ASSIGNMENT SET – 1 1. Explain strategy as an organisational process.Ans: Strategic planning is an organizations process of defining its strategy, or direction, andmaking decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. In order to determine thedirection of the organization, it is necessary to understand its current position and the possibleavenues through which it can pursue a particular course of action. Generally, strategic planningdeals with at least one of three key questions: "What do we do?" "For whom do we do it?" "How do we excel?"In many organizations, this is viewed as a process for determining where an organization isgoing over the next year or—more typically—3 to 5 years (long term), although some extendtheir vision to 20 years.The key components of strategic planning include an understanding of the firms vision,mission, values and strategies. (Often a "Vision Statement" and a "Mission Statement" mayencapsulate the vision and mission).Vision: outlines what the organization wants to be, or how it wants the world in which it operatesto be (an "idealised" view of the world). It is a long-term view and concentrates on the future. Itcan be emotive and is a source of inspiration. For example, a charity working with the poormight have a vision statement which reads "A World without Poverty."Mission: Defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, succinctlydescribing why it exists and what it does to achieve its vision. For example, the charity abovemight have a mission statement as "providing jobs for the homeless and unemployed".Values: Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of an organization. Values drive anorganizations culture and priorities and provide a framework in which decisionsare made. For example, "Knowledge and skills are the keys to success" or "give a man bread andfeed him for a day, but teach him to farm and feed him for life". These example maxims may setthe priorities of self-sufficiency over shelter.Strategy: Strategy, narrowly defined, means "the art of the general".- a combination of the ends(goals) for which the firm is striving and the means (policies) by which it is seeking to get there.A strategy is sometimes called a roadmap - which is the path chosen to plow towards the end
vision. The most important part of implementing the strategy is ensuring thecompany is going in the right direction which is towards the end vision.Organizations sometimes summarize goals and objectives into a mission statement and/or avision statement. Others begin with a vision and mission and use them to formulate goals andobjectives.Many people mistake the vision statement for the mission statement, and sometimes one issimply used as a longer term version of the other. However they are meant[according to whom?]to be quite different, with the vision being a descriptive picture of a desired future state, and themission being a statement of a business rationale, applicable now as well as in the future. Themission is therefore the means of successfully achieving the vision.For an organisations vision and mission to be effective, they must become assimilated into theorganizations culture. They should also be assessed internally and externally. The internalassessment should focus on how members inside the organization interpret their missionstatement. The external assessment — which includes all of the businesses stakeholders — isvaluable since it offers a different perspective. These discrepancies between these twoassessments can provide insight into their effectiveness.A vision statement is a declaration of where you are headed—your future state - to formulate apicture of what your organizations future makeup will be, and where the organization is headed. 2. What are the factors that influences span of control?Ans: Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a manager or supervisor can directlysupervise in an organization. Some of the major factors that affect the span of control in anorganization are described below.1. Qualification and QualitiesIf the superiors and subordinates are well-qualified, trained, experienced, and if they are expertsin their jobs then the span of control will be wide and vice-versa.2. Level of ManagementIf the superiors are working at the top-level of management, then they have more responsibilities.Therefore, their span of control will be narrow and vice-versa.3. Nature of WorkIf the work is difficult then the span of control is narrow and vice-versa.
4. Superior - Subordinates RelationshipIf there are good relations between the superior and subordinates, then the span of control will bewide and vice-versa.5. Degree of CentralisationUnder decentralisation, the superior has to take fewer decisions. Therefore, he can have a widespan of control. However, under centralisation, the superior has to take many decisions.Therefore, he should have a narrow span of control.6. Use of Communication TechnologyIf face-to-face communication is used, then the span of control will be narrow. However, ifelectronic devices are used for communication then the span of control will be wide.7. Financial position of the organization.If the organisation has a good financial position, then it can have a narrow span of control. Thisis because a narrow span requires more managers. More managers will increase thecompensation or wage bill of the organisation. However, if the organisation has a bad financialposition, then it will be forced to have a wide span of control.8. Clearity of Plans and ResponsibilitiesIf the plans are clear and if the responsibilities are well-defined, then the span of control will bewide. This is because the subordinates will not have to go and consult their superior repeatedlyfor getting orders and guidance.9. Time available for SubordinatesIf the superior is busy with another work, and if he has less time for his subordinates then hisspan of control will be narrow and vice-versa.10. Faith and Trust in SubordinatesIf the superior has good faith, trust and confidence in his subordinates then the span of controlcan be wider.11. Physical locationIt is easier to control and supervise when all the subordinates and manager are working at thesame location as may happen with a production supervisor and his team working in a factory. Inthis case span of control tends to be bigger. In comparison, when manager and the subordinateswork in a widely dispersed location, for example a sales manager and the salesmen working indifferent geographical territories, the span of control is smaller.
