Laporan Praktikum Biologi Dasar - Microscopic observation
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Laporan Praktikum Biologi Dasar - Microscopic observation Document Transcript

  • 1. RATIFICATION PAGE Complete report of Basic Biology practicum with title “Microscopic Observation“, that arranged by: Name : Nur Pratiwi ID : 1114040196 Group : III (three) Class : ICP Biology B After checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, so this report was accepted. Makassar, November 2011 Assistant Coordinator, Assistant, Djumarirmanto, S.Pd Engka Rukmana ID. 091404173
  • 2. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background Living things are differential with two groups that are plant and animal. Special Biology learnt about animal namely Zoology and knowledge which learnt about plant namely Botany. Because of development knowledge so weather Zoology and Botany are divided into some knowledge again which stand alone, for example branch of biology which learnt about human was namely Anthropology. If we talk about animals, so we will imagine in our main that they can move and will search their food alone. But, if we talk about plants, we will imagine that they just stay at their place, green, have flowers, and have fruits. In this situation, we can easy to see the different between animals and plants. But it is not easy like what we want because that will to be valid only for the higher level animal and higher level plant. So, the lower levels of living things were still difficult to see the different and decide it to the true group. When we looking the tissue for the microscopic step, the capability to knowing the existence and the location of four the basic of tissue that make possible and enable to identification the organ that we found. The basic knowledge about the basic characteristic and cell composition from the tissues is important in the histology, that science or knowledge that study the tissues of the microscopic step. This experiment with the title is “microscopic observation”. In the microscopic observation the university student will observation some of the microscopic thing from the plant tissue and animal tissue. From this experiment the university student will know about the structure of tissue that built the plant body and the animal body.
  • 3. B. Purpose The purpose of this practicum, to make the students can explain and know about structure and a kind of tissue that built up the organ of the plant and animal. C. Benefit Based on this practicum the benefit of this practicum is : 1. The students will know and understand the kind of the tissue that built the plant and the animal. 2. The students will know the function of the tissue that built the plant and the animal.
  • 4. CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE Tissue is collection of some cells which has big relation each ones and has structures and functions which were same. Knowledge which learnt about tissue’s structures namely histology. Many tissues arranged and organized together namely organ. Animal’s tissues are differentiation at 4 main kinds they are epithelium tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue (Tim Pengajar, 2011). Multicellular (large) organisms function more efficiently if cells become specialized for specific functions. A tissue is composed of cells that function together in a specialized activity. There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue. Sponges do not have tissues. Epithelial tissue covers external surfaces and internal cavities and organs. Glands are also composed of epithelial tissue. Epithelia forms boundaries. Most substances that move into or out of the body must pass through epithelial tissue. One surface of the tissue is free and the other adheres to a basement membrane. The photograph below shows kidney tubules. The cells lining the tubules are epithelial tissue. One surface is attached (the basal surface) and the other surface is free. The apical surface of epithelial cells may have tiny projections called microvillus. These function to increase surface area. For example, microvilli on intestinal cells increase the surface area available for absorption. Epithelial cells may have cilia. Cilia can be seen on the cells lining the trachea in the photograph below. They function to move mucus and trapped particles upward toward the mouth where it will be swallowed, thus keeping the trachea clear of foreign particles. (AnonymousA , 2011). Plants are composed of three major organ groups: roots, stems and leaves. As we know from other areas of biology, these organs are comprised of tissues working together for a common goal (function). In turn, tissues are made of a number of cells which are made of elements and atoms on the most fundamental level. In this section, we will look at the various types of plant tissue and their place and purpose
