project report on types of sentences


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project report on types of sentences

  1. 1. <br /> BASICS OF COMMUNICATION<br /> <br /> PROJECT REPORT <br /> TYPES <br /> OF<br /> SENTENCE<br /> <br /> BY- PRATIK GUPTA <br /> ID – 10SETCSE345<br /> R.NO- 100101172<br /> BRANCH – C.S.E (A)<br /> <br /> <br /> ACKNOWLEDGEMENT<br />I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.<br />I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & my friends for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project.<br />I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Ms. Priyanka Singh for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.<br /> <br /> Pratik Gupta<br /> <br /> <br /> CONTENTS<br /><ul><li>INTRODUCTION
  6. 6. CONCLUSION</li></ul> 7. REFERENCES<br /> <br /> <br /> INTRODUCTION<br />English sentence structure includes three basic types of sentences: simple, compound, and complex. These types indicate how the information in the sentence is organized, not the content of the sentence. <br />The grammatical term for a sentence is an independent clause. <br /> We will look at four different types of sentences: <br />Simple Sentences<br />Compound Sentences<br />Complex Sentences<br />Compound –Complex Sentences <br /> <br /> <br />Simple sentences:<br />Simple sentences express one idea. They usually contain a subject and a finite verb (a verb with a subject).<br />Here are some examples: <br />The patient got into bed.<br />The patient was put in the bed.<br />Processed foods contain high levels of fat, sugar and salt.<br />Some nurses were eating lunch.<br />Some nurses were eating lunch and talking.<br />The patient and the nurse were talking.<br />Let’s look at an example of a simple sentence:<br />The patient got into the bed.<br />We can describe different parts of the sentence like this:<br /> The patient got into the bed.<br />predicate verbsubject<br />The predicate completes the meaning of the verb or adds more information to the sentence.<br />Now let’s look at some of the other examples again. This time, the subject is in bold and the verb is in italics and underline.<br /><ul><li>The patient got into bed.
  7. 7. The patient was put in the bed.
  8. 8. Processed foods contain high levels of fat, sugar and salt.
  9. 9. Some nurses were eating lunch
  10. 10. Some nurses were eating lunch and talking.
  11. 11. The patient and the nurse were talking.</li></ul>All of the examples are simple sentences, but two of them are different from the rest.<br /> Number 5 & Number 6<br /> Number 5: Some nurses were eating lunch and talking.<br />This sentence has more than one verb. We can say it has a compound verb. Here are some more examples of simple sentences with compound verbs.<br />Examples of simple sentences with compound verbs:<br />The nurse took his temperature and checked his pulse.<br />Most of the students found doing the practical easy but writing the lab report difficult. <br />She had breakfast, took the dog for a walk, woke up the kids, gave them breakfast, dropped them off at school and then went to work.<br />Although there is more than one verb in these sentences, they all have a single subject.<br />Now let’s look at another kind of simple sentence:<br />Number 6 : The patient and the nurse were talking.<br />This sentence has more than one subject. We can say it has a compound subject.<br />Examples of simple sentences with compound subjects:<br />The doctor and the nurse checked the patient’s vital signs.<br />The femur, pelvis, sacrum, five ribs, humerus, scapula and collar bone were fractured.<br />Compound Sentences:<br />Compound sentences are usually made up of two simple sentences (or independent clauses). Compound sentences need a coordinating conjunction (connector) to combine the two sentences. The most common coordinating conjunctions are (FANBOYS):<br />forand norbutoryet<br />Remember that a comma is always used before the coordinating conjunction to separate the two independent clauses. This time also, the subject is in bold and the verb is in italics and underline.<br />EXAMPLES :<br /> <br />for Meagan studied hard, for she wanted to pass the test. <br /> <br />and Meagan studied hard, and her classmates studied, too. <br />nor Meagan didn't study hard, nor did she pass the test. <br /> <br />but Meagan studied hard, but her brother didn't study at all. <br />or Meagan studied hard, or she would have failed the test. <br /> <br />yet Meagan studied hard, yet she wasn't happy with her grade. <br /> <br />so Meagan studied hard, so the test was easy for her. <br />Here are some more examples to show how and where the above <br />Conjunctions can be used to form compound sentences :<br />We will look at the first four of those conjunctions:<br /> And But Or So <br />To combine sentences that are alike, use and:<br /><ul><li>The students sat down, and the lecturer began to speak.
  12. 12. The lecturer wrote notes on a white board, and the students copied them down.
  13. 13. The patient was brought back to the ward, and the nurse gave her some painkillers.</li></ul>To combine sentences that have contrasting ideas, use but :<br /><ul><li>The patient’s breathing was irregular, but her pulse was normal.
  14. 14. The nurse had called for the doctor, but she still had not arrived.
  15. 15. The patient wanted to go home, but the doctor said no.</li></ul>To combine sentences that provide choices or alternatives, use or:<br /><ul><li>The patient could go to the clinic, or a nurse could make a home visit.
  16. 16. That skin cancer should be removed, or it might develop into something more serious.