12. Capability of the ManagerAll other things being equal, a more experienced and capable manager will be able to superviseand control more subordinates as compared to less capable and skilled manager. 3. What are the types of plans found in organizations?Ans: Three major types of plans can help managers achieve their organizations goals: strategic,tactical, and operational. Operational plans lead to the achievement of tactical plans, which inturn lead to the attainment of strategic plans. In addition to these three types of plans, managersshould also develop a contingency plan in case their original plans fail.Operational plansThe specific results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals are the operationalgoals. These goals are precise and measurable. ―Process 150 sales applications each week‖ or―Publish 20 books this quarter‖ are examples of operational goals.An operational plan is one that a manager uses to accomplish his or her job responsibilities.Supervisors, team leaders, and facilitators develop operational plans to support tactical plans (seethe next section). Operational plans can be a single-use plan or an ongoing plan.• Single-use plans apply to activities that do not recur or repeat. A one-time occurrence, such as aspecial sales program, is a single-use plan because it deals with the who, what, where, how, andhow much of an activity. A budget is also a single-use plan because it predicts sources andamounts of income and how much they are used for a specific project.• Continuing or ongoing plans are usually made once and retain their value over a period of yearswhile undergoing periodic revisions and updates. The following are examples of ongoing plans:A policy provides a broad guideline for managers to follow when dealing with important areas ofdecision making. Policies are general statements that explain how a manager should attempt tohandle routine management responsibilities. Typical human resources policies, for example,address such matters as employee hiring, terminations, performance appraisals, pay increases,and discipline. A procedure is a set of step-by-step directions that explains how activities ortasks are to be carried out. Most organizations have procedures for purchasing supplies andequipment, for example. This procedure usually begins with a supervisor completing apurchasing requisition. The requisition is then sent to the next level of management for approval.The approved requisition is forwarded to the purchasing department. Depending on the amountof the request, the purchasing department may place an order, or they may need to securequotations and/or bids for several vendors before placing the order. By defining the steps to betaken and the order in which they are to be done, procedures provide a standardized way of
responding to a repetitive problem. A rule is an explicit statement that tells an employee what heor she can and cannot do. Rules are ―do‖ and ―dont‖ statements put into place to promote thesafety of employees and the uniform treatment and behavior of employees. For example, rulesabout tardiness and absenteeism permit supervisors to make discipline decisions rapidly and witha high degree of fairness.Tactical plansA tactical plan is concerned with what the lower level units within each division must do, howthey must do it, and who is in charge at each level. Tactics are the means needed to activate astrategy and make it work.Tactical plans are concerned with shorter time frames and narrower scopes than are strategicplans. These plans usually span one year or less because they are considered short-term goals.Long-term goals, on the other hand, can take several years or more to accomplish. Normally, it isthe middle managers responsibility to take the broad strategic plan and identify specific tacticalactions.Strategic plansA strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organization as awhole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments. Strategic planningbegins with an organizations mission.Strategic plans look ahead over the next two, three, five, or even more years to move theorganization from where it currently is to where it wants to be. Requiring multilevelinvolvement, these plans demand harmony among all levels of management within theorganization. Top-level management develops the directional objectives for the entireorganization, while lower levels of management develop compatible objectives and plans toachieve them. Top managements strategic plan for the entire organization becomes theframework and sets dimensions for the lower level planning.Contingency plansIntelligent and successful management depends upon a constant pursuit of adaptation, flexibility,and mastery of changing conditions. Strong management requires a ―keeping all options open‖approach at all times — thats where contingency planning comes in. 4. What are the characteristics of an effective team?Ans: The following are the characteristics that make an effective team:
1. Clear purpose refers to the condition where group members agree on the groups goals. Theseshared goals act to spark group effort by providing clear direction and buy in. (It should be notedthat such goals could have been unilaterally set by the leader as it often happens in anorganisation, jointly set by the leader and group members, or set by group members independentof the boss).2. Consensus decision making occurs when groups allow all members to express their opinionsand preferences openly and discuss any disagreement that might exist. Within the consensusdecision-making process, all members are allowed to ‗have their day in court‘ while building aconsensus as to which alternative is correct. Some members may still believe that there is a betteralternative but can accept the position taken by the other group members.3. Shared leadership occurs when such leadership roles as contributor, collaborator, challenger,facilitator, and controller are carried out by the group members rather than by