  • 5. within a plant. It is important to realize that there may be slight variations and modifications to the basic tissue types in special plants. Plant tissues are characterized and classified according to their structure and function. The organs that they form will be organized into patterns within a plant which will aid in further classifying the plant. A good example of this is the three basic tissue patterns found in roots and stems which serve to delineate between woody dicot, herbaceous dicot and monocot plants. We will look at these classifications later on in the tutorial (AnonymousB , 2011). According to Philip (2007), there are four categories of tissue from the animals : 1. Epithelium tissue 2. String tissue 3. Nerve tissue 4. Muscle tissue Epithelium tissue was formed from the cells that was flatted or cube. This tissue covering some of tube or canal. this tissue was forming the skin that wrapping the body Epithelium tissue has function to carry the substance from and into the tissue and cavity which it was separated. Epithelium tissue has some general characteristic as follow : 1) Epithelium consist with the cells which is so close, that form into a thin. 2) the tissue was avascular or without blood vessel, the nutrient change was happen plough way through the string tissue which is near it with diffusion. 3) the surface of epithelium is free or opened for outside part of body or body space in outside. 4) cell fission was continue to change a death cell (Philip, 2007). There are 4 organization levels in human body. The first level was coming from some cells which were the structural and functional unit in human body. Each cell has special functions. For example, eritrosit or red blood cell, could be reached until 25 billion for adult, has function to transport O2 to all part of body. Although these cells are many in body, there are still many kind of cell which could be reached
  • 6. until 75 billion. Perhaps human body for adult consist of 100 billion of cells included more than 200 groups which have different function. Although cell is smallest function unit, cell does not work disappear. To make more efficient, some cells make group and communicate each other to do one composite function. This group was called tissue. This is the second organization level in human body. There are 4 kinds of tissue they are epithelium tissue, muscle, nervous, and bunch. Epithelium tissue has function to shut all of body surface. In small intestines epithelium tissue has function to absorb fiber of food, in gland to product enzyme, hormone, mucus, sweat or saliva (Hutapea, 2006). String tissue consist of the cell which is planted with some of extracellular that secretion by that cell from protein fiber had planted in the compound of amorf protein-polisacarida molecul. Nerve tissue consist of : 1) nerve cell which was called neuron, and 2) glial cell. Central of nerve system has some of microglia - cellular cell (macrofag) which is to response the damage (exp, from infection) by : 1) engulfing cell debris, 2) secreting inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) (AnonymousC , 2011).
  • 7. CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD A. Place and Date Day / date : Tuesday/ November 8th 2011 Time : 10.50 am – 12.30 pm Place : Biology Laboratory at the second floor, in west side FMIPA State Unifersity of Makassar. B. Tools and Materials 1. For plant tissue a. Tools 1) Microscope 2) Rough cloth and soft cloth 3) Object glass b. Material 1) Preparate root tissue, steam tissue, and leaf which is from monocotyl class and dycotyle class. 2. For animal tissue a. Tools 1) Microscope 2) Rough cloth and soft cloth 3) Object glass c. Material 1) Preparate of human skin C. Work Procedure 1. For plant tissue a. Microscope had prepared based of the use procedure. b. Preparate was taken which is the preparate represent with monocotyl and dycotyle.
  • 8. c. Observed the characteristic of the structure and location from each tissue which is built the root, steam and leaf. d. The magnificent of objective lens is 4 x to see the totally of preparate, and then change the magnificent to observe the part of tissue clearly. e. Drew the part of tissue. f. Compared the observation result with picture. g. Studied the function from each of the tissue that built the plant organ. 2. For animal tissue a. Microscope had prepared based of the use procedure. b. Took the lasting preparate of animal tissue. c. Observed the characteristic of the structure of each animal tissue d. Used of objective magnificent 4 x to see the totally of preparate to observe the part of animal tissue clearly. e. Drew the part of tissue. f. Compared the observation result with picture. g. Studied the function from each of the tissue that built the animals organ. .
