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First aid for fracture
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First aid for fracture


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  • 1. First aid for fracture -Anushka Ninama
  • 2.   What is fracture? • A broken or cracked bone • Occurs when pressure is applied to bone  • Occurs with / without displacement of bone fragments
  • 3. Causes of fracture •Direct force •Indirect force •Force of muscular action •Force of ligaments
  • 4.     Types • Open fracture: Skin breaks causing open wound
  • 5. •Closed fracture: Skin not broken 
  • 6. • Complicated fractures: Damage of adjacent organs
  • 7. • Stress fracture: Hairline crack due to repeated stress
  • 8. • Greenstick fracture: In children's flexible bones
  • 9. Classification
  • 10.     Symptoms •Severe pain  •Difficulty in movement •Swelling/ bruising / bleeding  •Deformity / abnormal twist of limb •Tenderness on applying
  • 11. First-aid •Depends on type & location of fracture
  • 12. For open fractures •Control bleeding before treatment •Rinse and dress the wound
  • 13. For open / closed fractures • Check the breathing  • Calm the person  • Examine for other injuries • Immobilize the broken wound  • Apply ice to reduce pain / swelling • Consult a doctor 
  • 14. Using bandages •Do not apply over the fracture •Bandaging should be fairly firm •Place padding material
  • 15. Using splints • Rigid enough • Wide enough • Should be long enough • Well padded • Best applied over the clothing • Raise the injured part
  • 16.     DO NOT •Massage the affected area •Straighten the broken bone  •Move without support to broken bone •Move joints above /
  • 17. Prevention •Wear protective pads / helmets when driving •Teach children / practice, safe habits
  • 18. Aims of first-aid •To prevent further damage •To reduce pain • To make patient comfortable •To get medical aid at
  • 19. Skull fracture • Damage to bone may not appear to be significant • Fracture crown of the skull caused by a direct blow • Fracture base of the skull caused by indirect force
  • 20. Recognition •Wound or bruise on the head. •Soft area or depression on the scalp. •Bruising or swelling behind one ear. •Bruising around one or both eyes.
  • 21. •Clear fluid or watery blood coming from the nose or an ear. •Blood in the white of the eye. •Distortion or lack of symmetry of the head or face. •Progressive
  • 22. Your aims •To maintain an open airway. •To arrange urgent removal of the casualty to hospital.
  • 23. Treatment If the casualty is conscious: • Help them to lie down. • Do not turn the head in case there is a neck injury. • Control any bleeding from the scalp by applying pressure around the wound. • Look for and treat any other
  • 24. •If there is discharge from an ear, cover the ear with a sterile dressing or clean pad, lightly secured with a bandage. Do not plug the ear. •Monitor and record vital signs - level of response, pulse, and
  • 25. If the casualty is unconscious: • Open the airway using the jaw thrust method and check for breathing • Be prepared to give chest compressions and rescue breaths if needed. • If the position in which the casualty was found prevents maintenance of an open airway or you fail to open it using the
  • 26. Spine fracture • # Spine is very serious injury. • Damage to the spinal cord can result in loss of power and sensation in the parts below the injured area. • A mild injury can be made worse by incorrect
  • 27. RECOGNITION • Casualty may inform that tenderness around the affected part of the back. • Can feel shooting pains or electric shocks in limbs and around the back. • Is unable to feel or move legs if the injury is in the lower back or to move any limb at all
  • 28. Treatment • Advice the casualty not to move. • Support the head in the neutral position by placing your hands over his ears, and use rolled-up coats or blankets to protect and splint the head, neck and shoulders. • Cover the casualty with a blanket.
  • 29. IMPORTANT • Do not move the casualty unless life is in danger. • Unconscious casualty with spinal injury must be placed in the RECOVERY POSITION, to protect the airway. • The position should be modified to keep the head and trunk aligned at all times.
  • 30. Jaw fracture •Jaw # are usually the result of direct force. •A blow to one side of the jaw can cause a # on the other side. These #s can cause breathing difficulties.
  • 31. RECOGNITION • The casualty finds it difficulty to speak, chew or swallow without increased pain. • There may be dribbling and blood stained saliva if there is a mouth wound. • Displaced teeth in the mouth. • Swelling and /or unevenness
  • 32. Treatment • Carefully remove any loose objects such as dentures or displaced teeth. Keep the teeth safe and give them to the driver/doctor. • Support the injured jaw till medical aid reaches
  • 33. IMPORTANT If the casualty is seriously injured or unconscious but breathing normally, Place the casualty in RECOVERY POSITION with the injured side down and a soft pad under the head to keep the weight off the
  • 34. COLLAR BONE •# collar bone (clavicle) is due to a fall on to an out-stretched hand where the force is transmitted along the forearm and upper arm to the collar bone.
  • 35. RECOGNITION • The casualty supports her arm on the injured side and inclining the head towards the injury to relieve the pain. • The casualty is reluctant to move the arm on the injured side.
