BIG BANG THEORY
A sneak-peek into the prevailing
Theory on Birth of the Universe
2nd semester, EEE
• What is Big Bang ?!
• Timeline- Sequence of Events
• Matter & Anti-Matter
• Particle Physics-What is responsible for ‘mass’ ?
• Efforts to recreate Big Bang conditions by CERN
• The Largest Machine on the planet- LHC
• Future of the Universe as predicted by the theory.
What does the theory state
The Big Bang was the event which led
to the formation of the UNIVERSE.
According to the Big Bang model, the
universe was originally in an
extremely hot and dense state that
expanded rapidly. This expansion
caused the universe to cool and
resulted in the present diluted state
that continues to expand today.
It is based on the Laws of Physics &
Matter and anti-matter
•Reverse of a nuclear reaction occurred during the big
•Matter and anti-matter were simultaneously created.
•Matter+AntiMatter = Tremendous Energy
•Proportion of matter >> proportion of anit-matter.
•This disproportion led to the formation of life on the
•So how did mass come into picture?!
*Named after the Indian
Scientist Satyendranath Bose.
• CERN is the European Oraganisation of Nuclear Research.
• Scientists attempted to recreate the conditions just after the
Big Bang by conducting various experiments.
• One of the most promising experiments is ‘ALICE’ –A Large Ion
• On 30th of March 2010, the LHC successfully smashed 2
protons with the aim of revealing the ‘Higgs Boson’.
• The data yielded from this experiment is expected to take 2
years for processing and studying.
Facts about the LHC
• The circumference of the LHC is 27km
• It houses 9300 superconducting-electromagnets which use a total
current of 12,000A !
• The cooling system has 10,080 tons of liquid Nitrogen and 120
tons of liquid Helium. They reduce the temperature to 2K!
• Travelling at 99.99991% the speed of light, the proton beams
travel 11,245 times around the collider is 1s.
• The temperature of the collision is million times more than core of
• The energy of the collision is 14TeV .
• The vacuum pressure inside the collider is 10-13 atm
• The Grid-World’s most powerful Supercomuter network.
Future of The Universe
• Dark Energy & Dark Matter constitute 96% of the
• Birth:Big Bang::Death:Big Crunch
• Temperature of Universe is constantly decreasing
due to its expansion-As stated by Hubble- Big Freeze.
• Planck’s Temperature-Lowest temperature at which
the Universe will collapse.