  • 9. CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Result of Practicum 1. Hyaline Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. Isogenous group 3. Territorial matrix 4. Interterritorial matrix 5. Chondrocyte 2. Cardiac muscle Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Nucleus 2. Sinsitium 3. Arteri
  • 10. 3. Leaf of lilium sp Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Epidermis 2. Palisade mesophyll 3. Stomata 4. Vascular bundle 5. Spongy mesophyl 4. Monocotyl stem Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Xylem 2. Floem 3. Epidermis 4. Cortex 5. Endodermis 5. Dicotyl stem Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Epidermis 2. Cortex 3. Phloem 4. Cambium 5. Xylem 6. Pith
  • 11. 6. Dicotyl rooth Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Root hair 2. Epidermis 3. Endodermis 4. Xylem 5. Pericycle 6. Pholem 7. Xylem 7. Pine leaf Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Epidermis 2. Hypodermis 3. Mesophill 4. Transfusion tissue 5. Vasculas bundles 6. Endodermis 7. Resin canals 8. Smooth muscle Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1. Nucleus 2. Sarcolema 3. Myofibrin
  • 12. 9. Stralated muscle Magnification: Ocular 10 x Objective 10 x Total=100 x Notes: 1.Nuclei B. Discussion 1. Plant Tissue Plants are composed of three major organ groups: roots, stems and leaves. As we know from other areas of biology, these organs are comprised of tissues working together for a common goal (function). In turn, tissues are made of a number of cells which are made of elements and atoms on the most fundamental level. In this section, we will look at the various types of plant tissue and their place and purpose within a plant. It is important to realize that there may be slight variations and modifications to the basic tissue types in special plants. Plant tissues are characterized and classified according to their structure and function. The organs that they form will be organized into patterns within a plant which will aid in further classifying the plant. A good example of this is the three basic tissue patterns found in roots and stems which serve to delineate between woody dicot, herbaceous dicot and monocot plants. We will look at these classifications later on in the tutorial. A mature plant vascular, a tobacco plant contains several differentiated cell types. These are grouped together in the tissues. Some tissues contain only are type of cell. Some consist of several:
  • 13. a. Meristematic The main function of marestematc tissue is mitosis the cells are small, thin walled, with no central vacuole and no specialize creatures. Merestematic tissue is located in 1) The apical meristems 2) The secondary meristems 3) Ring of meristematic tissue called the cambium The cells produced in the meritsems soon become differentlated into one or another of several types. b. Protective Protective tissue covers the surface of leaves and living cells of roots and stems its cells flattened whit their top and button surfaces parallel. The upper and lower epidermis of the leaf are of protective tissue. c. Parenchyma The cues of parenchyma are large, thin walled and usually have in langue central vacuole .They are usually stuffed with plastids areas not exposed to . Colorless plastids predominate and food storage is the main function. Parenchyma composed from life cells that has embrional characteristic, it function as supporting tissue. d. Scelerencyma The walls of these cells are very thick and boil up in a uniform layer around the entire margin of the cell. Often the protoplasts die after the cell wall is fully formed sclerenchym cells are usually found associated with other cells types and give them mechanical support. e. Collenchymas Collenchymas cells have walls that are specialist thick at their cornet. These are thick - walled tubes that can extend vertically. These cells pruned mechanic support for the plant. They are most after found in
  • 14. anneals that are entwine rapidly and need to be strengthened the petiole (stalk) of leaves is usually reinforced with collenchymas. f. Xylem Xylem are conduces water dissolved minerals from the rots to all the other parts of the plant. In angiosperms most of the water travels in the xylem vessels. Xylem vessel anneals from individual cylindrical cell oriented and to end. Xylem is also contains tracheas. It has measurement that bigger then phloem but it totally is very little. Its function is to transport of water and salt mineral from the land to the part of plants that needle. g. Phloem Phloem is involved the transport of organic solutes in the plant. The main concluding cells (elements) are aligned to form tubes called seared tube. It has the small measurement that has a function for transport the product of photosynthesis from the leaf to and of part of plant that need. 2. Animal Tissue The structure of animal tissue is directly to its function. Animal have groups of cell in the tissue, which are combined together to perform as an organ. Animals have tissue which groups of cells with a basic structure and function. There are for major types of tissue: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue. a. Epithelia tissue Epithelial tissue is consists of sheet. Its function are as to absorb and protect inside part of organ, one of organ that has function to absorb has the surface of epithelia that very wide like heart, kidney, lungs, and intestine. According to its form and its function, that is: 1) Epithelia gland tissue a) Eksokrim gland b) Endokrim gland
  • 15. 2) Based on its form and totally of cells layer a) Simplex epithelia b) Complex epithelia b. Connective tissue Connective tissue is separated from one another by a non-cellular matrix. Bond is connective tissue that terminalisation with bond cells called osteosit that formed by osteoblas. Between some osteosits relationed by canaliculi. Sediment of salt mineral compose and around the navel of bond so want to form circle structure that called lamella. In lamella there is lacuna, each bond is packed by presidium as fibroses connective tissue. Havers is cells that composed to become system in the hard bone. In the middle of havers system there is pipe that has blood system and limfa system nerve and volkman. Volkman flow is the pipe that composed by havers where its layer called lamella. c. Nervous tissue Nervous tissue plays a role in the reception and delivery of excitatory stimulus. The embryology, the tissue is derived from the layer ectoderm. There is a tissue in the central nervous system brain and spinal marrow) and the system of neurons containing the body cells, nucleus, and fibroses roots. Cerebrum is the part of our brain that consist of four lobus that is frontal, parietal, oksipital, and temporal. It function is for control our attitude that have studied a ware of center, integency, remember, impression interpretation. d. Muscle tissue Muscle tissue is made up long size, excitable that are capable of considerable contraction. These are arranged in a parallel pattern within the cytoplasm of the muscle cells. There are a large number of microfilaments that are made of contractile proteins actins and myosin.
