sections,
      • people’s participation in this field in planning, implanting, monitoring areas and
      • using new technologies, new methods of ensuring quality of water supply, promoting use of clean water to help health of people etc.
      • Clearly the presence of NGOs is very much felt at the ground level.
    • Status of Sanitation in Gujarat
    • Sanitation in Public Policy
      • No priority place in national policies till 1986, when the first nation wide programme on rural sanitation (CRSP) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development of the Government of India.
      • Restructuring of CRSP in 1999 as Total Sanitation Campaign, based on a baseline survey in 1996-97
      • Re-launching of TSC in the first decade of 2000, with a much wider scope and expanded contents
    • Total Sanitation Campaign
      • Wider concept of sanitation
      • The components now include construction of individual household latrines; community sanitary complexes; institutional toilets for schools, anganwadis etc; toilets for physically challenged persons; sanitation in problem areas such as flood prone areas, dry areas, hilly areas, coastal areas etc; personal hygiene management (hand washing and menstrual hygiene); sanitation in public places such as railways, tourist places, highways etc and
      • Developing clean villages or Nirmal Gram with zero waste approach.
    • Objectives of TSC
      • To bring about an improvement in the general of life in the rural areas.
      • To accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to access to toilets to all by 2012.
      • To motivate communities and Panchayat Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through, awareness creation and health education.
      • To cover schools and Anganwadis, with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.
      • To encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for, ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
      • To develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid and solid waste management.
    • Implementation Strategy
      • Start-up activities: baseline surveys (as well as follow up surveys for monitoring)
      • Information, education and communication (ICE): These activities primarily aim at creating awareness, educating people about the need for sanitation and creating demand for sanitation.
      • Rural sanitary marts and production centers: In order to expand sanitation, it is necessary to produce required hardwares including fixtures, pipelines etc. These can be treated as income generating activities and can be planned to expand employment opportunities for locals, with the support from NGOs or private sector.
      • Construction of individual household latrines: several alternative models are needed here, depending on geo-hydrological, economic and socio-cultural conditions in local areas.
    • Contd…
      • Construction of community sanitary complexes comprising of toilets, bathrooms, washing platforms etc.
      •  
      • Construction of Institutional toilets in schools and anganvadis: This has two advantages: clean environment in schools and training children to ideas on sanitation and cleanliness. In addition, separate toilets for girls is likely to reduce their drop-out rate from schools.
      • Monitoring and evaluation: TSC has a special focus on periodical monitoring and regular evaluation studies by independent agencies.
    • Approach to Sanitation in Gujarat
      • Re-launching of TSC by CCDU in 2004
      • Compendium of rules and regulations for implementation at various levels
      • A state level workshop and physical implementation of TSC in 2005
      • Nirmal Gujarat: Gujarat state declared the year 2007
      • Funding and Convergence of Financing
