Laporan Praktikum Biologi Dasar - How to use the microscope
Complete report of Basic Biology practicum with title “How to use the
microscope“, that arranged by:
Name : Nur Pratiwi
Registration Number : 1114040196
Group : III (three)
Class : ICP Biology B
After checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, so this
report was accepted.
Makassar, November 2011
Assistant Coordinator, Assistant,
Djumarirmanto S.Pd Firdaus
Science is important knowledge that includes all knowledge and it is very
important and very useful for human life and human activity, is also a thing that
cannot be separated from our lives. This is because wherever, whenever,
wherever we are cheap very important knowledge. All daily activities we always
use the theory of science. Especially for biology, which is one branch of science.
Biology is the subject that we studied how to know about the human life and
something that connected about life and our enviroment, from a large structure
until smallest structure like cell. If we want to know about all of the life things, at
the first we must be learn and know about cell. Because cell is smallest thing
which is made up the organism. To learn about the cell must be using a
microscope to enlarge the shadow of the cell. Because the cell is to small to see if
we look with maked eye. So, we can see a shape of the cell and the structure of
the cell clearly using the microscope.
Microscope is the one of the biology modern tool which is use for biology
scientist activity to observe the structure of smallest thing and make enlarge the
shadow of that smallest thing. The new university student, especially for biology
students must know how to use the microscope based the correctly work
procedure. So, to use the microscope can be easily, correctly and safely, because
microscope has some sensitive component like the lens, that can be damage it if
we not use the microscope carefully. Biside that, the university student will know
and learn about some of the function from the microscope component.
In this practicum, the university student will learn more about the function of
the microscope component, try to use the microscope correctly to observe the
smallest object based of the work procedure, and the university student will know
how to cleaning the microscope and save it the microscope in to correctly and
The purpose of this practicum, to giving the method how to use a microscope
with safe and correctly to see microscopic object.
The student will know a mechanism to using a microscope and know the
component of microscope.
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
The word of a microscope come from the Greece language, which is the
meaning is : mikros the meaning is "small" and skopeîn, the meaning is "see". So, the
complete meaning of a microscope is an important instrument that we use to see and
learn about the structure of smallest or microscopic object for the naked eye
Anthony Van Leuwenhoek (1632-1723) is the first man who was discovered the
microscope to observe the microorganism. So, he was called the father of
microscopy. Anthony Van Leuwenhoek started as an apprentice in a dry goods store
where magnifying glasses were used to count the threads in cloth. He taught himself
new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature which gave
magnifications up to 270 diameters, the finest known at that time. These led to the
building of his microscopes and the biological discoveries for which he is famous. He
was the first to see and describe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of
water, and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries. During a long life he
used his lenses to make pioneer studies on an extraordinary variety of things, both
living and non living, and reported his findings in over a hundred letters to the Royal
Society of England and the French Academy (Anonymous, 2011).
Romans have been using magnifying glasses around 2000 years ago. Around the
year 1590 the first microscope was made by Hans Janssen and Jacharias, handyman
glasses from the Netherlands. In 1663, Robert Hooke, the English father microscopy,
research of animal and plant with microscope. He find cells small of cork, a certain
finded important scientific (Muslimin, 2004).
A microscope are instrument that produce an enlarged image of specimen which
is observed. The eyepiece and the objective lens are the main components of the
magnification system of the microscope, the product of magnification of the object
lens and ocular lens give the total magnification of the microscope. The visibility of
the magnified specimen depends on contras and resolution. Contras is the difference
in light intensity between an object and its background. Some biological samples
contain coloured compounds, for examples pigmented animal cell and chlorophyll-
containing chloroplasts in plant cell. But most biological samples are colourless and
have to be fixed and stained before observation. Such stained specimen are observed
using bright field microscopy. Other kinds of microscope system are available to
enhance contras in living samples; these include phase contrast, dark field,
Differential Interval Contras (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy (Harris, 2006).