  17. 17. The students could do the degree in three years full time, or they could take up to seven years to do the degree part time.</li></ul>To combine sentences when the second sentence expresses a result of something in the first sentence, use so:<br /><ul><li>She had been coughing badly for three days, so she decided to see a doctor.
  18. 18. The couple were worried that they were unable to conceive a baby, so they went to a fertility clinic.
  19. 19. He had asthma, so he often used an inhaler.</li></ul>Complex sentences:<br />Like compound sentences, complex sentences are made up two parts. Complex sentences, however, contain one independent clause and (at least) one dependent clause. The most common type of complex sentence uses adverb clauses. Here are some examples given below:<br />Complex Sentences (with Adverb clauses): <br />The hurricane struck while we were at the mall. <br />After the president gave his speech, he answered most of the reporter's questions. <br />Adverb clauses contain subordinating conjuctions such as:<br />while although afterbecause ifbefore <br />These subordinating conjunctions are actually part of half of a complex sentence. <br />Joe played tennis after Vicky watched TV. <br />The other two types of complex sentences use adjective and noun clauses. <br />Complex Sentences (with Adjective clauses): <br />A girl whom I know was recently accepted to Harved University. <br />The Eiffel Tower, which is located in Paris, is visited by millions of tourists annually. <br />Complex Sentences (with Noun clauses); <br />What you need to do is buy a new computer. <br />The students wanted to know when their teacher would return. <br />The word after is not a part by itself between the two sentences as a coordinating conjunction is in a compound sentence. Instead, the subordinating conjunction belongs grammatically to Vicky watched TV. <br />Remember that sentences beginning with these subordinating conjunctions are dependent. They must be attached to an independent clause. They cannot stand alone as a sentence. If they are not attached to another sentence, they are called fragments, or incomplete sentences. Fragments are incomplete ideas, and they cause confusion for the reader. In a complex sentence, both clauses are needed to make a complete idea so the reader can understand what you mean. Look at these examples: <br />Fragment After Vicky watched TV <br />Complete sentenceJoe played tennis after Vicky watched TV. <br />Or<br />Complete sentenceAfter Vicky watched TV, she went to bed.<br />Note: In compound sentences, you must put a comma at the end of the first clause. <br />Complex sentences, however, do not need a comma if the conjunction is part of the second sentence. Study these examples: <br />Taiwanese culture puts a strong emphasis on university admission<br /> because getting into the right university can guarantee future success.<br />I watched in despair as the elevator doors closed. <br />If the same amount of attention were given to proper diets, exercise, and sunscreens, perhaps the number of overall cancer cases would be reduced.<br />Complex – Compound sentences:<br />A sentence with at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses (which can also be called subordinate clause) are referred to as a complex-compound sentence. It is sometimes called a compound-complex sentence.<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>The cat lived in the backyard, but the dog, who knew he was</li></ul> superior, lived inside the house.<br />Independent clauses:<br /><ul><li>The cat lived in the backyard.
  20. 20. The dog lived inside the house.</li></ul>Dependent clause:<br /><ul><li>who knew he was superior</li></ul>2. Though the movie had been tested on the market, The Last<br />Shadow did not fare well in the United States, but it did develop a huge following in Europe, which usually does not go for this movie genre.<br />Independent clauses:<br /><ul><li>The Last Shadow did not fare well in the United States.
  21. 21. It did develop a huge following in Europe.</li></ul>Dependent clauses:<br /><ul><li>though the movie had been tested on the market
  22. 22. which usually does not go for this movie genre
  23. 23. Gene thought that Finny wanted venerability, but Finny, who</li></ul> did not care, thought that he was just being a friend.<br />Independent clauses:<br /><ul><li>Gene thought that Finny wanted venerability.
  24. 24. Finny thought that he was just being a friend.</li></ul>Dependent clause:<br /><ul><li>who did not care</li></ul> CONCLUSIONS<br />I must conclude that the study of sentence types will provide students with a "solid foundation" in their understanding of English grammar forms, and perhaps others will propose that these sentence types establish an "essential structure" that students need, especially in writing.It makes sense that the word simple suggests something simple and that the word complex suggests something complex, but it's not that simple, nor is it too complex.<br />Sure, simple sentences have only one subject/verb combination, whereas compound and complex sentence types have multiple subject/verb combinations, but take a look at the following excuses for being late to class.<br /><ul><li>After spending a long time eating a healthy breakfast of whole wheat cereal, a glass of orange juice, and a delicious banana, I wandered distractedly through a bright field of beautiful, multicolored flowers, eventually arriving late for class. THIS IS A SIMPLE SENTENCE!
  25. 25. I ate breakfast but got lost on the way to school, so I was late for class. THIS IS A COMPOUND SENTENCE!
  26. 26. I was late for class because I got lost after I ate breakfast. THIS IS A COMPLEX SENTENCE!</li></ul> REFERENCES<br /><ul><li>
  27. 27. English Grammer and Composition (N.K Agawam)
  28. 28. Basic English Usage (Michael Swan)
  29. 29. English Grammer (Wren and martin)
  30. 30. Internet / Wikipedia