the groups leaderexclusively. Such shared leadership varies from situation to situation and may not always becarried out by the same individual.4. Listening reflects the willingness of group members to listen to others in an effort to achieveinterpersonal understanding and facilitate interpersonal sensitivity. Team members actively seekout listening opportunities to ensure open channels of communication are maintained.5. Open communication occurs when group members take advantage of communicationopportunities, openly share their feelings, provide timely and relevant feedback, and sharerelevant information with other group members.6. Self-Assessment allows groups and their members to assess performance, changingenvironments, and existing goals. Such assessment allows groups to determine when changesshould be made to ensure group success.7. Civilised disagreement implies that groups have developed appropriate internal mechanismsand interpersonal sensitivities necessary to manage the full range of conflicts that occur withinthe groups.8. Style diversity occurs when group members are not only tolerant of style and behaviouraldifferences but also actively seek out those differences necessary to perform and develop.9. Networking reflects group members ability and willingness to link up with others, external tothe group. Such contacts can be drawn upon for information, support, and assistance whenneeded to facilitate goal achievement.
10. Participation by group members in a broad range of group activities and decisions facilitatesmember buy-in. Participation also facilitates strategy development and increases member self-efficacy. 5. What are the internal and external forces of organisational change?Ans: Internal forcesThe internal forces are as follows: i) Change in the top management – Change in the top management and consequent change inthe ideas to run the organisation. For example, change of Satyam top management.ii) Change in the size of the organisation – Change in the organisation‘s size leads to change inthe internal structure and complexity of the operations in the organisation. For example, Tataacquiring Chorus will lead to change in Tata.iii) Performance gaps – When a gap between the set target and actual results (in terms ofmarket share, employee productivity, and profit) is identified, organisations face the forces tochange and reduce the gap. For example, Kingfisher Airlines.iv) Employee needs and values – With changing needs and values of the employees,organisations change their policies. For example, attractive financial incentives, challengingassignments, vertical growth opportunities, and autonomy at work may be provided in anorganisation to attract and retain its effective employees.v) Deficiency in the existing organisation – Sometimes, changes are necessary because ofdeficiency in the present organisational arrangement and process. These deficiencies may be inthe form of unmanageable span of management, large number of managerial levels, lack of co-ordination between various departments, obstacles in communication, multiplicity ofcommittees, lack of uniformity in policy decisions, lack of co-operation between line and staff,etc.External forcesThese are as follows:i) Political and legal environment - When this changes, business has to adapt and change. Forexample, if there is a labour law change or if the international law of taxation changes or thecountry signs agreements with other countries leading to export/import of goods, induction ofFDI, etc, the organisation has to change.
ii) Economic - When the economic changes take place, the companies have to change. Forexample, when the economic downturn took place in the world in 2008, many changes wereincorporated in India also.iii) Social – With social awareness such as rules of acquisition of land and attitude towardsmining and when more inclusiveness is warranted by the society, etc, business has to change.iv) Technology - In today‘s world, technology leads and compels many changes such as thechange created due to mobile phones, ATMs, etc. 6. Ms. Janice Alisha is a General Manager of Production in a company.She finds that there is a need to improve the motivation level of the employees.Suggest some of the motivational tools that she can use to improve employeemotivation in her organisation.Ans: i) Management by Objective (MBO) – Management by objectives emphasisesparticipative set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. Its power to motivate isexplained by goal theory, Vroom‘s expectancy theory, need achievement, drive to comprehendand direction giving language of Sullivan. MBO also fulfils the self esteem needs.ii) Employee Recognition Programs - This involves personal attention, expressing interest,approval, and appreciation for a job well done. It fulfils the social and self esteem needs,components of Vrooms theory (if that is the employee‘s expectation), need affiliation, the needto bond and comprehend and other theories such as need affiliation.iii) Employee Involvement Programme – Employee involvement includes participativemanagement, workplace democracy, empowerment, and employee ownership. This affects theself esteem and the need to comprehend.iv) Participative Management – Participative management is a method of creatinginvolvement. Here, the subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power withtheir immediate supervisors. Work councils, board representative and quality circles areexamples of this. They motivate as explained by self esteem, the need to comprehend and othertheories of motivation.v) Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) – Perhaps the ultimate reward to workers is forthem, to own part of the organisation. Employee stock ownership plans are company-establishedbenefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits. ESOPs have thepotential to increase employee job satisfaction and work motivation. However, when the stocksdo not rise in price then it does not motivate people.