The resolution of the optical system, that is the ability to distinguish object
separated by small distance, determines the degree of detail observable. The limit of
resolution of the microscope is about 0,2 µm. the limit of the resolution are
determined by the quality of the objective lens and the quality of the condenser
Generally the microscope was divided into two kind, there is electric microscope
and light microscope or sometimes we said optic microscope. The sheaf of electron,
inside of the electric microscope has used to exchange the lens from glass the sheaf of
electron focused into the specimen by assembles lens, and then the image was
enlarged by the objective lens and the projector lens to projection into digital detector
of photograph film. Whereas, inside the light microscope, the light focused into the
specimen by the assemble lens from glass. And then, the image was enlarged by
objective lens and ocular lens for projector into the eye (Campbell, 2008).
Electron microscope have given expression that there are many organelles and
sub cellule structures are impossible to resolute by using light microscope. But light
microscope has some profits, especially learn about living cell/protoplasm. One of the
electron microscope shortages is the method that be used to prepare specimen in fact
kill the cell. Besides that, prepare specimen can make artifact, structural fitur that
seen in micrograph but there was not in living cell (it also same to all of microscope
technical) (Campbell, 2008).
A light microscope, even one with perfect lenses and perfect illumination, simply
cannot be used to distinguish object that are smaller than half the wavelength of light.
White light has an average wavelength of 0,55 micrometer, half of which is 0,275
micrometer. (One micrometer is a thousandth of a millimeter, and there are about
25,000 micrometers to an inch. Micrometers are also called microns). Any two lines
that are closer together than 0.275 micrometers will be seen as a single line, and any
object with a diameter smaller than 0.275 micrometers will be invisible or, at best,
show up as a blur. To see tiny particles under a microscope, scientists must bypass
light altogether and use a different sort of "illumination," one with a shorter
wavelength (Anonymous, 2011).
Two important parameters in microscopy (technical of microscope utilization)
are enlargement and resolution capacity (or just resolution) or asunder capacity.
Enlargement (magnification) is comparison size object image with the real size.
Resolution is the real size image; minimum distance that can separate two points so it
can still differentiated as two points (Campbell, 2008).
Light microscope was divided into two kind, there is biology microscope or
monocular microscope and stereo microscope or binocular microscope. Biology
microscope or monocular microscope used observation for thin and transparency
thing. The illumination was given from the under of the microscope with sunlight or
lamp. This microscope has some magnification is ; 1) Objective lens 4 x and ocular
lens 10 x, total magnification is 40 x, 2) Objective lens 10 x and ocular lens 10 x,
total magnification is 100 x, 3) Objective lens 40 x and ocular lens 10 x, total
magnification is 400 x, 4) Objective lens 100 x and ocular lens 10 x, total
magnification is 1000 x (Tim Pengajar Biologi, 2011).
Stereo microscope or binocular microscope used for the transparency or not
visible object. The illumination was given from under with sunlight or lamp. This
microscope has two objective lens and two ocular lens. So, it can make the 3
dimension shadow. This microscope only has magnification is ; Objective lens 1 x or
2 x and ocular lens 10 x or 15 x (Tim Pengajar Biologi, 2011).
A. Time and Place
Day / date : Tuesday / October 25th
Time : 10.50 am – 12.20 pm
Place : Biology Laboratory at the second floor on west side
FMIPA State Unifersity of Makassar.
B. Tools and Materials
a. Tools which serve by laboratory
1) Microscope Biology
2) Tool box consist of :
a) Object glass
b) Closing glass
d) Dropping pipette
e) Petri cup
b. Tools which serve by university student
1) Razor blade
2) Flannel cloth
3) Cotton cloth
4) Drawing book and pencil
a. Materials which serve by laboratory
2) Filter paper
b. Materials which serve by student
1) Hibiscus rosa - sinensis
2) Hibiscus tiliaceus
3) Cucurbita moschata
4) Allium cepa
C. Work Procedure
1. Prepare Microscope
1.1 Microscope putted on the table exactly in front of you.
1.2 The body of microscope was cleaned up by flannel cloth and never touch
and polish the lens with cloth.
1.3 Opened toolbox and take it the petri cup which is have a object glass and
closing glass. And then clean up the thing with cotton cloth.
1.4 On the table there are only microscope, tool box and the content, literature
book, note and material which is use for practicum. And the other were
move it into the place that was served.
2 Controlling the Light into the Tube
2.1 Pay the attention of practicum room, from where the light come (front, left
or right). The microscope was aimed in to the light source. And then
diaphragm was opened or turn a plate on middle hole. Microscope that
have a condenser, arranged the position near from stage and use the
mirror. For microscope without a condenser use concave mirror.