  • 16. Muscle as an instrument that used for movement because are able to contraction when it received stimulus. In the muscle cells there are smooth fiber called as myofibril. Cells membrane is called as sarkolema. Muscle tissues consist of three parts, that is: 1) Smooth muscle Muscle has one nucleus in the center, it does not have some line and its movement not based on our wish, it reaction is very slow, and its location in the assimilation wall, respiration system, blood system, and liver. 2) Skeletal muscle This cell has some nucleus and its location in the ham, its system based on our wish, its reaction very fast when received some stimulus, its place is to stick on the skeleton. 3) Cardiac muscle It has one nucleus, its system not based on our wish, its reaction very slow to get stimulus, its place in the heart wall, cardiac muscle has a function to help a heart to do contraction for pump blood.
  • 17. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Based on the practicum about microscopic observation, the practicum draw the conclusion as the tissue of the each part of plant and animal has some different structure and it has some different function. Like in the animal tissue it has Epithelium tissue, String tissue, Nerve tissue and Muscle tissue. Each tissue has some different structure and function B. Suggestion Based of the result of practicum and the conclusion, the suggestion as follows: 1. Suggestion for Laboratory I hope for next practicum about the microscopic observation. The quality of the lasting preparate must be improve or take careless with the lasting preparate that we use it for observation. 2. Suggestion for Assistant The Assistant who was guide for this practice is good. So, I hope for the next practicum the assistant can guide excellently. 3. Suggestion for Friend I hope for my friend in the next practicum, we can work together again more than in this practicum and working seriously to get a good result to get a good result.
  • 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY AnonymousA .2011.AnimalTissues. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael. gregory/default.htm. accessed on November 13st 2011 in Makassar. AnonymousB .2011.Plant Tissues. http://www.biology-online.org/. Accessed on November 13st 2011 in Makassar. AnonymousC . 2011. Organ Hewan. http://www.about.com/organ-hewan/. Accessed on November 13st 2011 in Makassar. E. Pack, Phillip. 2007. Anatomi dan Fisiologi. Bandung: Pakar Raya. M. Hutapea, Albert. 2006. Keajaiban-keajaiban dalam tubuh manusia. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Tim Pengajar Biologi. 2011. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar: FMIPA Makassar State University Laboratory.
  • 19. ANSWER THE QUESTION 1. How the shape of smooth muscle cells, where it found, and how much the central in each fiber? Answer: spindle-shaped muscle cells not with stripes, the middle and edges taper and floe up at located and the wall of the channel blood, lymph vessel. 2. What is the college of cells fiber with skeletal muscle, and how much the central in each fiber. Answer:college of muscle fiber cells is called fesikola/fiber contractile on each fiber, there are many core, which is located at the edge. 3. What is the basic different between smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and hearth and hearth muscle which is found of us? Answer:The different between smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and hearth muscle: a. Smooth muscle 1. Formed spindle 2. Each cell has 3 cone fiber is located in the middle. 3. Working under unconsciousness. b. Skeletal muscle 1. The shape of fiber stretching, and is located in the middle 2. Nucleus of cells located an the edge and none. 3. By or willingness to work. c. Heart muscle 1. The form of striding and have branches. 2. Essentially only one and is located in the middle. 3. Not working according to awareness. 4. What are lamella, lacuna, kanalikuli, and what’s the function of harvest? Answer:
  • 20. a. Lamella is a thin layer where located the substance mineral and the place of lacuna arranged eon centric beset channel harvest. b. Lacuna is a small cavity between the lamella living in the cells osteosit. c. Kanalikuli is a small channel that connects between the lacuna with one another. d. Harvest is the channel with function is the channel blood vessels and nerves.