ASSIGNMENT SET – 2 1. What are the principles of management?Ans: 1. Division of labour - We saw in the case how everyone was doing their own job. Forexample, playing flute, selling rooms from the front office, massaging feet, etc. When the majortasks and activities of the organisation is divided and carried out by different people in theorganisation it is called division of labour.2. Authority and responsibility coexist - If the manager is given the responsibility to run hishotel in a specified manner, he should be given the formal authority to do so and if he has beengiven the authority, he has to be responsible for the right and wrong things going on.3. Unity of command - This means that one person should report to only one boss. Thisprinciple has undergone considerable changes, and we now have ideas like adhocracy or matrixorganisations where a person may report to multiple bosses. However, the principle stands ingood stead. Suppose you had two bosses, whom would you listen to? Who will make you followsome discipline, to whom will you be loyal? Will there be confusion and chaos and will youpitch one boss against the other and escape responsibility? Will there be duplication of work andoverlapping of efforts? Your candid answers to these questions will make the idea of unity ofcommand clearer to you.4. Unity of direction - If you have many guests checking into Green Path, we need many peopleto do the foot massage. This needs one plan and one way of doing it. Also it is preferable that thesame people serve the welcome drink and carry the baggage to the rooms. If we do that, therewill be better direction in the work since these works can be grouped under, receiving the guest,showing hospitality, giving them some physical comfort and then getting him settled in his room.This is creating unity of direction or one head one plan.5. Equity - Equity is a combination of fairness, justice, and empathy. It does not mean absenceof assertive action rather existence of it to ensure fairness for all. This does not mean giving allthe same reward but rewarding according to one‘s effort. In fact, the idea of productivity-basedincentives emanates from the principle of equity.6. Order - In the case, we saw how the service staff was moving around smoothly and doingtheir job. You might have observed how things are kept in order in a Maruti Genuine Workshopas against a wayside workshop. Appointing the most suitable person for a job is also part of thisprinciple of order. In other words, it means doing things systematically.
2. What are the characteristics of leading?Ans: Pervasiveness - Leading is required at all levels of organisation. It is incorrect to believethat leading is required only at the top level. This is more so in the modern context where teamsare the working entities. In team based working, the team leader has to act much like a CEOexcept that the level of working may be much smaller. He/she may be motivating a team of 5 or10 people while the CEO may be motivating the whole company, but the function of givingtargets, resources, support, motivating, etc. does not change.Continuity - Leading is a continuous activity as it is continuous throughout the life oforganisation. It takes place on a day to day basis though its importance may become higher whenthe organisation is undergoing a change.Human factor - Leading implies the existence of followers much like directing implies theexistence of subordinates to whom one can pass orders. It follows that there is a key humanfactor in leading and because human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, leadingfunction is important and people have to learn the art of leading. Further, this characteristic isbased on the belief that human beings are motivated by challenging jobs and they feel a sense ofachievement in doing these. The premise is also that people normally work towards achievingthe goals i.e., human being have a goal oriented behaviour.Creativity - Leading is a creative activity because of the human factors and individual variancesand group variances. In the case of Sambhavi Bakers we saw how Mrs. Rakhi was creative inenabling her staff to take leadership roles. Thus, converting her plan of having a differentiatedbakery outlet is actually creatively executed by the employees. It is the creativity aspect whichbrings in the differentiation. It also ensures that people have to look forward to the meaning andwithout functions people find it difficult to find the meaning. Hence, we can see that creatingfunctions around which people find meaning is a creative function that leads to achievements.Executive function - Leading is carried out by all managers and executives at all levelsthroughout the working of an enterprise. A follower receives tasks, resources, know-how, andsupport from a leader and he/she trusts his/her leader to do the same. Leading implies that thefollowers execute the functions, which the leader and the follower agree is important forachieving the organisational goals and through it the individual goals.Delegating function - Leading implies guiding followers to the destination. It means that thefollowers actually execute and if they have to execute, they need the powers for doing so. Hence,delegating is natural fallout of leading. It also follows that the leader trusts his/her followers andthe vice versa. Hence, mutual trust always exists in leading. Therefore, delegating function basedon mutual trust is a characteristic of leading.