2.2 Arranged the position of revolver. So, the shortest objective lens to face
on the stage.
2.3 Descended the tube until the distance the tip of objective with stage is 5-
10 mm or maximum distance of tube..
2.4 Observe with ocular lens using left eye without closed the right eye and
will be showed the white round area. The diaphragm or plate hole was
moved it if more dazzled. The diaphragm was opened again if look area
hazy cause the light is less.
2.5 The microscope ready to use it for observe the object.
3 Way to Set the Distance of Lens with Object
3.1 With hand, the macrometer (coarse adjustment) was turned into the finger,
tube down. The distance of the objective with stage has small. Do it with
the contrary. What happen?. The others model of microscope which is the
tube was sloping or can’t make it up and down, so the stage that move up
and down when the macrometer and micrometer turned.
3.2 Object glass that consist preparate was putted on the stage. So, the object
that will observe putted in middle of table hole, clipped the object glass
with stage clip.
3.3 Observe the distance of objective lens with the glass, it can’t be more than
10 mm. if distance over, the macrometer was turned to descend the tube
and see from behind of objective lens approach the object till 5 – 10 mm.
3.4 Observe from ocular while the hand was turning the macrometer up the
tube step by step. Observe the looking area until the shadow from object
be emerge. If there is no shadow that show, that is be past.try again start
form 3.3 if the shadow had showed but still hazy. So, try again and
macrometer was turning up and down until the shadow clear.
3.5 Check the ocular (how the magnify that use?) and objective (how the
magnify that use?). and then the magnify was counted.
3.6 If the observe had finished, put out the preparate.
4 Make a Simple Preparate
4.1 Took the object glass which has leaned.
4.2 Droped the water in the middle of object glass.
4.3 The object (preparate) putted in the middle of object glass.
4.4 The other is taking the closed glass and then close the object.
4.5 The closed glass touched to the object glass near the water drop with the
and then stick the closed glass. So, it can be close the water
4.6 Put the preparate (object) on the stage and observe like the step 3.2, 3.3,
3.4 and 3.5.
5 Changed the Magnify
5.1 If the observe of 4.6 had succeed, 3.4 and 3.5, the shadow that show will
be enlarge again. Don’t touch the position of the preparate and the tube.
5.2 Turn the objective lens which is the longer lens (stronger) faced and
vertical in to the stage and has the sound “click” (check the magnifies).
5.3 Observed and turn the micrometer till the large shadow has founded.
5.4 The tube was ascended with turn the macrometer fail to find the shadow.
And then the revolver was turning till the weak objective lens back to the
first position. After that, the 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 step has
5.5 If want to observe another object. Ascend the tube and take out the object
glass, and clean it. Repeated based the step of 4.1 till 4.6
5.6 In the end of the activity that use it the microscope, attention this :
1) The preparate can’t put on the stage, the preparate must be taken out.
2) Wet preparate must clean with filter paper or cotton cloth. Save in the
petri cup and enter it into the box.
3) The microscope body was cleaned with flannel cloth and put down the
4) Put the microscope into microscope box.
5) All of the tool was cleaned up with cotton cloth and put into the tool
6) Save the tool box for next activity.
7) The material which isn’t use it, throw it.
A. Result of Practice
1. Ocular lens
14. Objective lens
Function of Microscope:
1. Ocular lens = accept the shadow from objective lens and enlarge it
2. Macrometer = to make the tube up and down roughly
3. Micrometer = to make the tube up and down softly
4. Arm = the place that we hold when moving the microscope
5. Mechanic controller = to setting the glass on the table
6. Condenser setting = to setting the position of the condenser
7. Inclination point = to control the mirror up and down
8. Base = to make stand the microscope
9. Mirror = to reflection the light
10. Diaphragm = regulated the radiance shadow that come to condenser
or controlling light that enter to the condenser
11. Condenser = lens that assembles the light from mirror into the
12. Stage = the place for put the object
13. Clip = to hold the object glass
14. Objective lens = accept the shadow of the object and enlarge it
15. Revolver = the place which is objective lens was stick
16. Tube = the place of ocular lens
A. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Ocular lens = 10 x
Objective lens = 10 x
1. Adaxial epidermis
2. Cell wall
5. Abaxial epidermis
B. Hibiscus tilliaceus
Ocular lens = 10 x
Objective lens = 10 x
2. Adaxial epidermis
3. Cell wall
6. Abaxial epidersmi
C. Cucurbita moschata
Ocular lens = 10 x
Objective lens = 10 x
3. Cell wall
D. Allium cepa
Ocular lens = 10 x
Objective lens = 10 x
1. Adaxial epidermis
2. Cell wall
5. Abaxial epidermis
Based on the experiment of Robert Hook who was the first man that use the
light microscope to find the cork cell. The experiment that had been done by us
about the microscope especially for light microscope that we used for observe
some of object that had taken from the part of plant to observe the structure of
that plants with some magnification to enlarge the plant structure, as follow :
1. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. In this object we used the light microscope to enlarge
the shadow of magnification for objective lens is 10 x and the ocular lens is
10 x with totally magnification is 100 x. From that magnification we found
the adaxial epidermis, cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleous, and abaxial epidermis.