    • Table 1 Targets and Achievements in TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011 Households covered under individual toilets Project Target Project Achievements % Achievements BPL 2046857 1851682 90.46 APL 3331630 2115194 63.49 Total 5378487 3966876 73.75 HH Covered under SCW 1671 1743 104.31 Toilets in Schools 28617 25763 90.02 Toilets in Balvadi 23460 23740 101.19 RSM PC 168 365 217.26
    • Table 1 Targets and Achievements in TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011
    • Table 1 Targets and Achievements in TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011
    • Table 2: Expenditure incurred on TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011 (Rs. Lakhs) (Source:MORD) Approved Expenditure % Achievements IHHL 42141.59 23490.85 55.74 Sanitary Complex 1941.22 1611.31 83.01 School Toilets 6462.08 4923.98 76.20 Anganwadi Toilets 1236.91 1077.06 87.08 Start up expenditure 198.84 232.48 116.9 Admin 1738.54 1190.59 68.48 IEC 4954.57 2530.90 51.08 Total 58673.8 35057.2 59.74
    • Table 2: Expenditure incurred on TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011 (Rs. Lakhs) (Source:MORD)
    • Table 2: Expenditure incurred on TSC in Gujarat as on 25/2/2011 (Rs. Lakhs) (Source:MORD)
    • Table 3 Use and non-use of toilets and bathrooms in Gujarat(Source: Primary Survey ) Region name Total No. of HH No. of HH Own toilet in village No. of HH public toilet No. of HH use open place No. of HH Own bathroom in village No. of HH Chokadi bathroom No. of HH use open place     Toilet Bathrooms Dry Areas 11450 2772 983 7695 9379 1900 171   % 24.2 8.6 67.2 81.9 16.6 1.5 Plains Northern 43777 16368 26 27383 31790 4199 7788   % 37.4 0.1 62.6 72.6 9.6 17.8 Plains Southern 8666 3222 130 5314 3714 752 4200   % 37.2 1.5 61.3 42.9 8.7 48.5 Saurashtra 44109 18302 537 25047 24333 6497 13279   % 41.5 1.2 56.8 55.2 14.7 30.1 South Eastern 41082 13648 1686 25658 20577 3544 16961   % 33.2 4.1 62.5 50.1 8.6 41.3 Total 149084 54312 3362 91097 89793 17658 41633   % 36.4 2.3 61.1 60.2 11.8 27.9
    • Table 3 Use and non-use of toilets and bathrooms in Gujarat(Source: Primary Survey )
    • Table 3 Use and non-use of toilets and bathrooms in Gujarat(Source: Primary Survey )
    • Table 4 Types of Toilet facility used by households Region Total No. of HH Total No. of HH have Toilet facility No. of HH have pit latrine No. of HH have pour-flush latrine No. of HH have lift waste latrine Dry Areas 28325 4908 4452 456 0   %   90.71 9.29 0.00 Plains Northern 71834 17632 13134 4498     %   74.49 25.51 0.00 Plains Southern 13218 4333 4129 162 42   %   95.29 3.74 0.97 Saurashtra 51998 11313 10120 1192 1   %   89.45 10.54 0.01 South Eastern 60122 9767 9357 410     %   95.80 4.20 0.00 Total 225497 47953 41192 6718 43   %   85.90 14.01 0.09
    • Table 4 Types of Toilet facility used by households
    • Table 4 Types of Toilet facility used by households
    • Table 5 Arrangement for Disposal of Waste Region name Total No. of Villages Villages with arrangement for Waste Waste used manure Waste disposed in pond/lake Dry Areas 90 16 13 3   %   81.25 18.75 Plains Northern 120 34 12 22   %   35.29 64.71 Plains Southern 40 9 6 3   %   66.67 33.33 Saurashtra 149 45 41 4   %   91.11 8.89 South Eastern 137 16 14 2   %   87.50 12.50 536 87 63 24   %   72.41 27.59
    • Table 5 Arrangement for Disposal of Waste
    • Table 7 Household level Arrangement for disposal of other solid waste Region name Total No. of HH No arrangement Throw waste on Ukarda Use dustbin Burn waste Dry Areas 21025 10101 10002 420 502   % 48.04 47.57 2.00 2.39 Plains Northern 50544 22904 21586 2123 3931   % 45.31 42.71 4.20 7.78 Plains Southern 9449 7191 1759 149 350   % 76.10 18.62 1.58 3.70 Saurashtra 55230 31524 21341 1449 916   % 57.08 38.64 2.62 1.66 South Eastern 43153 14238 25810 1391 1714   % 32.99 59.81 3.22 3.97 179401 85958 80498 5532 7413   % 47.91 44.87 3.08 4.13
    • Table 7 Household level Arrangement for disposal of other solid waste
