SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON+ NUCLEAR BATTERY - A PORTABLE ENERGY SOURCE By: Pratik Patil Guide: Prof. B. N. Patil Electrical & Electronics Department, Angadi Institute of Technology and Management, Belgaum
CONTENTS1. Why Nuclear Battery?2. Historical Developments3. Understanding the terms used.4. Energy Production Mechanism5. Fuel Considerations6. Applications7. Advantages8. Disadvantages9. Conclusion10.References
ANSWER:1. Chemical batteries require frequent replacements and are bulky.2. Fuel and Solar cells are expensive and requires sunlight respectively.3. Need for compact, reliable, light weight and long life power supplies.4. Nuclear Battery uses emissions from radioisotope to generate electricity so there is no fear of hazardous radiations.5. Nuclear batteries have lifespan up to decades.6. Can be used in easily inaccessible and extreme conditions and reduce the rate of replacements.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS1. The idea of nuclear battery was introduced in the beginning of 1950, and was patented on March 3rd, 1959 to Tracer lab.2. A radio isotope electric power system was developed by inventor Paul Brown which was a scientific break through in nuclear power.3. Brown’s first prototype power cell produced 100,000 times as much energy per gram of strontium -90(the energy source) than the most powerful thermal battery yet in existence.
UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS USED RadioisotopesRadioisotopes are artificially produced,unstable atoms of a chemical element,which have a different number of neutronsin the nucleus, but the same number ofprotons and the same chemical properties. Radiations•Alpha - These are fast moving heliumatoms. They have high energy, typically inthe MeV range. They also are magnetic innature•Beta - These are fast movingelectrons. They typically have energies inthe range of a few hundred keV to severalMeV.•Gamma - These are photons, just likelight, except of much higher energy.
ENERGY PRODUCTION MECHANISM1. Betavoltaics1. Betavoltaics is an alternative energy technology that promises vastly extended battery life and power density over current technologies.2. Uses energy from beta particles.3. Beta particles emitted by radioactive gas is captured in Silicon wafer coated with diode material.4. It is similar to the mechanics of converting sunlight into electricity in a solar panel.5. Absorbed radiation creates electron-hole pair which in turn results in the generation of electric current.
REPRESENTATION OF BASIC BETA VOLTAIC CONVERSION•Electrode A (P-region) has a positive potential whileelectrode B (N-region) is negative.
2. DIRECT CHARGING GENERATORSSummaryThis method makes use of kinetic energy as well as themagnetic property of Alpha particles to generate current.It consists of a core composed of radioactive elements.Primary generator consists of a LC tank circuit.LC circuit produces the oscillations required fortransformer operation.
Schematic Diagram of an LC Resonant Circuit 2 3 4 6 1 7 5 1 – Capacitor 2 – Inductor 3 – Core with radioactive elements 4 – Transformer T primary winding 5 – Resistance 6 _ Secondary winding 7 _ Load
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DIRECT CHARGING GENERATOR1 – Capacitor2 – Inductor3 – Core with radioactive elements4 – Transformer T primary winding6 _ Secondary winding7 _ Load Load
FUEL CONSIDERATIONSThe major criterions considered in the selection of fuels are:Avoidance of gamma in the decay chainHalf life( Should be more)Cost should be less. Any radioisotope in the form of a solid that gives off alpha orbeta particles can be utilized in the nuclear battery. The most powerful source of energy known is radium-226. However Strontium-90 may also be used in this Battery
APPLICATIONS1. Space applications: Unaffected by long period of darkness and radiation belts like Van-Allen belt. Compact and lighter in weight. Can avoid refrigeration/heating equipments required for storage batteries. High power for long time independent of atmospheric conditions. NASA is trying to harness this technology in space applications.
APPLICATIONS2. Medical applications: In Cardiac pacemakers. Batteries should have reliability and longevity toavoid frequent replacements.3. Mobile devices:Nuclear powered laptop battery Xcell-N has 7000-8000 times more life than normal laptop batteries.4. AutomobilesNo need for frequent recharging as in case of presentelectric vehicles.5. Under-water sea probes and sea sensors
ADVANTAGESLife span- minimum of 10 years.Reliable electricity.Amount of energy obtained is very high.Lighter with high energy density.Less waste generation.Reduces green house and associated effectsFuel used is the nuclear waste from nuclear fission.
DRAWBACKS High initial cost of production as its in the experimental stage Regional and country-specific laws regarding use and disposal of radioactive fuels. To gain social acceptance.
CONCLUSION Small compact devices of future require small batteries. Nuclear batteries increase functionality, reliability and longevity. Until final disposal all Radiation Protection Standards must be met. Batteries of the near future.