3. Briefly explain the four main approaches to Organisational Behaviour.Ans: There are four main approaches to organisational behaviour. They are:Human resources approachThe human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towardshigher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment. People are the central resource in anyorganisation. Hence it tries to create a work climate for improved abilities. This approach is alsoknown as supportive approach because the managers primary role changes from control ofemployees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. Service basedeconomy, where the service provider, the employee and the customer have to work together(e.g., serving food in a restaurant, buying an insurance, etc.) has very high relevance. Here theroles of leadership and the leading process are vital.Contingency approachIt implies that different situations require different behavioural practices for effectiveness. Henceeach situation must be analysed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in orderto establish the more effective practices. This approach ensures or at least encourages analysis ofeach situation prior to action. Thus it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in theorganisation in the most appropriate manner.Productivity approachIn this approach, the output per unit input is considered. Besides, economic inputs and outputs,we need to have human and social inputs and outputs in workplace, is the premise of thisapproach.Systems approachWe have already seen the systems approach. It means that the organization people employtechnology in performing the task that they are responsible for, while the structure of theorganisation serves as a basis for coordinating all their different activities. The systems viewemphasises the interdependence of each of these elements within the organisation, if theorganisation as a whole is to function effectively. This approach also looks at the organisationand its broader environment i.e., social, economic, cultural and political within which theyoperate. All these shape the OB.Contemporary OB - A separate field of study interdisciplinary in nature
OB is now treated as a distinct field of study. It is almost a science. However, it isinterdisciplinary in approach. It draws heavily from other disciplines like psychology, sociologyand anthropology. It also draws from economics, political science, law and history and integratesthe relevant aspects.Organisational behaviour integrates the relevant contents of these disciplines to make themapplicable for organisational analysis. For example, it addresses issues of workplace motivationor conflict which are oriented towards organisational objectives. In fact, organisational behaviortries to integrate both individual and organisational objectives so that both are achievedsimultaneously. 4. Explain the five major leadership styles as per the Managerial Gridtheory.Ans: The five major leadership styles as per the grid are:i) Impoverished leadership – low production/low people (1,1)This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems forgetting the job done nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. Theresult is a place of disorganisation, dissatisfaction, and disharmony. They do only enough topreserve the job and job seniority, give little and enjoy little, protect themselves by not beingnoticed by others, and try to stay in the same post for a long time. Their talk/attitude is ―Idistance myself from taking active responsibility for results to avoid getting entangled inproblems. If forced, I take a passive or supportive position.‖ii) Country club leadership – high people/low production (1,9)This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team.These people operate under the assumption that as long as the team members are happy andsecure, then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxedand fun but the production suffers due to lack of direction and control. Their attitude is ―I supportresults that establish and reinforce harmony. I generate enthusiasm by focusing on positive andpleasing aspects of work.‖iii) Produce or perish leadership – high production/low people (9,1)Also known as authoritarian or compliance leaders, people in this category believe thatemployees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need forefficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules,policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate
employees. Their attitude is ―I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course ofaction. I enforce rules that sustain high results and do not permit deviation.‖iv) Middle-of-the-road leadership – medium production/medium people (5,5)This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may, at first, appear to be anideal compromise but therein lies the problem. When you compromise, you necessarily giveaway a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaderswho use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyonecan expect. Their attitude is ―I endorse results that are popular but caution against takingunnecessary risk. I test my opinions with others involved to assure ongoing acceptability.‖v) Team leadership – high Production/high People (9,9)According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leadersstress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. The premise here is that theemployees are involved in understanding the organisational purpose and in determining theproduction needs. When employees are committed to and have a stake in the organisation‘ssuccess, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based ontrust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and as a result, high production.Their attitude is ―I initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment. Iexplore all the facts and alternative views to reach a shared understanding of the best solution.‖ 5. List some of the commonly found perceptual biases.Ans: Fundamental attribution errorThis is the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate theinternal ones e.g., the assistant manager may not attribute that the manager‘s action is because ofthe strict instructions from the head office and his own earlier grooming in another context andattribute that this person is not customer friendly and does not know the Sambhavi culture.Self serving biasTendency of people to attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors e.g., themanager may attribute that the outlet‘s success is due to his strict following of the rule book(until he found out otherwise when the revenue fell after the departure of the assistant manager)and failure to external factors e.g., he may feel that the revenue fell because the old timeemployees had ganged up against him.Selective perception