  • 36. Treatment • Help the casualty position his arm on the injured side so that his fingertips are almost resting on the opposite shoulder. • Support the arm in an elevation sling and place soft padding between upper arm and chest.
  • 37. •Secure the limb to the casualty’s chest by applying a broadfold bandage over the sling and right around the body. •Take the casualty to the hospital.
  • 38. Upper limb fracture • Pain, tenderness, inability to use the arm, deformity, swelling and possible bruising. • The casualty is probably supporting the hand, forearm, and elbow of the injured arm with the other
  • 39. Treatment • If possible gently bend the casualty’s arm at the elbow so that his forearm is across his chest and place soft padding between the # site and the body. • Support the arm with an arm sling.
  • 40. •For additional support, secure the casualty’s arm to his trunk by applying a broad-fold bandage right around his arm and trunk.. Avoid # site. •Take the casualty to the hospital.
  • 41. IMPORTANT • Never bend the arm forcefully. • Check the circulation after bandaging by looking at the fingers; Relax the sling if necessary.
  • 42. If the arm can not be bent •Help the casualty to lie down with his arm by his side or wherever it is most comfortable for him.
  • 43. •Carefully place soft padding between the injured limb and the casualty’s body and apply three broad-fold bandages around the arm and the body, avoiding the # site.
  • 44. Ribs fracture •Broken ribs are splinted naturally because they are attached to the rest of the rib cage. •Immobilizing the only upper limb on the affected side of the body to help relieve pain is
  • 45. RECOGNITION • Features of # can be noticed. • The casualty may tell you that he feels very sharp pain in his side, worsened by deep breaths or coughing. • Highly tender area around the affected ribs. • He can hear a crackling sound.
  • 46. Treatment •Help the casualty to sit down and support the arm on his injured side in an arm sling.
  • 47. •If breathing is affected •Help the casualty into a half sitting position so that he is leaning towards his injured side. •Support the arm on the injured side with
  • 48. IMPORTANT •Chest injuries involving damage to several ribs or the lungs are more serious and require urgent medical attention because there may be
  • 49. Pelvis fracture • #Pelvis must be handled with great care because there may be internal injuries. • The casualty may tell that she is unable to move the lower part of her body without extreme pain and that the area around pelvis is tender and uncomfortable. • Unable to stand. • If # is complicated, urine may be blood stained or signs of internal
  • 50. Treatment • Help the casualty to lie on his back with legs straight or with knees slightly bent with a cushion under them, the most comfortable position. • Place some soft padding between the knees and ankles. • Tie the feet and ankles together with a narrow –fold bandage, and place a broad-fold bandage around
  • 51. Lower limb fracture • Pain, swelling, loss of mobility and shock. • If # is below the knee – the foot may have fallen to one side although knee is straight. • If # is above the knee the limb may look shorter or the
  • 52. Treatment •Steady and support the limb if necessary get an assistant and treat the wounds.
  • 53. •Holding the ankle and foot, apply gentle traction, carefully pulling in the long axis of the limb to bring it into its normal line.
  • 54. •Continue supporting and using the natural hollows, place bandages at the knees, above and below the #site and under ankles.
  • 55. •Bring the sound limb alongside and place soft padding between the legs so that bandages do not displace the bones. •Tie the knots on the uninjured side, starting at the ankles, knee and below the # site.
  • 56. Important •When traction is being applied, if any resistance is felt, stop immediately. Never leave a casualty’s lower limb
  • 57. Femur fracture • Steady and support the limb and treat any wounds. • Apply and maintain gentle traction by holding the casualty’s knee. Bring the injured leg into a straight line by pulling in the long axis of the limb from the ankle. • Support the injured leg at the ankle and using the natural hollows gently place the bandages under the casualty’s legs at the knees, above and below the # and under the ankles.
  • 58. Knee fracture • The knee cap can be broken by a direct blow or split by violent muscular pull from thigh muscles. • All knee injuries are painful and it may be difficult to tell whether a person has a broken knee cap or has damaged cartilage or ligament.
  • 59. Recognition • The general features of # are present. • The casualty may tell that the knee is extremely painful, and unable to lift the leg or foot off the ground. • You may notice that the knee is bent and any attempt to straighten it increases the
  • 60. Treatment • Help the casualty lie down and steady the leg in the position the casualty finds the most comfortable. Place a small pillow in the hollow under the knee and around the knee. • Bandaging is not essential but the casualty may find it more comfortable. Bandage the knee with cotton wool padding and
  • 61. Important •Do not force the leg straight.
  • 62. Dislocation • A dislocation is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint. (Joints are areas where two bones come together.) A dislocated bone is no longer in its normal position, which may result in damage to ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.
  • 63. Dislocation • A dislocation is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint. (Joints are areas where two bones come together.) A dislocated bone is no longer in its normal position, which may result in damage to ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.
  • 64. Joints • Junction of two or more bones • Immovable joints ; fused together • Movable joints 3 types• 1) ball and socket joints
  • 65. Considerations •It may be hard to tell a dislocated bone from a broken bone. Both are emergency situations and require the same first aid treatment.
