CONTENTSBiometrics OverviewNeed of BiometricsWorking PrincipalPhysical ModesBehavioral ModesApplicationsBenefitsConcernConclusion
Biometrics OverviewDefinition: Automated methods of identifying or verifying the identity of a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic Better than traditional method. Physical: Fingerprint Facial Recognition Hand Geometry Iris Scan Retinal Scan DNA Behavioral: Speaker Recognition Signature Recognition
NEEDTraditional methods have some flawsTo secure access to building, computer system, laptop, phone, ATM, bank account, & many more.For security & reduce financial fraud.To prevent fraudulent acts like faking ID badges or licenses.Types of biometric: 1. single model biometric system. 2. multi model biometric system.
WORKING PRINCIPAL1.Enrollment Adding biometric information to data file.2.Input Device Sensors, cameras etc3. Comparison with the database.4. Decision
Biometrics OverviewWays to recognize a person: Verification Matching against a single record. It is 1:1 matching Identification Matching against all record in the database. It is 1:N matching.
Error and Accuracy2 types of errors:False rejection: When an actual client gets identified as imposter.False acceptance: When an actual imposter gets identified as client.Accuracy:FRR =number of false rejections/number of client accessesFAR = number of false acceptance/number of client accessesTER=(no of FA+no of FR)/total no accesses.
PHYSICAL MODESo Fingerprinto Facial Recognitiono Hand Geometryo Iris Scano Retinal Scano DNA
FingerprintTypical System: fingerprint scanner maps the series of whorls, ridges, furrows and minutiae on the surface of the fingerOptical sensor and Solid State sensor are used.
FACIAL RECOGNITIONTypical system: digital video camera input of a person’s face images- measures facial structure; compares against database2 Methods:Face geometryFacial thermograph: uses infrared heat scans to identify facial characteristics.
HAND GEOMETRYAnalyses and computes features like length and width of finger, ratio of palm or fingers, width and thickness of the palm.Basic procedure involves taking images of top and side views of hand using camera.
Iris RecognitionIris analysisTypical system: scanner analyzes features like rings, furrows, and freckles existing in the colored tissue surrounding the pupil.Sophisticated camera uses infrared imager to capture high resolution photograph.Advantage:o Iris is well protected area of eye with minimum possibility of injury.
Retina ScanningAnalysis of layer of blood vessels at the back of the eyeTypical system: low-intensity infrared light source and an optical coupler to scan a unique vascular pattern of retina and its reflection is recorded.Most accurate and reliable method.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)A DNA sample is used to produce either a DNA fingerprint or a DNA profileComparison of alleles of DNA sequences found in nuclear genetic material.Used in medical field and forensic investigation purpose.
Speaker RecognitionVoice recognition and analysisTypical system: uses the pitch, pattern, tone, frequency, rhythm of speech for identification purposes; only biometric that allows users to authenticate remotely.3 types:Fixed text methodText dependent methodText independent method
Signature Recognition Handwriting analysis Typical System: user will sign on a tablet, the device will record pressure, speed, sequence and shape of characters and compare to a database. Verification is based on features like no. of interior contours and no. of vertical slope components. Rarely used method.
Comparison Chart Accuracy/ReliabilityBiometric Accuracy Reliability ErrorsFingerprint Very High High Dirt, drynessFacial Recognition High Medium Hair, glasses, ageHand Geometry High Medium Hand injuryIris Scan Very High High Poor lightingRetinal Scan Very High High GlassesDNA Very High High noneSpeaker Recognition Medium Low Noise, coldsSignature Recognition Medium Low Changing signaturesAccuracy: How well can the specific biometric is able to tell individual apartReliability: how dependable the specific biometric is for recognition purposes
APPLICATIONSBIOMETRIC TECH APPLICATIONSFINGERPRINTS Law enforcement, entry devices for offices and colleges, enterprise security; medical and financialFACIAL RECOGNITION Automated bank tellers- user verification purposesHAND GEOMETRY Time and attendance systems, physical accessIRIS SCAN Law Enforcement, Employee Security Check, banking
RETINA SCAN High-end security, military, power plansDNA Medical applications, Paternity Tests, Criminal identification and forensicsVOICE RECOGNITION Call Centers, Law enforcement – house arrest authenticationSIGNATURE Access to documents, Banking services
What Biometrics are ReplacingTraditional verification methods:Passwords PIN numbersTokens Photo ID cards Smart cards Magnetic strip cards Physical keys
Current Biometric Applications Computer logins ATMs Grocery stores Airport kiosks Driver’s licenses Internet banking National ID cards Welfare disbursement International border crossing Forensics – criminal identification Annual amusement park pass holders Speaker verification for television home shopping
BENEFITSIncreased security measuresReduce costs of password and ID card maintenanceAbility to track employees and link activitiesNo passwords to forgetElimination of problems such as lost/stolen identification cards and PIN numbersFaster login timeImproved security of sensitive information
CONCERNSSensitive biometric information susceptible to hackers.Lack of privacy for employees.Costly and time consuming to implement .
CONCLUSIONMulti biometric systems have a huge potential of growth.Access procedures are made simpler, faster and more secure. Especially governments, law enforcement agencies, military and industrial companies, already make partial use of this technology.In the future biometric devices will surely become more involved in many civil areas.