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Memristors Memristors Presentation Transcript

    Presentation by;
    PratishthaShira Ram
    Praveen Solanki
    "NOW ALL THE EE TEXTBOOKS NEED TO BE CHANGED"-IEEE Kirchoff Award winner Leon Chua on the discovery of the memresistor.
  • Think…
    Is there any equation to relate flux and charge?
    What if we could create a processor with a basic building block which acts as infinite non-volatile memory, logic circuit and switching circuit all at the same time?
    What if you could suddenly shut down your computer and then restart it , to find all your files and settings just like they were before?
  • Did you know?
    Capacitors and
    A fourth basic passive element has been developed…
    (All our textbooks will have to be re-written now)
  • So, what is the “memristor”?
     Memristors are a concatenation of “memory resistors”.
    These are a type of passive circuit elements that maintain a relationship between
    • the time integrals of current and
    • voltage across a two terminal element.
  • History
    Memristor was first proposed in 1971 in a seminal paper published by Professor Leon O. Chua, professor in the University of Berkeley, US.
    In 2008, Stan Williams and team at HP Labs unveiled a two-terminal titanium dioxide nanoscale device that exhibited memristor and memristive characteristics
  • The ‘missing circuit element’..
    dq = Idt
    dV = R dI
    dq = CdV
    dФ= Vdt
    dФ=M dq
    Magnetic flux
  • Theory
    The memristor is essentially a two-terminal variable resistor, with resistance dependent upon the amount of charge q that has passed between the terminals.
    V = I.M(q)
    Essentially, a constant value of M(q)=R .
    M = dΦm / dq
  • Theory (Contd.)
    As seen previously, V(t) = M(q(T)).I(t)
    And as M(q) = dФ
    Hence, M(q(t)) = dФ/dt = V(t)
    dq/dt I(t)
    Similarly, it can be derived that
    Power P(t) = I(t)V(t) = {I(t)}²M(q(t))
  • Working
    Like silicon, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a semiconductor, and in its pure state it is highly resistive.
    However, it can be doped with other elements to make it very conductive.
    In TiO 2 , the dopants don't stay stationary in a high electric field; they tend to drift in the direction of the current.
  • Working
    Putting a bias voltage across a thin film of TiO 2 semiconductor that has dopants only on one side causes them to move into the pure TiO 2 on the other side. And thus lowers the resistance.
    Running current in the other direction will then push the dopants back into place, increasing the TiO 2 's resistance.
  • Applications
    Non-volatile memory
    Low-power and remote sensing
    Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements
    Analog computation
    Circuits which mimic Neuromorphic and biological systems (Learning Circuits)
    Programmable Logic and Signal Processing
  • Non-volatile memory
    Memristors can retain memory states, and data, in power-off modes.
    Industry analysts state there is industry concurrence that these flash memory or solid state drives (ssd) competitors could start showing up in the consumer market within 2 years.
  • Low-power and remote sensing
    Memristors can possibly allow for nano-scale low power memory and distributed state storage.
    These are currently all hypothetical in terms of time to market.
  • Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements
    Solid-state memristors can be combined into devices called crossbar latches, which could replace transistors in future computers, taking up a much smaller area.
    This will break the barrier to miniaturization of both the microprocessor and controller .
  • Circuits which mimic Neuromorphic and biological systems (Learning Circuits)
    Simple electronic circuits based on an LC network and memristors have been used recently to model experiments on adaptive behavior of unicellular organisms.
    The experiments show that the electronic circuit, subjected to a train of periodic pulses, learns and anticipates the next pulse to come.
    These types of learning circuits find applications in pattern recognition & Neural Networks. 
  • Analog computation
    There still exist some very important areas of engineering and modeling problems which require extremely complex and difficult workarounds to synthesize digitally: in part, because they map economically onto analog models.
    Analog required management for scalability beyond what even the extremely complex initial digital vaccum tube computers could provide. Memristor applications will now allow us to revisit a lot of the analog science that was abandoned in the mid 1960’s.
  • Programmable Logic and Signal Processing
    The memristive applications in these areas will remain relatively the same, because it will only be a change in the underlying physical architecture, allowing their capabilities to expand, however, to the point where their applications will be unrecognizable as related.
  • Logical Operations
     Memristors can perform "universal boolean logic" without having a NOT/NAND/NOR , etc.
     “Material implication" along with FALSE forms a complete basis for universal computing. 
    Memristors naturally implement "material implication“. 
  • The memristor can:
    - store data like DRAM or Flash but it doesn’t require any energy to maintain the data storage.
    - the memristor chips can be laid down in layer upon layer upon layer, creating three-dimensional structures that can store and process data.
    - the memristor is easy to make and completely compatible with today’s CMOS chip making processes.
    - it can be scaled to very small geometries without losing its properties.
    - the memristor can also perform logic, it can act as a microprocessor!
  • Summing it up..
    The memristor will change circuit design in the 21st century as radically as the transistor changed it in the 20th.
  • Bibliography
    IEEE Spectrum, May 2008 issue, News: “The Mysterious Memristor”
    IEEE Spectrum, December 2008 issue, Cover Story:
    “How We Found the Missing Memristor”
  • A 3-d memristor Chip
  • Thank you