  • 66. • Most dislocations, if treated early, will not result in permanent injury. • Injuries to the surrounding ligaments generally take 3 - 6 weeks to heal. Sometimes, surgery to repair a torn ligament is needed. • Injuries to nerves and blood vessels may result in more long-term or permanent
  • 67. Important • Once a joint has been dislocated, it is more likely to happen again. Follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is recommended after a dislocation.
  • 68. Causes •Dislocations are usually caused by a sudden impact to the joint. This usually occurs following a blow, fall, or other trauma.
  • 69. Symptoms • Accompanied by numbness or tingling at the joint or beyond it • Intensely painful, especially if you try to use the joint or bear weight on it • Limited in movement • Swollen or bruised • Visibly out of place,
  • 70. • Treatment check the airway, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing , CPR , or bleeding control. • Do not move the person if you think that the head, back, or leg has been injured. • If the skin is broken, take steps to prevent infection. Do not blow on the wound. Rinse the area gently to remove obvious
  • 71. • Splint or sling the injury in the position in which you found it. Do not move the joint. Be sure to immobilize the area above and below the injured joint. • Check the blood circulation. • Apply ice packs to ease
  • 72. Do not • move the person unless the injury has been completely immobilized. • move a person with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg unless it is absolutely necessary. If you are the only rescuer
  • 73. Continued ……. • attempt to straighten a misshapen bone or joint or to change its position. • test a misshapen bone or joint for loss of function. • give the person anything by mouth.
  • 74. Prevention • Preventing injuries in children: • Create a safe environment around your home. • Pay careful attention to preventing falls by gating stairways and keeping windows closed and locked. • Supervise children carefully. There is no substitute for close supervision no matter how safe the environment or situation appears to be.
  • 75. • Preventing dislocations in adults: • Avoid falls by not standing on chairs, countertops, or other unstable objects. • Eliminate throw rugs, especially for the elderly. • Wear protective gear when participating in contact sports.
  • 76. Shoulder dislocation •The shoulders are the most common joint in the body to dislocate. The arm is moved away from the body (abducted) and externally rotated (turning the forearm,
  • 77. Symptoms • The main symptom of a shoulder dislocation is severe pain at the shoulder joint. • The patient will have great difficulty moving your arm even a little bit. • If the shoulder is touched from the side, it feels mushy, as if the underlying bone is gone
  • 78. Treatment • If a sling is not available, rig one by tying a long piece of cloth in a circle (a bed sheet or towel may do nicely). • A pillow placed between the arm and body may also help support the injured
  • 79. Hip dislocation •Causes •High-speed motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are by far the leading cause of hip dislocations. Falls from significant height and sports-related injury are also among the top causes. 
  • 80. Recognition •Posterior: The hip is flexed, internally rotated, and adducted. •Anterior: The hip is minimally flexed, externally rotated and markedly abducted
  • 81. • Patients with a hip dislocation have severely limited range of motion.  • movements are extremely painful & restricted •
  • 82. Treatment • Don't delay medical care. • Don't move the joint. • Put ice on the injured joint
  • 83. Elbow Dislocation •The elbow joint, formed where these 3 bones meet, becomes dislocated, or out of joint.
  • 84. Causes •usually a fall
  • 85. Symptoms • Severe pain in the elbow, swelling, and inability to bend your arm are all signs of an elbow dislocation. • In some cases, you may lose feeling in your hand or no longer have a pulse (can't feel your heartbeat in your wrist). • Arteries and nerves run by your elbow, so it is possible
  • 86. Treatment •put ice on the elbow •check pulse. •Check If any feeling of numbness results, see a doctor immediately.
  • 87. Sprains •The ligaments are anchored to bone on each side of the joint. If a ligament is stretched or torn, the injury is called a sprain.
  • 88. Symptoms •Pain •Swelling •Bruise •Difficulty to move the joint
  • 89. Treatment • RICE • Rest the injured part. Pain is the body's signal to not move an injury. • Ice the injury. This will limit the swelling and help with the spasm. • Compress the injured area. This again, limits the swelling. Be careful not to apply a wrap so tightly that it might act as a tourniquet and cut off the blood supply. • Elevate the injured part. This
  • 90. Strains • A strain occurs when the muscle tendon unit is stretched or torn. The most common reason is the overuse and stretching of the muscle. The damage may occur in three areas: The muscle itself may tear. The area where the muscle and tendon blend can tear. The tendon may tear partially or
  • 91. Symptoms • Pain • Spasm • Swelling
  • 92. Treatment • RICE
  • 93. Cramps • Cramp is a sudden , involuntary & painful contraction of muscle or group of muscles.
  • 94. Causes • Poor muscle co-ordination during exercise • Chilling following or during exercise • Loss of salts in sweating • Diarrhoea or persistent vomiting • During sleep • Anaerobic metabolism of
  • 95. Symptoms • Pain • Feeling of tightness in the affected area • Contracted muscles cannot relax
  • 96. Treatment • Straighten the affected part of the body • Massage