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Two Scenarios of IoT Market Growth
Internet / broadband
Sensors & Actuators
Scale Needs Standards
Sharing Needs Trust
Trust Needs Security
Key Elements to Drive IoT Market Growth
Growth in the Billions Doesn't come without Standards and Industry Alliances
A simple Model of an IoT system
2) Device Management1) Data Communication 3) Web Objects 4) Web Services
For Interoperable IoT system we need standards for
Communication interfaces in an IoT system
Comm. Infra.– App. Interface
IoT Device – Comm. Infra. Interface
Communication infrastructure and Web app. Interface
Communication infrastructure and Constrained Device interface
It’s a Standard IP interface as constrained devices are not involved
Standard IP protocol stack is suitable for communication
How does CoAP features optimize IoT data communication?
• Resource discovery
– New devices (nodes) are discovered automatically. No human intervention needed.
– Easy to add new devices. Easy to replace the devices.
– Push of Information from IoT devices to application.
• Content Negotiation
– Data type to be used between the client and the server is settled before the actual data communication. It make it
easy to integrate CoAP enabled device in an IoT system.
– Explicitly indicate the content type of the payload in the header
• Simple Caching
– Optimize performance
• REST oriented
– REST based web services are based on architecture of the web and more compatible with existing web tools and
– It has less overhead, less parsing complexity, statelessness, and tighter integration with HTTP
CoAP and optimized security handshakes: 10x reduction in bandwidth
10x reduction in BW
6LoWPAN : High level overview
Packet size ~ 1280 bytes
Packet size ~127 bytes
6LoWPAN specification • 6LoWPAN is adaptation layer for IPV6
• IPV6 header compression
• Packet fragmentation and re-assembly
• Optimized Neighborhood discovery
• No need for translation gateways or proxies.
• IP networks allow the use of existing network infrastructure.
• Very well known and have been proven to work and scale.
• Open and free standard. Processes and documents available to
• Encourages innovation and is better understood by a wider
• Tools for managing, commissioning and diagnosing IP-based
networks already exist.
• Allows Interoperability on device side.
DTLS / UDP
DTLS / UDP
IoTDeviceService 1 Service 2
DTLS / UDP
Service 1 Service 2
DTLS / UDP
In addition to data communication we need
standard web objects for Interoperability
Non-interoperable devices & Services
DTLS / UDP
Service 1 Service 2 Service 3
Interoperable Devices & Services
IPSO Web Objects
• The IPSO Alliance promotes the Internet Protocol for
• We need semantics to build a Web of Things
• Web Objects exposes the state and behavior of a device.
• IPSO defines Web Object guidelines (join us!)
• 65+ members
IPSO Object example: Temperature Sensor
Temperature sensor: This IPSO object should be used over a temperature sensor to report a remote temperature measurement. It
also provides resources for minimum/maximum measured values and the minimum/maximum range that can be measured by the
temperature sensor. The unit used here is Celsius degree.
Object Object ID Object URN Multiple Instances?
IPSO Temperature 303 urn:oma:lwm2m:ext:303 Yes
Resource Name Resource ID Access Type Multiple Instances? Type Units Descriptions
Sensor Value 5700 R No Decimal Cel This resource type returns the Temperature Value in °C
Min Measured Value 5601 R No Decimal Cel The minimum value measured by the sensor since it is ON
Max Measured Value 5602 R No Decimal Cel The maximum value measured by the sensor since it is ON
Accessing the Resources
• Temperature Value /303/0/5700
• Min Measured Value /303/0/5601
• Max Measured Value /303/0/5602
Min Measured Value
Max Measured Value
Changes to settings
Changes to parameters of the
Update application and system software
Report Errors from devices
Query about status of devices
REST Style Web Services
• We need web applications in an IoT system to configure, control and monitor the
sensors and actuators.
• Web services are required to integrate web applications over the internet
• REST is web service architecture style for designing networked applications.
• REST is not a "standard". Its a set of guidelines/constraints.
• REST uses simple HTTP/CoAP to make calls between machines rather than using
complex mechanisms such as Remote Procedure Call (RPC) or (Simple Object
Access Protocol) SOAP.
• The World Wide Web can be viewed as a REST-based architecture.
ARM Sensinode NanoService
Web Application SDK
Java SDK and Reference Applications (source code) for rapid
development of customer application that controls/monitors
IoT security, communication and data flow platform with OMA
Lightweight M2M Server support
Enables secure, efficient communication between devices
and the NanoService Platform with OMA Lightweight M2M
ARM Sensinode NanoMesh
6LoWPAN to IPv6 border router for both embedded
platforms and Linux.
6LoWPAN protocol stack for both routing and host devices.
• Stack Products
– ZigBee IP – Home Area Network Mesh
– BT Smart IP – 6LoWPAN for BT Smart
– ZigBee NAN – Neighborhood Area
– G3 PLC – For wired smart metering
ZigBee IP ZigBee NAN
BT Smart IP
BT 4.0 (LE)
Get started today! mbed.org
mbed.org unique visitors in 2013
Major OEMs from
are using mbed
The Internet of Things is the next evolution of Web
ARM Mbed and Sensinode SW enables the design of future proof
and scalable IoT systems.
Market growth driven by Standards, Security and Innovation.
Interoperability will be the key.
CoAP, 6LoWPAN, IPSO objects, OMALWM2M