2. Hibiscus tiliaceus. In this object we used the light microscope with
magnification for objective lens is 10 x and the ocular lens is 10 x, with
totally magnification is 100 x. From that magnification we can found the
tricoma star, adaxial epidermis, cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, and abaxial
3. Cucurbita moschata. For this object that still used the magnification for
objective lens is 10 x and the ocular lens is 10 x, with totally magnification is
100 x. From that magnification we can found the structure of Cucurbita
moschata like that tricoma, epidermis, cell wall, nucleus, and cytoplasm.
4. Allium cepa still used the same magnification with other object. with
magnification for objective lens is 10 x and the ocular lens is 10 x, and the
structure of Allium cepa cell like adaxial epidermis, abaxial epidermis,
nucleus, cytoplasm and cell wall can be founded.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the practicum about microscope, the practicum draw the conclusion
as follows :
Using the microscope with based on the step-step how to use it microscope
correctly it can be make the university student easy and safely to observation
something that connected about microscopic or smallest thing with microscope.
Based of the result of practicum and the conclusion, the suggestion as
1. Suggestion for Assistant
The Assistant who was guide for this practice is good. So, I hope for the
next practicum the assistant can guide excellently and the university student
will know about how to use the microscope correctly.
2. Suggestion for Laboratory
I hope for next practicum about the microscope. The quality of the
microscope must be improve or take careless with the microscope that we use
it for observation.
3. Suggestion for Friends
Increasing cooperation among group members and be careful in doing lab
work and maintain the tools that are used primarily glassware / glass.
Anonym. 2010. History of Microscope. http://www.about.com/history-of-microscope
Accessed on October 28th
Campbell N. A. 2008. Biology 8th
Edition. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Haris, dkk. 2006. Cell Biology Protocol. USA: John Willey & Sons.
Ibrahim, Muslimin. Dkk. 2004. Sains: Materi Pelatihan Terintegrasi.Cet. Pertama.
Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
Tim Pengajar Biologi. 2011. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar:
Laboratorium FMIPA UNM.
ANSWER THE QUESTION
1. Optic parts of microscope is :
a. Ocular lens
b. Objective lens
2. Mechanic parts of microscope is :
a. Tube g. Inclination point
b. Revolver h. Micrometer
c. Stage i. Macrometer
d. Clip j. Condenser setting
e. Diaphragm k. Base
f. Arm l. Mechanic controller
3. Function of mechanic parts :
a. Tube = the place of ocular lens
b. Revolver = the place which is objective lens was stick
c. Stage = the place for put the object
d. Clip = to hold the object glass
e. Diaphragm = regulated the radiance shadow that came to
condenser or controlling light that enter to the
f. Arm = the place that we hold or handle when move the
g. Micrometer = to make up and down the tube softly
h. Macrometer = to make up and down the tube roughly
i. Condenser setting = to setting the position of the condenser
j. Mechanic controller = to setting the glass on the stage
k. Base = to make stand the microscope
4. If the shadow will move to left-front, the object glass must be move into the
opposite direction of the shadow. Because the quality of ocular lens that receive
the objective lens shadow is imagination, max and opposite.
5. The negative effect if we cleaning the lens of microscope with rough cloth is the
lens will be damage and the lens will scratch. So, if we use it to observation the
object that want to observe can’t show it clearly.