When we see a person, object or event some things stand out. You may judge a film based onlyon the hero or the music rather than the whole movie. When you evaluate a plan, you might missout some data.Halo effectPrevious success creates a halo and we feel that he will be successful again e.g., halo of SachinTendulkar and our feeling that every time he goes to the ground, he should hit a century and if hedoes not, we further attribute it to some outside factors than his inability to do so. This happensin work place also. Sambhavi‘s employers told Rakhi that she had taught them to serve customerin a particular way and since she was an adorable person in many other ways, she cannot bewrong in this. This is a halo effect.Contrast effectsIndividuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. In the Sambhavi case, employees commentedon the manager because his actions were perhaps in contrast to others or in contrast to the valuesin the organisation as imbibed by them. Either way there was a contrast.ProjectionOur tendency to feel and see that others are like us and taking decisions on the premise thatothers want what we want, is called projection. Thus the manager in Sambhavi may think that allthe other managers and assistant managers are like him and therefore, his idea of service basedon the rule book, is what others also believe in, is what we call projection.StereotypingStereotyping is judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or shebelongs. It is a means of simplifying a complex world and it permits us to maintain consistency.The problem, of course, is when we inaccurately stereotype and often we believe that ‗she is awoman and therefore, she should act this way‘ based on gender stereotyping or ‗he is an oldman‘ and therefore will not understand computers can be based on age based stereotyping. 6. Suppose you are the Team Manager in a multinational company withteam strength of 12 members. You are given the responsibility of ensuringthat the team gives excellent performance or results. What are the key issuesyou have to handle in team building?Ans: i) Have clear expectations and context: Have clear performance targets and expectationsfrom the team. The team should get sufficient resources-people, time and money. Their workshould receive sufficient emphasis as a priority in discussions. This makes the team feel that they
matter and then they perform. A classic example is the Nano team which was directly supportedby Ratan Tata. Equally important is that the team understands the role and importance of theirwork and its strategic importance. Of course, this may not be so for some temporary teams suchas a team created to celebrate an annual or award function. The team members should be able todefine their importance if a team has to yield results.ii) Commitment: All team members may not be equally committed. First, ensure that all themembers believe in the mission and anticipate recognition for their contribution. They expecttheir skills to grow and develop and they should feel excited and challenged by the opportunity.Only then does a team work well. Those without commitment are better out of the team.iii) Team design and competence: The next important aspect is having adequate competences.If the team is to improve a process, it should have people with expertise in each step of theprocess. Therefore, it is not sufficient to get some people together, but it is necessary to getpeople with the requisite competencies. If one fails in this, the teams may not perform orunderperform. The team design should be such that the competencies required to accomplish thetask are included. In addition to the technical competencies which vary from task to task, teamssucceed if they have the right managerial or leadership competencies. The team wheel is onestructure that we can look at to ensure that the competencies mentioned therein are included.Researchers have experimented with the team wheel and trained people in the deficient areas toensure better team success.iv) Charter of performance: The team should take the assigned responsibility as its mission.This is the crux of a successful team. It must define its goals, the outcomes, the timelines,measuring success, and the process to accomplish tasks. Equally, the support of top leadershipfor the work of the team is a precondition. The task of the team should be a task derived from thetop management if it has to succeed.v) Control and coordination: Any management function works through controls andcoordination and teams are no exception. Some of the issues to be considered are what are thecontrols the team members accept and impose on themselves, what are the limitations in terms ofmoney, time, how far the members should go in pursuit of the solutions, what is the degree offreedom and the chain of reporting. To succeed, the teams should have sufficient freedom and amechanism for self regulation and coordination. One of the challenges in doing it is theinterdepartmental nature of the team and the interdepartmental conflicts which are often taken tothe team usually by denying a resource or an appropriate skill. The top management can addressthis challenge through incentives and motivation.