    • Table 8 Village Level Arrangement for Disposal of Other Solid Waste Region name No. of Villages Throw / dump on Ukarda Use waste for land filling Use for manure Burn the waste No Arrangement Dry Areas 90 49 2 21 12 25   % 54.44 2.22 23.33 13.33 27.78 Plains Northern 120 78 10 31 28 29   % 65.00 8.33 25.83 23.33 24.17 Plains Southern 40 28 9 4 7 7   % 70.00 22.50 10.00 17.50 17.50 Saurashtra 149 109 9 61 26 17   % 73.15 6.04 40.94 17.45 11.41 South Eastern 137 100 2 25 45 24   72.99 1.46 18.25 32.85 17.52 535 364 32 144 118 102   % 68.04 5.98 26.92 22.06 19.07
    • Table 8 Village Level Arrangement for Disposal of Other Solid Waste
    • Table 8 Village Level Arrangement for Disposal of Other Solid Waste
    • Table 9 Household Arrangement for disposal of liquid waste Region name Total No. of HH No arrangement2 Drainage Throw in pond/lake Dry Areas 21025 10177 1690 9158   % 48.4 8.0 43.6 Plains Northern 50544 13638 24017 12889   % 27.0 47.5 25.5 Plains Southern 9449 1805 6344 1300   % 19.1 67.1 13.8 Saurashtra 55230 21160 22558 11512   % 38.3 40.8 20.8 South Eastern 43153 19011 12332 11810   % 44.1 28.6 27.4 Total HH 179401 65791 75133 38477   % 36.7 41.9 21.4
    • Table 9 Household Arrangement for disposal of liquid waste
    • Table 10 Village Level Arrangement of Disposal of Liquid waste Region name Data No arrangement Drainage Throw in pond/lake Dry Areas 90 61 6 3   % 67.78 6.67 3.33 Plains Northern 120 54 37 20   % 45.00 30.83 16.67 Plains Southern 40 28 11 3   % 70.00 27.50 7.50 Saurashtra 149 82 45 10   % 55.03 30.20 6.71 South Eastern 137 100 19 3   % 72.99 13.87 2.19 Total Villages 535 325 118 39   % 60.75 22.06 7.29
    • Table 10 Village Level Arrangement of Disposal of Liquid waste
    • Table 12 Performance of Gujarat in NGP Year NGP Villages GP BP ZP 2005 1 - - 2006 4 - - 2007 576 - - 2008 739 - - 2009 350 - - Total 1670 - -
    • Table 13 Government programmers Implemented in Selected Villages Region name Data TSE prog. Nirmal gram yojana Eco sanitation Other (NREGA/ Water Shed) scheme Dry Areas 90 35 21 0 1   % 38.9 23.3 0.0 1.1 Plains Northern 120 54 35 4 6   % 45.0 29.2 3.3 5.0 Plains Southern 40 20 10 2 1   % 50.0 25.0 5.0 2.5 Saurashtra 149 74 49 12 13   % 49.7 32.9 8.1 8.7 South Eastern 137 49 29 2 1   % 35.8 21.2 1.5 0.7 Total Villages 536 233 145 21 23   % 43.6 27.1 3.9 4.3
    • Table 13 Government programmers Implemented in Selected Villages
    • Table 15 Village level committees for water and sanitation Region name No. of Gram Panchayat No. of Health Samiti No. of Sanitation Samiti No. of Priv. contractor No. of Other (PHC, etc.) Total Dry Areas 68 23 16   4 129   % 52.71 17.83 12.40 0.00 3.10 100.00 Plains Northern 104 62 40 1 2 244   % 42.62 25.41 16.39 0.41 0.82 100.00 Plains Southern 29 11 3 1   49   % 59.18 22.45 6.12 2.04 0.00 100.00 Saurashtra 115 44 25 3 1 200   % 57.50 22.00 12.50 1.50 0.50 100.00 South Eastern 78 53 35 2 7 200   % 39.00 26.50 17.50 1.00 3.50 100.00 Grand Total 394 193 119 7 14 822   % 47.93 23.48 14.48 0.85 1.70 100.00
    • Table 15 Village level committees for water and sanitation
    • Table 15 Village level committees for water and sanitation
    • Organization of TSC in Gujarat
      • CCDU at the state level
      • DECU, ISRO and DAVP for developing
      • communication material for IEC.
      • PPP Model for Implementing TSC
      • Involvement of NGOs
    • Major Ares of Concern
      • Status of Drinking Water
      • Status of Sanitation:
    • Drinking Water
      • Ensuring Water Security
      • Attention to Quality:
      • Addressing Slippages
      • Filling in Technology Gaps
      • Institutional Sustainability
      • Financial Viability:
    • Sanitation
      • Creating Awareness and Raising Demand for Sanitation
      • Organizing Institutional Support
      • Providing Technical Options
      • Progress Towards Eco-sanitation
      • Ensuring Sustainability of NGP
    • Thank You